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OCTOBER, 1867. 


THE name of St. Peter hallowed the latest pages of the volume 
just closed by the Irish Ecclesiastical Record, and with the name 
of St. Peter we desire to consecrate the earliest pages of the new 
volume which it this day commences. To crown our labours of the 
past year we gathered together, as in a garland, the choicest of the 
devotional flowers which Catholic love had caused to bloom around 
St. Peter's shrine on the eighteenth centenary of the martyrdom 
of the Prince of the Apostles. Like the flowers of which Wis- 
dom said : /ores mei fructus* those flowers did not bloom idly, 
but ripened into fruits fruits, which are for the healing of the 
nations. Such fruits are stored in the lessons which the Cente- 
nary teaches to all who care to listen to its teaching. For our part 
we count it a boon to be allowed to take our place among those 
who would learn, and we wish to register here, in front of our 
fourth volume, that it may guide us in our labours, what we have 
been taught by the solemn festival lately celebrated at Rome. 

Love for the Holy See is the first and most striking lesson that 
celebration has brought home to us. What power was it which 
drew together, in spite of inconveniences of all kinds, from every 

1 Eccli., xxiv. 23. 
VOL. IV. 1 

2 St. Peter's Centenary and its Teaching. 

part of the earth's surface, one half of all the bishops of the world, 
so many thousand priests, so many hundreds of thousands of the 
faithful ? One word from the Holy Father ; a word not of com- 
mand, but of request ; hardly even a request, but rather the bare 
expression of a wish. The voice of the Vicar of Christ, there- 
fore, finds its way straight to the heart of every Catholic in the 
world ; and each and every individual of that almost countless 
throng of pilgrims has borne witness to the fact, that the Chair 
of St. Peter is the object of the reverence, the veneration, and the 
love of all Catholics. 

And what motives led the Pope to issue his invitation, 
and made Catholics so docile to his wishes? The bishops 
were invited to Rome to celebrate the centenary of St. Peter, 
and to assist at the canonization of new Saints. But for these 
events, the invitation would not have been issued. Every one, 
therefore, of those who went to Rome, went there to venerate 
the shrine of the Apostle and the altars of the new Saints, and 
thus again, each of them testified that in the heart of a Catholic the 
love of Holiness is akin to the love of Unity ; that, as the Church 
is One and Holy, so, the more tenderly we love the centre of 
Unity, the more closely do we bind ourselves to the source of 
Sanctity. Love for the purity of Catholic Holiness is therefore 
another of the lessons the Centenary would teach us. In the 
midst of the abominations of a wicked world, where heresy has 
perverted the moral sense of men, let us remember that we are 
children of the saints, and let us lift up our eyes to the glorious 
examples of heroic virtue that glow with heavenly brightness 
upon the altars of the Catholic Church. 

And how did the pilgrim band spend the days of their visit to 
the shrines of the Apostles ? In prayer : now before the golden con- 
fession of St.. Peter, and now down in the dark caverns of the 
catacombs. How many Masses were said, how many graces 
received, how many vows paid, how many blessings de rore coeli 
et de pinguedine terrae asked for and obtained for nations be- 
yond the seas, for outlying dioceses, for dear ones far away ? 

And as at Rome they offered to God the incense of prayer, so 

John Kite^ Archbishop of Armagh. 3 

to succour the poverty of His Vicar on earth did they bring their 
presents of gold. While so many hands were busy in plundering 
the Holy Father, his children's hands were more busy in sustain- 
ing him in his battle for the liberty of the Church. Besides this, 
they failed not in their addresses and acclamations, to give out- 
spoken utterance to their love for the Church and the Pope, to 
their sympathy with the Holy Father in his sufferings, and to 
their honest indignation against his brutal foes. And thereby 
they have taught us that the arms of our present warfare on be- 
half of the Church are Prayer, Alms, and Christian freedom of 

These are the glorious lessons which the Centenary has taught 
us, and with these to animate us, we recommence our humble 
labours. May it be our happy lot to contribute in these pages 
even in a slight degree, to lead others to fight for Catholic Unity 
and Sanctity by Prayer, by Alms, and by Christian freedom of 
speech ! 

1. His early life. 

THE records that have come down to us concerning the epis- 
copal life of John Kite, Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of all 
Ireland (1513-1521), are unfortunately meagre and scanty in 
the extreme. On the other hand, the information we possess 
of the part sustained by him as a statesman, at a period when 
considerable agitation prevailed in European politics, is copious 
and interesting in an unusual degree. This will serve to explain 
to the reader why, in our sketch of this distinguished man, we 
appear to exhibit the diplomatist rather than the pastor of souls. 
For our own part, we should undoubtedly have preferred in 
these pages to describe the sacerdotal side of his life ; but in de- 
fault of fitting materials for this, we are loth to neglect any frag- 
ment of history which may fcerve, were it only by its contrasted 
colours, to bring cut in stronger relief one of the episcopal 
figures whose biographies mainly constitute the history of the 
Irish Church. Besides this source of interest, the life of Arch- 
bishop Kite is the history of one of those remarkable men who 
adorned the court of Henry the Eighth in the earlier and better 

1 B 

4 John Kite> Archbishop of Armagh. 

years of that monarch's reign. He had much intercourse not 
only with the king himself, but with Cardinal Wolsey, whose 
confidence he enjoyed, with Charles the Fifth and his statesmen, 
and he was brought into close contact with O'Neill in Ireland, 
and with the Duke of Albany in Scotland. Hence it happens 
that his biography brings vividly before us many of the leading 
men of the eventful sixteenth century, who by their good or evil 
deeds have created an interest in their own history which has 
not yet abated. 

John Kitte, Kite, Kete, or Keyte (for the name is variously 
written), was born in London, and probably at Westminster. 
He was educated at Eton, and as his epitaph tells us, was one of 
the boys of Edward the Fourth's chapel. He continued in this 
position also under Henry the Seventh. From Eton he was 
elected to King's College, Cambridge, in 1480. 1 On being 
ordained priest, he became rector of Harlington, Middlesex, 
which benefice he resigned in 1510, when he obtained the pre- 
bend of Stratton in Sarum, and afterwards a prebend in Exeter. 
In 1510 he is mentioned in the State papers as chaplain to the 
king, and sub-dean of the Chapel Royal. A grant was issued 
to him under the privy seal, by which ho was to receive the 
pension which the last elected prior of the monastery of St. 
Andrew, Northampton, was bound to give to a clerk of the 
nomination of the late king Henry the Seventh, who died with- 
out naming a clerk. This was not an unusual way of providing 
for ecclesiastics of merit. The prior of St. Frideswide's, at Ox- 
ford, was bound to pay a similar pension to Reginald Pole, then 
a student in the university of Oxford, afterwards Cardinal Arch 
bishop of Canterbury. The pension to be paid to John Kite 
was to be held by him until the prior should promote him to a 
competent benefice. Such a benefice was not long in coming. 
On 22nd September, 1510, he was presented to the church of 
Weye, or Weyhill, in the diocese of Winchester. He still con- 
tinued to hold the office of sub-dean of the Chapel Royal, pro- 
bably through favour of Cardinal Wolsey, who was ever his 
firm friend. 

It has been well said that the reign of Henry the Eighth was 
" a dark and melancholy work upon a lightsome ground". That 
period of the reign which corresponds with Archbishop Kite's 
employments at court, was the lightsome ground, across which 
the violent passions and brutal crimes which afterwards dis- 
honoured the king, had not as yet flung a single shadow. With 
our knowledge of what he became at a later period we find it 
difficult to imagine what Henry the Eighth really was for some 
years after his accession to the crown. Giustiniani, the Venetian 
1 Cooper's Athenae Cantabrig.,^. 62. 

John Kite, Archbishop of Armagh. 5 

ambassador, in a secret paper addressed to the Signoria, thus 
describes him : 

" His majesty is twenty-nine years old, and extremely handsome. 
Nature could not have done more for him. He is much handsomer 
than any other sovereign in Christendom ; a great deal handsomer 
than the king of France ; very fair, and his whole frame admirably 
proportioned. He is very accomplished ; a good musician ; composes 
well ; is a most capital horseman ; a fine j ouster ; speaks good French, 
Latin, and Spanish ; is very religious ; hears three masses daily when 
he hunts, and sometimes five on other days. He hears the office every 
day in the Queen's chamber ; that is to say, vespers and compline". 1 

His good Queen Catherine believed that the victory at Flodden 
and the capture of Terouenne " is all owing to the king's piety". 
Some curious details of his religious life are preserved in the 
" King's Book of payments", which, as they concern the Chapel 
Royal during the term of Dr. Kite's superintendence, may with 
some propriety be inserted here. On each Sunday and saint's 
day there is mention of the king's offering at Mass. The children 
who sang the Gloria in Excelsis on Christmas Day received 
forty shillings from the royal bounty. Two Masses daily were 
ordered by the king to be said by the Friars Observants of 
Greenwich, and the same by the Friars Observants of Canter- 
bury, of Southampton, and of Newcastle. Dr. Fisher receives 
one hundred pounds on bringing to the king the hallowed rose 
from the Pope. On Christmas and Easter mornings the king's 
" howselling" (i.e. communion) is marked by a special offering. 
The king's candle for Candlemas, his offerings at requiem 
masses, his visits to Westminster to gain the " pardon" there, 
the hallowing of the king's great ship, called The Henry Grace 
a Dewe, his alms to twenty-five priests for singing twenty-five 
masses before our Lady of Peace on All Souls Day, are all seve- 
rally recorded as things of course. In a word, the life led by 
Henry the Eighth at that time, was the life of a truly Catholic 
and great king. Erasmus 2 , in a letter to Paulus Bombasius, 
describes his court as a centre of letters and learning. Much 
as he dislikes courts, he would be glad, he says, were he young 
again, to return to England. He speaks highly of Henry's 
favours to learning. Katherine is not only a miracle of learning, 
but is not less pious than learned. Thomas Linacre is the 
king's physician ; Tunstal, Master of the Rolls (a scriniis) ,- More, 
privy councillor ; Pace (huic pene germanus), secretary; Colet, 
preacher ; Stokesley, who is well versed in the schoolmen and 
intimately acquainted with three languages, confessor (a sacris). 
It is a museum more than a court. The Venetian ambassador 
1 Giust. Desp., ii. 312. 2 No, 4340, 26th July, 1518. 

6 John Kite, Archbishop of Armagh. 

above quoted, has left a vivid description 1 of Henry's appearance 
at a reception held in the palace. Griustiniani describes how he 
and his companions, after having pressed through three hundred 
halberdiers of the body ^uard, all as big as giants, came into the 
presence of the king, whom they found standing under a canopy 
of cloth of gold, leaning against his gilt throne, on which lay a 
gold brocade cushion, with the gold sword of state. " He wore 
a c<p of crimson velvet, and the brim was looped up all round 
with lacets and gold enamelled tags. His doublet was in the 
Swiss fashion, striped alternately with white and crimson satin, 
and his hose were scarlet, and all slashed from the knee upwards. 
Very close round his neck he had a gold collar, from which 
thenv hung a rough cut diamond, the size of the largest walnut I 
ever saw, and to this was suspended a most beautiful and very 
large round pearl. His mantle was of purple, lined with white 
sitin, the sleeves open, with a train more than four Venetian 
yards long. This mantle was girt in front like a gown, with 
a thick gold cord, from which there hung large golden acorns like 
those suspended from a cardinal's hat ; over this mantle was a 
very handsome gold collar, with a pendant St. George entirely 
of diamonds. His fingers were one mass of jewelled rings". 

The love of splendour which distinguished the king was 
shown forth especially in the festivities which were held from 
time to time at the principal solemnities of the year, and in 
these the future primate, in his capacity of sub-dean of the 
Chapel Royal, had a considerable share. It is remarkable that 
the earliest mention of his nomination to the see of Armagh is to 
be found in the account of the festivities held in February, 1511, 
drawn up in 1513 by Richard Gibson at the king's command. 
The pageant prepared was called " The Golden Arbour in the 
orchard of Plesyer". The arbour was " set with wreathed pillars 
of shining purple, covered with fine gold, and upon them a vine 
of silver bearing grapes of gold ; the benches of this arbour set 
and wrought with flowers, as roses, lilies, marigolds, primroses, 
cowslips, and such other; and the orchard set with orange trees, 
pomegranate trees, apple trees, pear trees, olive trees; and within 
this arbour were sitting twelve lords and ladies, and without on 
the side were eight minstrels with strange instruments, and 
before on the steps stood divers persons disguised as master, sub- 
dean, and others; and on the top, the children of the chapel 
singing". Among the persons who took part in the pageant 
were the King, Sir Thomas Knevet, the Earl of Essex, the 
Earl of Wiltshire, and " Mr. Subdean, now my Lord of Army- 
kan". 2 

1 Desp., ii. 312. 

* Letters and Papers of Henry VIII., vol. ii. part ii, p. 1496, 

John Kite, Archbishop of Armagh. 7 

2. Goes to Ireland as Primate. 
Octavian de Palatio, Archbishop of Armagh, died in June, 

1513, after a reign of thirty- three years and three months. Before 
the close of the year 1513, Pope Leo the Tenth by provision, ap- 
pointed John Kite to succeed him. We have no information 
touching the place of the new Primate's consecration, or the pre- 
lates who consecrated him. He reached his diocese early in 

1514, and we learn from a letter dated June 7th, 1514, written 
by him from Termonfeckin to Wolsey, then bishop of Lincoln, 
some particulars of his journey. 1 He sailed in a bark belonging 
to Chester, and when his vessel was approaching the Irish coast 
it was attacked by two pirate men-of-war, whom he styles 
" Bryttanes". With these dangerous foes the crew of his ship 
had " a tore fight". The town of Drogheda manned two ships 
and went out to assist against the pirates. One of the pirates 
was taken, and with it a merchantman laden with salt which had 
probably been seized by the freebooters. On his arrival in his 
diocese he found the country ravaged by disease. The political 
and social condition of the people, also, was unsatisfactory in the 
extreme. From Termonfeckin, where he took up his residence, 
he wrote to Wolsey on May 14th, to represent to him the situa- 
tion of affairs. The English Pale is described in a valuable 
state paper 2 written in 1515, as stretching "from the town of 
Dundalk to the town of Darver, to the town of Ardee, always 
on the left side, leaving the marche on the right side, and so 
to the town of Sydan, to the town of Kells, to the town of 
Dangan, to Kilcock, to the town of Clane, to the town of 
Naas, to the bridge of Kilcullen, to the town of Ballymote, 
and so backward to the town of Rathmore, and to the town 
of Rathcoole, to the town of Tallaght, and to the town of 
Dalkey, leaving always the merche on the right hande from the 
said Dundalk, following the said course to the said town of 
Dalkey". Dr. Kite found the whole of this tract of country in a 
most perilous condition, and the inhabitants in great alarm. He 
assured them that the king would come before long to reform 
the state, and he observed in his letter to Wolsey, that the king 
was as much bound to reform -abuses in Ireland as he was to 
maintain good order and justice in England. In the Carew 
Papers, lately published, we find a letter addressed by Dr. Kite 
in 1520 to the O'Neill. It is in Latin, and begins as follows: 
" John by the grace of God, Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of 
Ireland, to the most illustrious O'Neill, Prince of Ulster and of 
his nation, greeting". 

1 Calendar of State Papers, Ireland (1509-15 13), page 1. 

2 State of Ireland and plan for its Reformation. State Papers Ireland, Henry 
the Eighth, vol. i. p. 1, 

8 John Kite, Archbishop of Armagh. 

The writer then tells O'Neill that his safety depends on the 
king, and he should therefore show him all observance. He 
should cultivate a mind worthy of his abilities and his character, 
and no longer take delight in wild and barbarous manners, and 
be unacquainted with the comforts of life. It would be much 
better to live in a civilized fashion than to seek a living by arms 
and rapine, and to have no thought beyond pleasure and the 
belly. " I therefore beseech you to consider how many evils 
and perils you will be exposed to if you make the king your 
enemy, and on the other hand how happy you will be if you 
gain his favour". 

This letter does not appear to have produced much effect upon 
the warlike O'Neills. 

3. Returns to England by command of Henry the Eighth. 

However, the Primate was not allowed to remain long in his 
diocese, having been summoned to England by special mandate 
from the king. The writ of protection for himself and his see 
during his absence, and the license to be absent for an inde- 
finite period, with authority to receive in the mean time all the 
profits of his diocese, are dated 20th September, 1616. 1 But 
at that date he had already been in London almost for an 
entire year; for we find his name among those who were present 
at the ceremonial upon Wolsey's receiving the cardinal's hat, 
Thursday, 15th November, 1515. 

The various documents relating to Cardinal Wolsey contained 
in the volumes of state papers from which we have mainly 
derived the materials for this sketch, contribute to place the 
character and history of that eminent man in a more favourable 
light than the popular histories would allow. At the period of 
Dr. Kite's return to London, Wolsey was at the height of his 
power. Erasmus, writing to Cardinal Grimani, says of him, 
" He is omnipotent". " All the power of the state is centred in 
him", observed Giustiniani ; " he is in fact ipse rex". " He is about 
forty-six years old 1 ', writes Giustiniani to his government in 1619, 
" very handsome, learned, extremely eloquent, of vast ability, 
and indefatigable. He alone transacts the same business as that 
which occupies all the civil magistrates, officers, and councils of 
Venice, both civil and criminal ; and all state affairs are managed 
by him, let their nature be what it may. He is pensive, and has 
the reputation of being extremely just. He favours the people 
exceedingly, and especially the poor, hearing their suits and 
seeking to despatch them instantly. He also makes the lawyers 
pjead gratis for all paupers. He is in very great repute, seven 
times more so than if he were Pope". 2 Even his bitter foe, Poly- 
1 Rym&r, torn, xiii., p. 554. 2 Desp., ii., 314. 

John Kite, Archbishop of Armagh. 9 

doro Vergil, admits that ho was a good theologian (divinis lit- 
teris non indoctus), and informs us that he was a Thomist, and 
that he induced the king to study the works of Aquinas. Fox, 
Bishop of Winchester, in giving a reason for his own absence 
from the council, makes an incidental allusion, which tells that 
Wolsey was not insensible to the responsibility of the episcopal 
charge ; he describes how his own mind " is troubled night and day 
with other men's iniquities more than he could write, of which 
feeling Wolsey told him he had some knowledge when he was 
bishop of Lincoln". 

The earliest mention of his cardinalate occurs in a letter from 
Polydore Vergil from Rome, 21st May, 1514. ] Four months 
later the king wrote to the Pope, 2 requesting him to make the 
Bishop of Lincoln a cardinal, and saying that " his merits are 
such that the king esteems him above his dearest friends, and 
can do nothing of the least importance without him". Leo the 
Tenth replied that " the honour solicited for Wolsey is sur- 
rounded with difficulties. It is much desired, and admits at once 
the wearer to the highest rank. He adds that he will comply 
with the king's wishes at a suitable time". 3 A few months later 
the Bishop of Worcester wrote from Rome that " his Holiness 
is naturally slow, and will not create Wolsey a cardinal now, nor 
yet with those that he promised before. He offers him a bull 
of promotion, on condition he will not carry the insignia pub- 
licly". This proposal was not agreeable to the king or to 
Wolsey, who wrote to Worcester: " I cannot express how desir- 
ous the king is to have me advanced to the said honour, to the 
intent, that not only men might perceive how much the Pope 
favoureth the king and such as he entirely loveth, but also that 
thereby I shall be the more able to do his Grace service". At 
length, on the 7th September, the Bishop of Worcester writes, 
that " the Pope is so on fire, that he will insist on Wolsey 's pro- 
motion in spite of all the cardinals. He has sent out briels to 
summon the cardinals to Rome, who have now left for their holi- 
days, stating that he wishes to appoint as cardinal * unum prae- 
latum dignissimum et maximum pro bono hujus Sanctae Sedis 
et ejus Sanctitatis"'. On the 10th September, Leo the Tenth 
wrote to Wolsey to notify to him his election to the cardinalate. 

On the 15th November the prothonotary, bearing the car- 
dinal's hat, entered London. He was met at the sea side, and 
afterwards at Blackheath, by the Bishop ot Lincoln, the Earl of 
Essex, and others. He proceeded through London with the 
Bishop and Earl riding on either side, the mayor, aldermen, and 
crafts, lining the streets. When the hat came to Westminster 
Abbey, the abbot and eight other abbots received it, and con- 
1 Vol. i. 6110. 2 Vol. i. 6318 3 Vol. i, 5445. 

10 John Kite, Archbishop of Armagh. 

veyed it to the high altar. Sunday the 18th, the Cardinal, with 
nobles and gentlemen, proceeded from his place to the Abbey. 
When the Cardinal reached the traverse, mass was aung by the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, the bishops of Lincoln and Exeter, 
before the Archbishop of Armagh and Dublin, the bishops of 
Winchester, Durham, Norwich, Ely, and Llandaff; the abbots 
of Westminster, St. Alban's, Bury, Glastonbury, Reading, Glou- 
cester, Winchecombe, Tewkesbury, and the prior of Coventry. 
The Bishop of Rochester was " crosier" to the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury during mass. Dr. Colet, dean of St. Paul's, preached 
the sermon. He said " a cardinal represented the order of 
Seraphim, which continually burneth in the love of the glorious 
Trinity ; and for these considerations a cardinal is only apparelled 
with red, which colour only betokeneth nobleness". He ex- 
horted Wolsey to execute righteousness to rich and poor, and 
desired all people to pray for him. The bull was read by Dr. 
Vecy, dean of the Chapel and of Exeter. The Cardinal kneeled 
before the high altar, where " he lay grovelling" during benedic- 
tion and prayers concerning the high creation of a cardinal said 
over him by the Archbishop of Canterbury, who set the hat upon 
his head. Then the Te Deum was sung. " All service and cere- 
monies finished, my lord came to the door of the Abbey, led by 
the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk. They proceeded to his place 
by Charing Cross ; next before him the cross, preceding it the 
mace such as belongeth to a cardinal to have, then my Lord of 
Canterbury, having no cross borne before him, with the Bishop 
of Winchester, before them the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk 
together, and in like order the residue of the noblemen, as the 
Bishop of Durham with the Pope's orator and other ban- 
nerets, knights, and gentlemen after their degrees, and following 
the archbishops of Armagh and Dublin, and the bishops. My 
Lord Cardinal's place being well sorted in every behalf, and 
used with goodly order, the hall and chambers garnished very 
sumptuously with rich arras, a great feast was kept as to such a 
high and honourable creation belongeth". The king, queen, 
the French queen, and all the noblemen above specified were 
present, with the barons of the exchequer, and the judges and 
sergeants at law. 1 

The messenger, Bonifacio, who was bearer of the hat from 
Rome, brought with him from the Pope a ring, more than 
usually valuable, and a plenary indulgence to those who were 
present at the ceremony. 

On February 21st, 1516, Archbishop Kite assisted at the 
christening of the Princess Mary at Greenwich. "From the 
court gate to the church dooi of the Friars was railed and hung 
1 Vol. ii.n. 1163. 

John Kite, Archbishop of Armagh. 11 

with arras; the way beinof well gravelled and strewed with 
rushes. At the church door was set a house well framed of 
timher, covered with arras, where the Princess with her god- 
father and godmother abode. There she received her name 
Mary. Then they entered the church, which was hung with 
cloth of needlework, garnished with precious stones and pearls". 1 
The font, the salt, the taper and the chrism were borne by peers. 
The Cardinal was godfather. The king was excessively fond of 
this daughter, and used to carry her about in his arms before the 
nobles of the court and the foieign ambassadors. The Venetian 
ambassador gives 2 the following account of his interview with 
the little princess: 

" After this his majesty caused the princess, his daughter, who fg 
two years old, to be brought into the apartment where we were; 
whereupon the right reverend Cardinal (Wolsey) and I, and all the 
other lords, kissed her hand, pro more; the greatest marks of honour 
being paid to her universally, more than to the queen herself. The 
moment she cast her eyes on the Keverend Dionysius Memo, who was 
there, she commenced calling out in English, ' Priest, priest', and he 
was obliged to go and play for her, after which the king with the 
princess in his arms, came to me and said, * Per Deum iste (Memo) est 
honestissimus vir et unus carissimus; mullus unquam scrvivit mihi fide- 
lius melius et isto; scribatis Domino vestro quod habeat ipsum commenda- 
tum* ". 

The ambassador concludes his letter with the characteristic 
remark, that " Memo is in such high favour that he will be able 
to advance the interests of Venice". 

4. He is sent as ambassador to Spain. 

We have now to follow Archbishop Kite upon a new and 
larger field of action. In order to appreciate duly his new posi- 
tion, we must cast a rapid glance at the political state of Europe 
at the period when he commenced his diplomatic career. 

It was the policy of Cardinal Wolsey to check the influence of 
France, which under the energy of Francis the First, aimed at 
aggrandizement at the expense of the other nations of Europe. 
With this view he endeavoured to attach to English interests the 
Pope, the Emperor Maximilian, Spain, and the Swiss. The 
task was by no means easy. The Emperor, although he had 
received large sums of money from England, perfidiously sided 
with France. The Pope dreaded equally the Emperor and 
Francis, and could not be brought to act cordially with either. By 
the death of Ferdinand of Arragon, Charles succeeded to Spain, 
and it became a matter of the greatest importance to English 
policy to secure his cooperation and alliance. He was the can- 
' Vol. ii. 1673. a 3976. 

12 John Kite, Archbishop of Armagh. 

dictate most likely to defeat the design the French king had, to 
win for himself the imperial diadem. Hitherto, Charles had not 
been favourably disposed towards England. But now, when it 
was necessary for him to journey into Spain to take possession of 
his new kingdom, he found that the help of England was indis- 
pensable to him. Henry the Eighth advanced to Charles in his 
need the sum of one hundred thousand florins. With this sum 
the Catholic king set out for Spain, where Cardinal Ximenes 
was straining every nerve to avert a civil war, which the mutual 
rivalries and jealousies between the Flemings and the Spaniards 
rendered only too probable. And yet, on the death of the great 
Cardinal, the ungrateful king appropriated to his own use the 
money left by Ximenes in legacies to his servants and charitable 
bequests, to the amount of two hundred and twelve thousand 
ducats of gold. Meantime while England was exciting in 
Charles distrust of France, mysterious conferences began to take 
place between the English and French ministers, and it soon 
oozed out that the two courts were likely to come to a friendly 
understanding. The French king offered four hundred thousand 
crowns for the surrender of Tournay, and England was not ad- 
verse to the bargain. This intelligence aroused the fears of 
Charles and his ministers, and the English court began to dread 
lest Spain should throw itself into the arms of France, and 
thereby inflict a fatal wound on the policy it had cost Wolsey so 
much labour to carry out. It was necessary that the state of the 
negotiation about Tournay should be sedulously concealed. For 
this purpose it was resolved that an embassy should be sent into 
Spain to Charles, and Archbishop Kite and John Lord Berners, 
the translator of Froissart, were chosen for the purpose. 

The instructions communicated to the ambassadors by Henry 
the Eighth were as follows: 1. They were to congratulate 
Charles on his prosperous voyage to Spain, and his favourable 
reception by his subjects. 2. The king is resolved to assist him 
with all his power. 3. He desires that whatever treaties be 
made by either parties shall be mutually communicated, agree- 
ably to which the ambassadors were to explain away the nego- 
tiations with France. England, they were to say, had demanded 
redress from France for injuries at sea, and two French ambas- 
sadors had come to London ostensibly to repress piracy, but 
really to offer a large sum for the surrender of Tournay. Henry 
had refused to accede without consulting Charles, and the French 
king was busy making preparations by land and sea to obtain the 
town by force of arms. Charles was to be asked to assist Henry 
in case of invasion. 

By these negotiations it was hoped that any coalition be- 
tween Franoe and Spain would be prevented, and prevented in 

John Kite, Archbishop of Armagh. 13 

such a fashion that France, from being hostile to England, should 
become her ally, and Spain, from being weak, should become a 
power able to check France abroad, and at the same time bound 
by the ties of gratitude to England, to whose help she owed her 
increased advantages. 

The Primate and Lord Berners set out on their important 
journey in February, 1518. In the King's Book of Payments, 
there is an entry of five marks a day for one hundred and eighty- 
two days to the Archbishop of Armagh going to Spain, and to 
Lord Berners of forty shillings a day. In addition to this, the 
two ambassadors received two hundred ducats (each ducat being 
four shillings and six pence) " for transporting them into Spain". 
In July they received another sum, the Archbishop 303 16s. 8d., 
and Lord Berners 182 10s., and in November a third sum, the 
Archbishop 233 6s. 8d., and Lord Berners 140. In their 
letters to Henry the Eighth and to Cardinal Wolsey, the am- 
bassadors themselves have written the history of their embassy. 
On the 12th of May they wrote to the king from Saragossa (the 
letter is in the Primate's handwriting), that on arriving at the 
court, after many delays and countermands, they were at last 
ordered to wait for the king at Almasana, on the borders of 
Arragon. He arrived there on St. George's day in the afternoon, 
wearing the garter about his neck, accompanied by a very great 
court. He kept evensong in his robe of the order. About two 
hours before his coining the chancellor came to them, with Lord 
Fynes and about twenty other noblemen, who welcomed them 
heartily, and bade them wait on the king next morning. To 
their credence and proposals the chancellor answered that the 
king thanked Henry for sending so far, and would be quite 
ready to add anything to the confederation that Henry wished. 
Spinelly, another English agent at the Spanish court, tells us 
that at nine o'clock on the morning fixed for the audience, several 
noblemen came to conduct the English king's ambassadors to the 
court. " After my Lord of Armachan had made the proposition 
with good eloquencya and audacya", the chancellor remitted 
their further communication, as the king was to depart on the 
same day. 

We shall not attempt to follow the intricate and tedious reci- 
tal of conferences and debates, which took place bewteen the 
ambassadors and the Spanish court. No less than eighteen 
despatches from the Primate are contained in the volume from 
which we have quoted so much. Suffice to say, that the ends 
of the embassy were fully accomplished. The negotiations were 
so carefully handled, that Charles resigned himself to see Tournay 
become French, and was led to feel that it was to England he owed 
the secure possession of his Spanish kingdom. Besides, he was 

14 Archbishop Kite, Archbishop of Armagh. 

grateful that the ambitious longings of Francis after the imperial 
crown had been effectually repressed by the English diplomacy, 
and he could not but feel that his own prospects of attaining to 
the empire depended on the continuance of friendly relations 
between himself and Henry the Eighth. As to France, not only 
was her enmity disarmed, but by the marriage of the Princess 
Mary and the Dauphin, a union which was the work of Wolsey, 
the two crowns were joined in closest friendship. Pope Leo the 
Tenth, who had good reason to fear both Francis and Charles, 
looked with respect towards England, as the only power which, 
being independent of both, was able to help the Holy See 
against their attempts. Thus England saw herself raised to the 
position of arbiter among the nations of Europe, and this brilliant 
triumph was due solely to the soaring and masterly policy of 
the great Cardinal. 

In a letter to Wolsey, written from Saragossa, 17th December, 
1518, the Primate says that though his (Kite's) despatches, either 
for their shortness or their rarity have been " taken displeasantly", 
he has never failed to write as much as he knew, and whenever 
he could hear of a post going. He announces that they are about 
to take their leave of Spain. They are twenty-four days' j ourney 
from the sea, where they will take their passage with the first 
favourable wind, though Lord Berners is " marvellous loth 
thereto", not being yet fully recovered. Their purses compel 
them to take the nearest way. They have sold their plate and 
other things. The last letters from home were not of such as to 
make them merry. He hopes that if the sea " shall not like" 
them, their returning by land will be taken in good part. 1 

5. He returns to London. 

Dr. Kite arrived in England early in the year 1519. The 
volume of State papers now in the press 2 will probably supply us 
with information as to how he was received upon his return, and as 
to what his employments were. In the year 1520 he was ap- 
pointed one of the commissioners of the jewel office. 3 In July, 
1520, he attended Cardinal Wolsey to Calais, on occasion of the 
celebrated interview between the kings of England and France, 
which had been brought about by the skill of the Cardinal. On 
the 8th July, Wolsey came to Dover, and on the 20th he sailed 
for Calais, accompanied by the Primate of Ireland, Charles 
Somerset Earl of Worcester, the lords St. John Ferres and Her- 
bert, the bishops of Durham and Ely, Sir Thomas Boleyn, 
Sir John Peche, and many others. 

1 No. 4660. 2 Vol. iii. Letters and Papers Henry the Eighth. 

3 Cooper's Athenae Cantab., p. 62. 

John Kite, Archbishop of Armagh. 15 

6, He resigns the Primacy, and is made Archbishop of Thebes 
and commendatory Bishop of Carlisle. 

In 1521 he resigned of his own accord the primatial see of 
Armagh. Probably he felt that, owing to the peculiar circum- 
stances of the time, which exacted from him a protracted ab- 
sence from Ireland, he could not conscientiously continue at the 
head of the Irish Church. It was one of the worst features of the 
melancholy period which preceded the so-called reformation, 
that bishops were not allowed to remain with the flocks which 
the Holy Ghost had placed them to govern, but were forced by 
a supposed political necessity (and perhaps to avoid greater evils) 
to undertake worldly business foreign to their own sacred calling. 
He was succeeded in Armagh by George Cromer, who was con- 
secrated in England the April after Dr. Kite's resignation. On 
his resignation of the primatial see he was appointed Archbishop 
of Thebes in partibus, and immediately after commendatory 
bishop of Carlisle, of which see the temporalities were restored 
to him, according to the legal phrase, on llth November, 1521. 
By the influence of Cardinal Wolsey a large share of the ex- 
penses ordinarily incurred on such occasions, was remitted to 
him. In Carlisle he exercised in a special degree his favourite 
virtue of hospitality. He built extensively at Rose Castle, the 
episcopal residence of the bishops of that see. In March, 1522, 
he received a letter from Henry the Eighth, requiring him to 
join Lord Dacre as his counsellor and treasurer in the payment 
of the garrison, as well as for rewards to be paid to the gentle- 
men of the Borders, who had done the king acceptable service 
in resistance of the authority of the Duke of Albany. 1 In 
1524-1526, he was again in commissions to treat for peace with 
Scotland. There exists in Rymer 2 a recognizance entered into 
by Sir Thomas Kytson to him as bishop commendatory of 
Carlisle, dated 4th June, ,1533, in which the conditions of the 
purchase of an estate in Cornwall by him are laid down. 

7. His death. 

On June 18th, 1537, finding himself near his end, he made his 
will (which was proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury 
three days after), wherein he bequeathed his body to be buried 
by that of his father in St. Margaret's church, Westminster. On 
the 19th June he expired at Stepney, near London, at a very 
advanced age, and was buried in the church there, " almost in 
the middle of the chancel, inclining to the north". 3 A marble 
monument was erected over his remains, and upon it was en- 

1 Thorpe's Caknd. of State Papers, Scotland, vol. i. n. 96. 2 Tom. xiv. p. 465 
3 Harris' Ware, 

16 The latest defence of the Establishment. 

graved the following epitaph, which has justly been styled 
" unworthy of so learned an age": 

Under this ston closeyde and marmorate 

Lyeth John Kite, Londoner natyffe, 

Encreasing in vertues rose to high estate. 

In the fourth Edwards Chapell by his young lyffe, 

Sith which the seventh Henryes servyce primatyfle 

Proceeding still in vertuous efficace 

To be in favour with this our Kings Grace, 
With witt endewyd chosen to be Legate 
Sent into Spayne, where he right joyfully 
Combyned with Princes in peace most amate : 
In Grace Archbishop elected wortbely, 
And last of Carlyel ruling pastorally 
Kepyng nobyl houshold with great hospitality : 
One thousand five hundred thirty and seven 
Invyterate with pastoral carys, consumed with age, 
The nintenth of June reckoned fill even, 
Passyd to hevyn from worldly pilgrimage : 

Of whos soul, good pepul of cherite 

Pray, as you would be prayed for ; for thus must ye lie. 
Jesu mercy ; Lady help. 

MENT. 1 

1. THE method of defence observed by the champions of the Irish 
Establishment has, of late, undergone an important change. In 
the beginning, they relied mainly upon the historical case which 
the ingenuity of Archdeacon Lee, Rev. Alfred Lee, Archdeacon 
Stopford, and others, had constructed on its behalf. By degrees, 
even the dullest began to perceive from the admirable statements 
on the Catholic side, that the verdict of history, far from endors- 
ing the defence submitted by these writers, did fully and com- 
pletely refute it. Then came Mr. Hardinge's book, which, by its 
ridiculous blunders, helped not a little to the overthrow of the 
cause it was intended to support. Hence it has come to pass 
that the recent literature published in defence of the Establish- 

1 1. A Charge, etc., by Hamilton Verschoyle, D.D., Bishop of Kilmore, June 
and July, 1867. 

2. A Charge, etc., by Robert Daly, D.D., Bishop of Cashel and Emly, Water- 
ford and Lismore, June, 1867. 

3. The Case of the Established Church, by James Thomas O'Brien, D.D., Bishop 
of Ossory, 

4. The Distinctive Principles of the Church, an address delivered before the 
Irish Church Society, May 15, 18G7, by Rev. W. Maturin, D.D. 

The latest defence of the Establishment. 17 

ment does not place the historical argument in, a very prominent 
light. Another class of arguments was that employed by the 
rhetoricians of the party, who, in parliament and elsewhere, 
poured fourth in burning words their feelings of amazement that 
men should be found daring enough to assail the Church which 
was the teeming mother of Protestant blessings to the realm. 
But the rhetoricians were surprised to find that their bombast 
was simply laughed out of court Then there came moderate 
men who, for their parts, were content to breathe gentle sighs 
over the losses that were sure to come upon mental culture and 
good breeding if the Church were disendowed. But weak voices 
such as these had no chance of being heard amid the din of 
battle. Then came the loyalists, who declared that the safety 
of the constitution depended, as on its very basis, on the main- 
tenance of the Established Church. But, by a strange per- 
verseness of reasoning, these loyalists invariably pointed with 
pride to the fact, that the Fenians had no objection whatever to 
the Established Church ; that, amid the many cries raised by 
these misguided men, whose energies were directed to overturn 
the laws and the constitution, not one word was to be heard as 
directed against the Church which was upheld by law as the 
very basis of the constitution. Besides this, it was not easy 
to understand the loyalty which showed itself principally in 
illegal acts of Orangeism. 

2. Thus it has come to pass that the chief characteristic of their 
latest publications is neither research, nor eloquence, nor mode- 
ration, nor loyalty, but simply a. spirit of furious bigotry. The 
writer do not indeed discard the old arguments, however weak 
and broken they may be. but they now appear to rest their 
defence mainly upon the ground, that the Irish Protestant Church 
is the true Church. The Establishment is to be kept up because 
it teaches true religion. " Our contention with the Church of 
Rome", says Dr. Verschoyle of Kilmore, "is not about a point of 
order, but for the faith once delivered to the saints, which she 
corrupts and makes void by human traditions. We cannot give 
place to her ministers, or countenance their peculiar work in any 
way (however full of zeal for God and fervent piety many of 
them have been and are), as tending to the destruction and not 
the salvation of the people's souls. We would extend to them 
the largest amount of toleration, and treat them with neighbourly 
kindness and charity ; but we must, as in duty bound, set our 
face as a flint against the system as vitally erroneous. It is not 
then right reason or genuine justice which vindicates the pro- 
posed measure of disendowment, for they * can do nothing against 
the truth, but for the truth' (II. <7or., xii. 8)". And still less 
should numbers turn the scales against the truth, " for then it 

YOL. IV. 2 

18 The latest defence of the Establishment. 

must needs be driven out of the world" (page 9-10). And 
atjain, pa^e 14, " the principle of a Church" is declared to con- 
sist in its'being " a witness of the truth and a teacher of true 
religion, above one that witnessed a lie and taught soul destroy^ 
ingerror". And (page 15) the position of the Established 
Church is that it is " the recognized organ for diffusing true 
religion through the land". And again : 

" Some of the kings of Judah, though otherwise godly, thought to 
buy off the hostility of the king of Babylon by robbing the temple 
of its gold and laying it at his feet ; but the ravenous appetite of him 
who would be supreme over all, was not to be thus sated, for, after 
a while, not only the temple itself, but the whole realm became the 
victims which he devoured. If the temple of truth be not only 
stripped of its gold, but the idols of transubstantiation and of the 
Virgin Mary be set up therein to purchase peace, not with the people 
of the country, but with the people who derive their inspiration from 
Rome, then the state, which has wilfully abandoned her post of 
honour amongst the nations, and has betrayed the faith she has once 
defended, will assuredly reap a fresh harvest of troubles in Ireland" 
(page 17). 

Dr. O'Brien of Ossory prefaces his work with the following 

" I fear that the friends of the Church will think that many of 
them at least will think that I should have done more wisely for 
the Church, if I had made it more an object to conciliate its enemies. 
I do not think so. I do not think that the motives by which the 
assailants of the Church are animated leave them accessible to the in- 
fluence of soft words. If I did if I thought that the interests of the 
Church required that its enemies should be addressed with ' bated 
breath and in a bondsman's key', - though I could not do this good 
office for it myself^ yet I should have been very careful to avoid every 
thing that was calculated to deter those who could from undertaking 
it, or calculated to throw any hindrance in the way of its being done 
effectively by them. But, as I said, I do not think that it would avail. 
When Hector sees his terrible foe approaching, he thinks for a moment 
of propitiating him rather than resisting him : but the thought is but 

for a moment And so I believe it is with us. The time for 

such amenities is past, and the friends of the Church must not think 
of soothing its enemies, but of resisting them as best they can". 

After this preface Dr. Daly begins his essay by observing that 
in the Irish Church Question there are two distinct, though con- 
nected, questions involved. " The first is : Ought any branch of 
the Reformed Catholic Church to be established in this country ? 
And the second supposing the first to be answered in the affir- 
mative Is the actual Establishment on so much too large a scale 
that it may and ought to be considerably reduced T He deals with 

The latest defence, of the Establishment. 19 

the latter of these questions in the first place, and then passing on to 
the second, distinctly lays down in the words used by an eminent 
statesman in 1835, that " there is no principle upon which the 
Church Establishment can be rightly or permanently upheld, 
but that it was the Establishment which taught the truth". 
These views Dr. O'Brien accepts as his own, and thus concludes: 

" I hold firmly by the conclusion that a state is bound by its duty 
to God and to the people whom He has confided to its care, to choose 
as the Established Church of the country from among the various 
religious communities which exist in it, the representative of the 
Catholic Church which holds the truth and teaches the truth". 

3. It is plain from these statements that in the opinion of those 
bishops the claims of the Irish Establishment are mainly reli- 
gious ; that its best defence is the theological one ; that its true 
merits are the doctrines it teaches ; that its office is to teach the 
true religion in face of the Catholic Church, which teaches soul- 
destroying error. Hence all plans of disendowment are sinful 
and sacrilegious, and all laws, human and divine, call upon the 
English government to preserve intact the Irish Church as the 
pillar of the truth. 

This line of defence, so clearly and plainly laid down by such 
authorities, challenges our attention, and we proceed to consider 
it in itself, in its consequences, and in its application to the actual 
circumstances of the Irish Protestant Church. 

4. And first of all, touching the general question of union be- 
tween Church and State, we Catholics have well defined princi- 
ples from which we will never consent to depart. The fifty- 
tifth proposition condemned in the Syllabus rpns thus: The 
Church ought to be separated from the State^ and the State from 
the Church. But the principle sounds far differently on the lips 
of a Catholic and on those of a Protestant. Dr. O'Brien would 
impose on the state, that is the government of the country, the 
duty of choosing from among the various religious communities 
which exist in it, the representative of the truth. Suppose the 
choice to be made, and the chosen religion elevated socially and 
politically over all others, to be presented by the government to 
the people as the only teacher of truth, may not the people ask: 
" What warrant have we that the state has made a right choice? 
And if they interrogate the state : Are you certain, and of abso- 
lute certainty, that the religion you have chosen is the only true 
religion ? the state must needs reply : No ; we are not absolutely 
certain of it. It is the fundamental principle of Protestantism 
that each one is to decide for himself in matters of religion, and 
that no human power ought to stand between the soul and its 
God. No one is infallible, but it has pleased us to choose thia 


20 The latest defence of the Establishment. 

religion, and we will wed to it ail the power and influence of 
the^tate, in order that the whole nation may be brought under 
its sway". In other words, the Protestant principle of an Estab- 
lished Church involves the most flagrant inconsistency and the 
greatest tyranny : he who concedes to others the absolute liberty 
of believing what they please, cannot consistently hold up to 
them his own belief as the sole truth, especially when he admits 
that he may have been mistaken in making choice of that belief. 
What is this but the giving to the civil ruler a right to invade 
the sacred sanctuary of the soul, and to subject to his rude caprice 
the holiest of holy things ? How different does the theory of 
union between Church and State appear in the light of Catholic 
principles ! According to their teaching, no fallible authority has 
the right of proposing to a people as truth the religion that may 
have approved itself to its uncertain judgment. The rulers as 
well as their subjects are equally bound to submit to the infallible 
voice of the Church of God ; and if both governors and governed 
unite in receiving the teachings of that infallible authority, the 
state may and ought to protect that Church. But in such union 
there is no taint of tyranny. The state does not enforce as truth, 
doctrines which it has chosen to designate as true, but it places 
as truth before the people what an infallible authority, revered as 
such by the people and by itself, has declared to be true. And 
as long as religious unity exists in a nation, this blessed union 
between Church and State ought to be maintained as the source 
of numberless blessings to society. But if, through some gigantic 
social convulsion, or by the operation of other causes, this reli- 
gious harmony is once broken, and if instead of worshipping at the 
same altar, men shall have been led to erect altar against altar, 
and to constitute themselves into sects, then on the part of the 
state it may become lawful and at times obligatory to grant politi- 
cal toleration. But in no case is it lawful for the state, of its own 
authority, to dictate to the people in matters of religion. 

The case as between Catholics and Protestants stands thus : 
Dr. O'Brien holds that every one is to guide himself in matters 
of religion, and therefore he holds it is the duty of the state to 
choose for him a certain religious body which is to teach him what 
it pleases to call the truth, and to affect him in his religious 
belief through a thousand channels of influence. The Catholic 
holds that every one is to submit to the revelation made by 
God and conveyed to him through a divinely appointed organ, 
which God will preserve from straying or leading him astray. 
The state, as such, has no right to interfere with religion ; where 
all are Catholic, it is its duty to protect the Catholic Church, but 
where religious unity has disappeared, and especially where the 
State itself professes that it may err in religious matters, it is 

The latest defence of the Establishment. 21 

nothing snort of tyranny to set up a religion as true, which that 
state is willing to admit may yet be false. Thus the Catholic 
theory is consistent and worthy of human liberty ; the Protestant, 
contradictory and degrading. 

5. Let us now consider the consequences which naturally flow 
from this latest defence of the Establishment, which says that 
the Irish Protestant Church is to retain its endowments because 
it teaches the true- religion as opposed to the soul-destroying doc- 
trines of Catholicism. According to the dignitaries from whom 
we quote, this is the true plea for the Law Church. But if they 
be correct in this, they have succeeded in justifying, and on their 
own principles, all that Catholics ever have done against the 
Establishment. By their own admission the Establishment is a 
symbol which, when translated into words, means this: The Ca- 
tholic religion is a soul-destroying error. If this be so, can they 
blame any Catholic for endeavouring to effect the disendowment? 
Surely, they cannot expect a nation like Ireland, into whose heart 
of hearts the Catholic faith has entered deep, which for love of 
it has lost her wealth and her place among the nations of the 
earth, whose children have bled for it, and died gladly in its 
defence, could remain silent in view of an institution which its 
own bishops say means nothing but insult and contumely of the 
Catholic religion ! Why, then, does Dr. Verschoyle, after in- 
sulting the honest poverty of the Catholic priesthood of Ireland, 
by saying that it is by " a righteous judgment of God, which has 
befallen them for their adherence to errors that made the Church 
of God a synagogue of Satan, that they should be in the humiliat- 
ing position of asking alms from the people for their support", 
why does he complain of them, for wishing to depose the Estab- 
lished Church from its place as the upholder of true religion in 
the land? 

There is one excellent result which must follow from this out- 
spoken defence of the Establishment. The true state of the case 
is thereby made clear, and the true character of the Establish- 
ment thereby revealed to Catholics. There is no longer any 
room for deception : the highest Protestant authorities have in- 
formed the Catholic citizen that the Establishment is nothing 
else than a standing protest on the part of the nation that the 
Catholic religion is " a soul-destroying error and a synagogue 
of Satan", and that to remove the Establishment is to withdraw 
such a protest. It becomes, therefore, the conscientious duty of 
every Catholic to employ all the political power placed in his hands 
to effect the removal of the Establishment. Otherwise, as far as 
in him lies, he cooperates in that protest, and helps to brand his 
holy religion as an imposture. Thus it happens that the bishops 
have given the signal for war, and for a war which must be kept 

22 The latest dejence of the Establishment. 

up as long as Catholics have any power in the state. As long as 
a Catholic vote can help to make or mar a member of parliament ; 
as long as a Catholic meeting can make the voice of a free people 
heard in the kingdom ; as long as the press can direct public 
opinion; as long as petitions can be signed, so long must there 
be an incessant warfare waged by Catholics against the Estab- 
lished Church. Non meus est hie sermo: it is the teaching of 
the Protestant bishops themselves, who declare that the true 
principle on which the Establishment rests is, that it has been 
chosen by the state as the teacher of true religion, as opposed to 
" soul-destroying.errors, and the synagogues of Satan". If there 
is to be an Establishment at all, they must have it on those terms ; 
if it be maintained on terms other than those, it will be almost 
valueless in their eyes. Such a defence as this is a direct challenge 
to all who have any political power, and who are not members 
of the Established Church. It is the fruit of the rampant bigotry 
which it was hoped had died out. It is, in plainest terms, the 
assertion of that spirit of ascendancy which is a standing outrage 
and insult to the Catholics of Ireland. And after this, what 
becomes of that fair vision of peace which was bidden to arise by 
some noble and generous souls who loved to think that the Pro- 
testants of Ireland could be led to abate their extravagant pre- 
tensions and to consent to dwell on a level with the Catholics 
upon whom they have trampled for so many ages ! 

6. Let us now see how the application of this principle will 
work. Since our adversaries have now chosen to transfer the 
question from the political to the theological field, and to rest 
their defence of the Establishment mainly on its being the chair 
of truth and " the pillar by which it is held forth in Ireland", 
let us look into its claims to that high position. And to the end 
that our examination may be the more securely conducted, let 
us review by aid of their own works, the doctrines of the leading 
men in its communion. We do not intend to pass judgment 
here on each of the doctrines held by them individually ; this 
would be an endless and an unprofitable task. Our purpose is 
narrower and more easily attained. It is to show that the Law 
Church in Ireland has no fixed doctrine which it may teach ; 
that its members are in a state of utter bewilderment in matters 
of faith ; that the teachings of its accredited clergy range from, 
the wildest rationalism to High Church tenets, passing through 
every intermediate shade of thought; that there is no authority 
within it to decide what is to be held and what to be avoided ; 
and consequently, since truth is one, that it is an enormous pre- 
tension on its part to aspire to be maintained as the recognized 
teacher of true doctrine in Ireland. 
A Jove principium; let us begin with the bishops. Even 

The latest defence of the Establishment. 23 

the bishops themselves are at variance as to doctrine, and the 
differences that divide them are enormous. What a chasm 
between the present Protestant Archbishop of Dublin and his 
immediate predecessor ! Dr. Whately was accused by his own 
as one holding unsound opinions on the essential doctrine of 
the Blessed Trinity. Dr. Trench has been accused by his own 
as a Puseyite and a Papist. Dr. Daly of Cashel denounces 
(p. 22) Rev. Dr. Maturin, of Dublin, as a " deceitful teacher", 
" a recruiting-officer for the Romish Church", one " against 
whom and whose system there is as much reason to give warning 
as against those who circulate the Directorium Anglicanum, one 
who is the more dangerous on account of the favour he is 
supposed to enjoy". Dr. Trench allows that gentleman to teach 
and even to obtain promotion in his diocese. The sarn-e Dr. 
Daly indignantly lashes the steps that have lately been taken to 
acknowledge, as in close union with the United 'Church of Eng- 
land and Ireland, the Protestant Episcopal Church in Scotland, 
" notwithstanding that she holds that which we have seen to be 
at the bottom of the Ritualistic movement, namely, wha,t they 
call the objective presence of Christ i u the sacraments, and which 
our great reformer Cranmer said was the root out of which grew 
the whole tree of Popery". "It is to me", he adds, " a greater 
subject of regret that a high dignitary of our Church should 
last year have consented to lay the first stone of the Scottish. 
Cathedral in Inverness, and in his speech state that the Scottish 
Episcopal Church is the only true representative of the Church 
of England in Scotland". And the good bishop repeats what he 
said in 1845, that if his own Episcopal Church " should turn 
away from the truth, and introduce a service that speaks more 
like transubstantiation than ever was spoken by any Church but 
the Church of Rome, I would feel myself bound to protest against 
her heresy, and to separate from her communion". Thus, what 
one bishop calls heresy, the other holds to be saving truth ; and 
while the Scottish Church is accepted by some as orthodox in 
its doctrine of the Eucharist, by others it is anathematised as op- 
posed to truth. 

And as the bishops, so the inferior clergy. The grea^t training 
school of the Protestant clergy in Ireland is Trinity College, 
Dublin. Now where did the desolating system of Positivism first 
show itself in public in Ireland ? Within the walls of the Protestant 
University. It was there that W. E. H. Lecky received into his 
mind the germs which afterwards grew into his pernicious book 
on The Rise and Influence of Rationalism in Europe. It was 
there that the Rev. James Barlow proclaimed that the doctrine 
of the everlasting punishment of the wicked was to be abandoned 
because jarring with the civilization of the nineteenth cen- 

24 The latest defence of the Establishment. 

tury. 1 It was there that Rev. J. H. Jellett reduced the question 
of the inspiration of difficult parts of the Holy Scripture to a mere 
" balance of probabilities", of which balance each student was to 
be the judge, determining for himself whether "the external 
evidence of inspiration is sufficient to overcome the internal im- 
probability". And we are assured upon good authority that the 
current of thought among the students is setting altogether in 
the direction towards which this rationalistic literature points. 
Scandalised by the appearance of such books in a Christian com- 
munity, we looked for some authoritative denunciation of them 
on the part of the authorities of the Protestant Church ; but wo 
looked in vain. The only voice that was raised in reprobation 
was the voice of the Catholic Church, which by the lips of the 
Cardinal Archbishop of Dublin, avenged the outraged majesty 
of Christian truth. 

And whilst one portion .of the clergy thus inclines to Ra- 
tionalism, another flies off towards dissent of the lowest kind : 

" A few months ago, there were", says Dr. Maturin, " no less than 
three ordained clergymen of the Church of England acting publicly 
in Dublin alone as dissenting ministers ; while some years ago it was 
stated that a dissenting movement, which was then of recent origin, 
had, in the short time during which it prevailed, been joined by no 
fewer than thirty clergymen of our Church*'. 

To these we have to add the party typified in Rev. Dr. 
Maturin, of whom Dr. Daly writes: 

" He is evidently making a move backward towards Rome, when 
he says that ' our Church stands between the system of Protestantism 
and the system of Romanism' ; and when, as to the principle on which 
our reformers acted, he says, 'Their appeal was to Scripture and 
antiquity ; Scripture as the repository, the Church as the witness of 
the truth'". 

We say nothing of the countless shades of doctrine and ritual 
which prevail in the Anglican Church, all of which might fairly 
also be placed to the credit of the United Church of England 
and Ireland. 

The state of the laity shall be described by Dr. Maturin : 

" There is a state of feeling and opinion, deeply rooted and widely 
spread in our Church, which has no parallel, I believe, in any other 
religious community. It may be described in general as ignoring the 
existence of anything distinctive in the character or teaching of the 
Church of England, and regarding it as one the most respectable 
perhaps, but not always the purest among several sects into which 

1 Eternal Punishment and Eternal Death. An Essay, by James Barlow, M.A., 
Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Dublin, 1865. Cf. Irish Ecclesiastical 
^ vol. i. p. 217. 

The latest defence of the Establishment. 25 

Protestantism is divided ; some of these sects more scriptural than 
others, but all agreeing in the same fundamental truths, and separated 
only by minor and non-essential differences. This common sentiment 
shows itself in various aspects ; but I refer to it now as bearing upon 
the way in which so many view the doctrines of their own Church. 
Some Church people are ignorant of the fact that the Church possesses 
any distinctive doctrines at all. Others think that, if ever she did 
possess such, they are now obsolete, left in the Prayer Book by mis- 
take on a piinciple of compromise or with the understanding that 
they should not be maintained ; or that they are the dregs of Roman- 
ism from which the same Prayer Book was never thoroughly purged, 
and that it needs farther revision to adapt it to the more enlightened 
Protestantism of the present age ; or, again, that the terms in which 
they are expressed may be so explained, softened, toned down, quali- 
fied, as to render the statements they contain harmless after all, if not 
satisfactory. Thus suspicion and dislike are common feelings that 
prevail on this subject ; and a half-hearted tolerance is the nearest 
approach to cordiality. Now this, I say, is peculiar to our Church. 
In other religious bodies you will find that those doctrines or practices 
by which they are distinguished, furnish the very points on which 
their respective members are sure to be best instructed. The Roman 
Catholic is well acquainted with the peculiar tenets of his own Church, 
and so on his side is the Presbyterian or the Methodist. Nay more ; 
these are the very points on which they are each commonly most 
zealous, neither afraid nor ashamed, but openly avowing and boldly 
maintaining them. It is exactly the reverse with many Church 
people ; they are not ignorant merely, but antagonistic. There is a 
sensitive shrinking from Church doctrine, as if they were afraid it 
would do them some inexplicable harm, as if it was something they 
should be ashamed to own, like a discreditable friend or connection ; 
something that, if the}' were once to accept, would lead them astray, 
whither they know not, and which it is therefore best to avoid alto- 
gether. Nor is this feeling confined exclusively to those who reject 
Church doctrine. It is, strange to say, shared to some extent by 
those who actually hold it, but hold it with a timid hand, as if they 
feared to grasp it as men hold a dangerous weapon whose use they 
do not fully understand. They regard it as a trust to be kept, care- 
fully perhaps, but secretly ; hid in a napkin ; not produced, not turned 
to account, not taught, at any rate till people are quite ripe and 
ready to learn, till it is perfectly safe, in other words, till it becomes 
almost superfluous to teach them. In short, the expectation seems to 
be, that people will learn Church doctrine in some happy future by 
an instinct as happy ; and that, when this is the case, it may be held, 
inculcated, and defended plainly and fearlessly". 

This, then, on the showing of its own defenders, is the inter- 
nal condition of the Established Church. In it bishop contends 
with bishop on matters of faith ; in it the clergy are divided one 
from the other as far as Rationalism is distant from the High 
Church ; in it the laity have either uo kuowlo Jge of the religious 

26 The new religions of America. 

principles of their faith, or are afraid of them. And yet this 
Babel of confusion is confidently exhibited to the state by Dr. 
O'Brien and his compeers as the one Church which teaches the 
truth, as the pillar of sound religion, as .the heaven-sent witness 
against the Catholic Church, which they are pleased to style 
" a synagogue of Satan" ! Even if it be granted that a Protes- 
tant may consistently demand an Established Church even if it 
be prudent on the part of Irish Protestants to urge such a demand, 
still the state could not with any propriety choose as the one 
organ of truth, a body so much torn by dissensions, so helpless 
to control its members, so thorough a failure in all respects as 
the Law Church of Ireland. 


THE many ties that link the United States to this country, for- 
bid an Irishman to look with indifference upon the social changes 
which affect society within the great republic. Beyond all 
things else, the religious condition of a country which is the home 
of so many millions of our race, must ever challenge our atten- 
tion. The thousands of guileless young men and women who 
annually leave our shores rich in faith, in simplicity of charac- 
ter, in moral purity into what kind of society do they carry this 
precious freight ? Had they remained at home, we could fore- 
cast their career blameless though lowly, in some quiet country 
valley, within sight of the humble chapel, under the fatherly 
care of a good priest. But, when they are once fairly launched 
upon their new life, what are their chances? what are their 
dangers? what their circumstances? Such questions as these 
spring unbidden to the lips at the frequent sight of emigrants 
wending their dolorous way towards our Irish seaports. The 
sketches of the wild and novel forms which religion has assumed 
in America, lately drawn by an intelligent writer, whose words 
we follow as closely as possible, will help the reader to frame the 
answer for himself. 1 

The first religious body whose habitation the author visited, 
was the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appear- 
ing, commonly known in America as the Shakers : Shakers being 
a term of mockery and reproach. The chief home of those 
fanatics is a village called Mount Lebanon, standing on a sunny 
hill-side, three miles south of New Lebanon Springs, in the 

1 New America, by William Hepwortu Dixon, two Tola, London; Hunt an<J 
JJkckett. 1567, 

The new religions of America. 27 

tipper country of the lovely river Hudson. Though of American 
growth, this body owes its origin to England, having had for its 
first foundress an English female seer. 

About a hundred years ago a poor woman living at Bolton-on- 
the-Moors, in South Lancashire, announced that she had received 
a call from heaven to go about the streets of her native town and 
testify the truth. Her name was Jane Wardlaw, and her hus- 
band, a tailor, was her first convert. These poor people had 
belonged to the Society of Friends, and had lived from their 
youth upward in the heart of a wild rocky district, in the midst 
of a coarse and ungodly population. She went out into the 
marketplace and declared to the world that the end of all things 
was at hand, that Christ was about to reign, and that His second 
appearance would be in a woman's form, as had been prefigured 
in the Psalms. She never declared in words that she herself 
was the Christ ; but she acted as if the plenitude of power had 
been committed to her, receiving converts in His name, confess- 
ing and remitting sins, and holding communication with unseen 

Among her early converts was Anne Lee, born of a poor 
blacksmith, in Toad Lane (Todd Street), Manchester. This 
girl had been brought up first in a cotton-mill, next in a public 
kitchen, and was violent in her conduct and a prey to convul- 
sions. When yet a child, she had been married to a neighbour- 
ing lad named Stanley, to whom she bore four children, who 
all died young. She, too, soon began to sally forth like Jane 
Wardlaw, to testify for the truth. But the magistrates had her 
sent to the Old Baily prison as a disturber of the public peace. 
While there she said a light had shone upon her, and the Lord 
Jesus had stood before her in the cell, and became one with her 
in form and spirit. This privilege, recounted by her to the little 
church of five or six persons, obtained for her from them the 
rank of mother, as the queen described by David, and the bride 
of the Apocalypse, in whom Christ had come again. 

As the rough factory boys and girls only laughed at her, 
Anne received a revelation to go to America, where she and her 
church were to find the Promised Land. Five men and two 
women accompanied her. Arrived in America, she separated her- 
self from her husband, in accordance with the fixed principle she 
had assumed, that she and her people were to wage continual 
war against the flesh. By lust man fell from heaven, by con- 
tinence only could he hope to regain it. Her disciples must live 
as the angeis, neither marrying nor giving in marriage. Her hus- 
band had no faith at all in her, and became a backslider. The 
little band of seven believers in Mother Anne's divine commis- 
sion w.ent up first to Albany, and then to Niskenna, where they 

$3 The new religions of America. 

waited in their lonely huts for three years and six months. ^ At 
length in 1780, a revivalist movement took place in the neigh- 
bourhood, and among other wealthy people Joseph Meachan and 
Lucy Wright became followers of Anne. The first of these she 
adopted as her eldest son, who was to be the heir of her power 
in the Church. The war of independence was then raging, and 
her peculiar doctrines involved the little band in many troubles. 
After many journeys, in 1784, she gathered together around her 
her disciples, gave them her blessing, and after yielding up the 
visible keys of her kingdom to Joseph and Lucy, as her succes- 
sors in the male and female headships of the kingdom, she passed 

Not that she died: for her successors proclaimed to all that 
she had merely become changed and made invisible to the flesh 
through excess of light. Mother Anne had withdrawn herself 
for a Ettle from the world, but she would live and reign for ever 
-among her own true children of the resurrection. In dreams and 
ecstasies she could still be heard. This was the true resurrection, 
and her followers expect no other. 

As yet the believers in Mother Anne were living mixed up 
with the Gentiles. Now Joseph and Lucy withdrew them apart 
into settlements : to Water Vliet and Mount Lebanon in New 
York; to Harvard and Shirley, in Massachusetts; to Enfield, in 
Connecticut ; to Canterbury, in New Hampshire ; to Union Vil- 
lage and White Water, in Ohio; to Pleasant Hill and South 
Union, in Kentucky. Under their rule a covenant was written 
down and accepted by the brethren ; the divine government was 
confirmed ; elders and deacons, male and female, were appointed ; 
celibacy was confirmed as binding on the saints, and community 
of goods was introduced among them. In 1796, Joseph passed 
out of sight, and left Lucy to govern the church for twenty-five 
years. She, too, named her successor an elderess, not a mother. 
The name of the present leader is Betsey Yates, commonly called 
Elderess Betsey, who represents Mother Anne only in the body, 
for the Mother is always present in the spirit among her children. 
Daniel Boler is the chief elder, and Elder Frederick the official 
preacher of Shaker doctrine. At present they have eighteen 
establishments, and the census of 1860 returns them as six 
thousand strong. 

The estate on and around Mount Lebanon, visited by our 
author, consists of nearly ten thousand acres of the best land in 
the state of New York. These ten thousand acres bloom like a fair 
garden. " The hand of man has been laid on the soil with a light 
though a tender grasp, doing its woik of beauty, and calling 
forth beauty in exchange for love and care. Where can you 
find an orchard like this young plantation on our left ? Where, 

The new religions of America. 29 

save in England, do you see such a sward? The trees are 
greener, the roses pinker, the cottages neater, than on any other 
slope. New Lebanon has almost the face of an English valley 
rich with the culture of a thousand years. You see that the men 
who till these fields, who tend these gardens, who bind these 
sheaves, who train these vines, who plant these apple trees, have 
been drawn into putting their love into the daily task ; and you 
hear with no surprise that these toilers, ploughing and planting 
in their quaint garb, consider their labour on the soil as a part of 
their ritual, looking upon the earth as a stained and degraded 
sphere which they have been called to redeem from corruption 
and restore to God" (page 83 -84 ) 

The village is formed of a host of houses standing in gardens, 
each house having its own male and its own female head. The 
co-heads of the entire society are Elder Frederick and Elderess 
Antoinette. " The streets are quiet ; for here you have no grog- 
shop, no beer-house, no lock-up, no pound ; of the dozen edifices 
rising about you work-rooms, barns, tabernacle, stables, kitchens, 
schools, and dormitories not one is either foul or noisy. The 
paint is all fresh ; the planks are all bright ; the windows are all 
clean. The walls appear as though they had been built only 
yesterday; a perfume as from many unguents floats down the 
lane ; and the curtains and window-blinds are of spotless white. 
The people are like their village, soft in speech, demure in bear- 
ing, gentle in face. Every one seems busy, every one, tranquil. 
" The interiors of the houses do not belie the promise of the 
exterior. The greatest attention is paid in every building to 
scientific ventilation". The visitors' house, which stands apart, is 
plainly and neatly furnished. In the houses of the brethren, 
males and females dwell apart as to their rooms, though they eat 
at a common table and lodge under a common roof. A husband 
and wife who join the community become simply brother and 

" The Shakers dine in silence. Brothers and sisters sit in a com- 
mon room, at tables ranged in a line a few feet apart. They eat 
at six in the morning, at noon, at six in the evening. They rally 
to the sound of a bell, file into the eating room in a single line, 
women going up to one end of the room, men to the other ; when 
they drop on their knees for a short and silent prayer ; sit down 
and eat, helping each other to the food. Not a word is spoken, 
unless a brother should need help from a brother, a sister from a 
sister. A whisper serves. No one gossips with her neighbour ; 
even the help that any one may need is given and taken without 
thanks. Elder Frederick sits at the end, not at the head of the 
table. Elderess Antoinette at the other end. The food, though 
it is very good of its kind) arid very well cooked, is simple, being 

30 The new religions of America 

wholly, or almost wholly, produce of the earth tomatoes, roast 
apples, peaches, potatoes, squash, hominy, boiled corn, and the 
like. The grapes are excellent, reminding one of those of Beth- 
lehem ; and the eggs, hard eggs, boiled eggs, scrambled eggs, are 
delicious. The drink is water, milk, and tea. Then we have 
pies, tarts, candies, dried fruits, and syrups. For my own part, 
being a gentile and a sinner, I have been indulged in cutlets, 
chickens, and home-made wine" (p. 95-96). 

Every man has a trade : some have two or three trades. Every 
one must take his part in the family business, and follow his oc- 
cupation, however high his rank and calling in the church. 

Such is the every-day life of the Shakers : the doctrines which 
have made them what they are, are based on these leading prin- 
ciples: The kingdom of heaven has come; Christ has actually 
appeared on earth ; the personal rule of God has been restored. 
Hence it follows that the old law is abolished ; the command to 
multiply has ceased, Adam's sin has been atoned ; the intercourse 
of heaven and earth has been restored ; the curse is taken away 
from labour; the earth and all that is on it will be redeemed; 
angels and spirits have become, as of old, the familiars and minis- 
ters of men. 

Only a chosen few are called by God to the knowledge of 
these mighty changes. The elect who are thus called die to the 
world, its pleasures, and its passions, and are born again to a new 
life of the soul. No one can be born into their body, as no mem- 
ber of their church can marry. As in heaven so on earth, the 
sexes must dwell apart. We once heard from a distinguished 
Catholic missionary an account of a visit paid by him to a Shaker 
village. He was received in the visitors' house and treated with 
kindest hospitality. The elder came to pay him a visit, and con- 
gratulated him on the celibate life he led. " But", he added, 
" what you have chosen for yourself you ought also to recom- 
mend to others, that all may be led to give up marriage". " On 
the contrary", replied the priest, " I teach that marriage is holy 
and a sacrament. What would become of the human race if your 
views were generally adopted ? It would perish in the course of 
a few generations". " What of that", said the elder, " let it 

Whoever enters the Shaker union must pay off all debts, 
cancel all wills and settlements, renounce all honours, give up his 
friends and kinsmen as though he were parted from them by the 
grave. " They take no part in politics, they vote for no pre- 
sident, they hold no meetings, they want nothing from the White 
House. The right to think, vote, speak, and travel, is to them 
but an idle dream; they live with angels, and are more familiar 
(as they tell me) with the dead than with the living. Sister 

Theneiv religions of America. 31 

Mary, who was sitting in my room not an hour ago, close to 
my hand, and leaning on this Bible, which then lay open at the 
Canticles, told me that the room was full of spirits, of beings as 
palpable, as audible to her, as my own figure and my own voice. 
The dreamy look, the wandering eye, the rapt expression, would 
have alarmed me for her state of health, only that I know with 
what sweet decorum she conducts her life, and with what subtle 
fingers she makes damson tarts" (p. 108). 

According to the Shaker doctrine every human being will be 

How is the community to be recruited if its rules forbid mar- 
riage among its members ? The losses by death each year must 
be considerable; how are the vacant places to be filled? "By 
revivals or spiritual cycles", replied Elder Frederick. Every 
great spiritual revival which has agitated America since the 
Shaker church was planted, has led to a new society being 
founded on the principles of Mother Anne. The revivals have 
been eighteen, the Shaker settlements are eighteen also. It will 
be within the memory of our readers how the Irish Protestants 
gloried in the Ulster revivals some years ago. Mr. Dixon has 
been a witness of these revivals as well as of the revivals in 
America, by means of which the Shaker churches are recruited, 
and we leave it to him to compare the two classes of phenomena : 

** When the last Ulster revival broke out, I happened to be in 
Derry ; and having watched the course of that spiritual hurricane 
from Derry to Belfast, I am able to say, that, excepting the scenery 
and the manners, a revival in Ulster is very much the same thing as 
a spiritual cycle in Ohio and Indiana. 

" In this country, the religious passion breaks out like a fever, in 
the hottest places and in the wildest parts; always in a sect of 
extreme opinions, generally among the Ranters, the Tunkers, the 
Seventh-day Baptists, the Gome-outers, and the Methodists. 

" Yet a camp-meeting, such as I have twice seen in the wilds of 
Ohio and Indiana, is a subject full of interest, not without touches in 
its humour and in its earnestness to unlock the fountains of our smiles 
and tears. The hour may be five in the afternoon of a windless 
October day, when myriads of yellow flowers and red mosses light up 
the sward when the leaves of the oak and the plane are deepening 
into brown when the maples gleam with crimson, and the hickory 
drips with gold. Among the roots and holes of ancient trees, amidst 
buzzing insects and whirring birds, rise a multitude of booths and 
tents, with an aspect strange yet homely. Carts and wagons are 
unhorsed ; the animals tethered to the ground, or straying in search 
of grass. In a dozen large booths men are eating, drinking, smoking, 
praying. Some fellows are playing games ; some lolling on the turf; 
others are lighting fires ; many are cooking food. Those lads are cut- 
ting pines ; these girls are getting water from the stream, In the 

$2 The new religions of America 

centre of the camp, a pale revivalist marabout, standing on the stump 
of a tree, is screeching and roaring to a wild hot throng of listeners, 
most of them farmers and farmers' Avives from the settlements far 
and near ; a sprinkling of negroes, a few red men in their paint and 
feathers all equally ablaze with the orator himself, fierce partners 
in his zeal, and feeders of his fire. His periods are broken by shouts 
and sobs ; his gestures are answered by yells and groans. Without 
let, without pause in his discourse, he goes tearmo; on, belching forth 
a hurricane of words and screams ; while the men sit round him, 
white and still, writhing and livid, their lips all pressed, their hands 
all knotted, with the panic and despair of sin ; and the women rush 
wildly about the camp, tossing up their arms, groaning out their con- 
fessions, casting themselves downwards on the earth, swooning into 
sudden hysterics, streaming at the eyes, and foaming at the mouth ; 
the staid Indian looking with contempt on these miseries of the white 
man's squaw, and the negroes breaking forth into sobs and cries, and 
convulsive raptures of ' Glory ! glory ! Alleluja!' 

" Many visitors fall sick, and some die in the camp. In the agonies 
of this strife against the power of sin and the fear of death (I am told 
by men who have often watched these spiritual tempests), the passions 
seem all to be unloosed, and to go astray without let or guide. ' I 
like to hear of a revival', said to me a lawyer of Indianopolis ; ' it 
brings on a crop of cases'. In the revivalist camp men quarrel, 
and fight, and make love to their neighbour's wives. A Methodist 
preacher of twenty-five years' experience, first in New England, then 
on the frontiers, afterwards on the battle-fields of Virginia, said to 
me, ' Religious passion includes all other passion ; you cannot excite 
one without stirring up the others. In our church we know the evil, 
and we have to guard against it as best we may. The young men 
who get up revivals are always objects of suspicion to their elders ; 
many go wrong, I would say one in twenty at the least ; more, far 
more, than that number bring scandal on the Church by their thought- 
less behaviour in the revivalist camp' ". 

The next body claiming our attention is that of the Spiritu- 
alists. The history of this movement is well known to all who 
have read Dr. Brownson's The Convert. The third national con- 
vention of Spiritualists was held in Providence, in the month of 
August last, and eighteen states and territories were represented 
on the platform. Those who saw the persons composing the 
meeting were struck with their wild appearance. Their eyes were 
preternaturally bright; their faces preternaturally pale. Many 
of them practised imposition of hands ; nearly all the men wore 
long hair, nearly all the women were closely cropped One of 
the vice-presidents announced that more than three millions of 
Americans, men and women, have already entered into this 
movement. "No Church in the United States, not even the 
Methodist", says Mr. Dixon, " can sum up half that number of 
actual members". But a well informed writer in these pages 

The new religions of America. 33 

(Irish Ecclesiastical Record, vol. ii. pag. 444), thinks that 
the number of Catholics in the States must be between three or 
four millions. The Spiritualist millions announce their personal 
conviction that the old religions are exhausted, that the churches 
founded on them are dead, that new revelations are required by 
man. They affirm that these revelations are made by the rap- 
pings of unknown agents, the drawings by unseen hands, and 
the other phenomena presented by Spiritualism. They have a 
well constructed organization, with progressive schools, cate- 
chisms, newspapers; male and female prophets, mediums, and 
clairvoyants, Sunday services, camp meetings, and general con- 
ferences. A tenth part of the population in the New England 
States, a fifteenth part of the population of New York, Ohio, and 
Pennsylvania, believe in those revelations from the spirit world. 
A very remarkable feature of the convention was the tone of 
Stern hostility towards the religious creeds and moral standards 
of all Christian nations, which marked the speeches both of men 
and women. One lady declared that she for one would build no 
more churches; "for they had already too long oppressed and 
benighted humanity". " I am infidel", exclaimed the aged John 
Pierpoint, " to a great many of the forms of popular religion, 
because I do not believe in many of the points which are held 
by a majority of the Christians, nay, even of the Protestant 
Church". Instead of putting his faith in creeds and canons, he 
put it in progress, liberty, and spirits. 

Another celibate sect is that of the Tunkers, as they are 
called by the profane, on account of their Baptist tendencies 
(the word tunk&r meaning to dip), or the Brethren, as they are 
known among themselves. Their neighbours call them the 
Harmless People. They live in little villages and groups of 
farms, for their common advantage, and not in separate commu- 
nities like the Shakers. They remain subject to the civil law. 
They believe that all men will be saved ; a dogma which is com- 
mon to almost every new sect in the United States. They dress 
plain, avoid compliments, refuse to swear or fight, never go to 
law, employ no salaried priest, and consider the two sexes alike 
eligible for the sacred ministry. They hold strong views about 
the holiness of a single life, hold celibacy in the highest honour, 
and though they do not refuse to unite in marriage any brother 
and sister who may desire it, they never fail to impress upon the 
candidates for matrimony the superior virtues of a single life. 

In strange contrast to these celibate societies is the body of 
reformers who call themselves Perfectionists, or Bible Commu- 
nists. They profess to base their theory of family life on the 
New Testament, most of all on the teachings of St. Paul. They 
have restored, they say, the divine government of the world j 

VOL. IV. 3 

34 The new religions of America. 

they have put the two sexes on an equal footing ; they have de- 
clared marriage a fraud, and property a theft ; they have abolished 
fbr themselves all human laws ; they have formally renounced 
their allegiance to the United States. 

The founder of this school is John Humphrey Noyes, whom 
Mr. Dixon describes as " a tall, pale man, with sandy hair and 
beard, gray, dreamy eyes, good mouth, white temples, and a 
noble forhead. He has been in turn a graduate of Dartmouth 
College, Connecticut, a law clerk at Putney in Vermont, a 
theological student at Andover, Massachusetts, a preacher at 
Yale College, New Haven, a seceder from the Congregational 
Church, an outcast, a heretic, an agitator, a dreamer, an experi- 
mentalizer ; finally, he is now acknowledged by many people as 
a 'sect founder, a revelator, a prophet, enjoying light from heaven 
and personal intimacies with God" p. 209. 

The rule of faith and the rule of life of this new Church are 
both equally plain. The Perfectionist has a right to do what he 
likes. He can do nothing wrong, because the Holy Spirit sus- 
tains and guards him. He knows no law : no commandment in 
the ten, no statute on the rolls is binding on him a child of 
grace. Laws are for sinners ; he is a saint. Noyes practised this 
doctrine. He had been a teetotaller: on assuming holiness he 
began to drink ardent spirits. He had been temperate : he now 
began to indulge his palate. He had been chaste and regular in 
his habits : he now began to consort with harlots and thieves. 
And in doing all this he did no wrong : he had trusted himself 
to God, and walked through sin untouched. And how is a man 
to arrive at this stage of grace ? Nothing is more easy ; you 
have only to wish it, and at once, without good works, without 
prayers, by faith alone, you are freed from the power of sin. 

There are three establishments belonging to the Perfectionists, 
in Wallingford, Brooklyn, and Oneida Creek. Mr. Dixon spent 
some days at Oneida as the guest of Noyes, and thus describes 
the appearance of the spot : 

" Roads have been cut through the forest; bridges have been built ; 
the creek has been trained and dammed ; mills for slitting planks and 
for driving wheels have been erected; tlfe bush has been cleared 
away; a great hall, offices, and workshops have been raised; lawns 
have been laid out ; shrubberies planted and footways gravelled ; 
orchards and vineyards have been reared and fenced ; manufactures 
have been set going iron-work, satchel-making, fruit-preserving, 
silk-spinning ; and the whole aspect of this wild forest land has been 
beautified into the likeness of a rich demesne in Kent. Few corners 
of America can compete in loveliness with the swards and gardens 
lying about the home of the Oneida family, as those things arrest the 
eyes of a stranger coming upon them from the rough fields even of 

The new religions of America. 35 

the settled region of New York The estate is about six hun- 
dred acres in extent ; the family gathered under one roof number 
about three hundred. Everything at Oneida Creek suggests taste, 
repose, and wealth ; and the account-books prove that during the 
past seven or eight years the family have been making a good deal 
of money, which they have usefully laid out, either in the erection 
of new mills, or in draining and enriching the soil". 

The rule laid upon all at Oneida Creek is simply this the 
duty of enjoying life. The saints in that house were simply 
men in the position of Adam before the fall ; men without sin ; 
men to whom everything was lawful, because everything was 
pure. Why should they not eat, drink, and love to their heart's 
content, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit ? All property 
is made over to Christ, the saints retain only the use of it. The 
wives and children of the family are as common as the property, 
the very soul of the system being a system which Mr. JJixon 
calls pantagamy, and which it is exceedingly difficult to explain 
in English. The whole family is one marriage circle, every man 
being the husband and brother of every woman, every woman 
being the wife and sister of every man. Marriage as a rite and 
as a fact they have abolished for ever, in the name of true reli- 
gion. Every new member, whether male or female, becomes 
married to the entire family on entering the association. 

The Bible Communists, like other communists, found it hard 
at first to support themselves. The principal income of the 
Oneida family is derived from the sale of their vermin traps. 
Sewell Newhouse, a Canadian trapper, who had joined the 
family, constructed an ingenious trap which soon became a fa- 
vourite article. In a single year they made eighty thousand 
dollars of profit by their traps, and the present annual revenue 
from the same source is about three thousand pounds sterling. 

The Bible Families are likely to increase. " They meet", said 
Elder Frederick to Mr. Dixon, " the desires of a great many 
men and women in this country ; giving, in the name of religious 
service, a free rein to the passions, with a deep sense of repose. 
The Bible Communists give a pious charter to free love, and the 
sentiment of free love is rooted in the heart of New York" p. 

These are some of the wild forms of religion in America, forms 
as grotesque and monstrous as the Gnostic sects described by the 
Fathers of the first four centuries. Such are the noxious vapours 
poisoning the air which so many millions of our race are compelled 
to breathe. And all these blasphemous doctrines, these extravagant 
superstitions, these infamous orgies, are declared by millions to 
be the result of their study of the Holy Bible, interpreted accord- 
ing to the inspirations of the Holy Ghost ! And thus, in our 


36 Correspondence. 

age, the Protestant rule of faith has made a religion of super- 
stition, of voluptuousness, and of rationalism. And from its 
fruits you shall know it. 


OF 1560. 

To the Editors of the Irish Ecclesiastical Record. 

GENTLEMEN, In the September number of your journal, in 
the article noticing recent publications on the above subjects, allu- 
sion is made to the notorious list of the spiritual and temporal 
peers, alleged to have assisted at Sussex's parliament in 1560, 
the original of which is now stated to have unaccountably disap- 
peared from the Rolls Office. The writer says that it betrays 
manifest indications of being derived from a later and unauthen- 
ticated source. When the late Mr. Hardiman published what 
he called a copy, in his edition of the Statute of Kilkenny, he 
wrote that it was then in existence, though in a state of decay, 
being in some parts quite illegible. This was in 1842, and his 
intention was, as he says, to preserve it, as it had not been pre- 
viously printed. But in this he was mistaken, as a copy differ- 
ing in some respects had been printed, so far back as 1831, by 
William Lynch, in his Feudal Dignities of Ireland, p. 343. In 
Hardiman's copy there are no contractions of either names or 
titles, such being the case in Lynch's in nearly twenty places, 
while Thomas Butler, Earl of Ormond and Ossory, is designated 
Lord Treasurer of Ireland by Lynch, and w6-Treasurer by 
Hardiman. Again, in neither copy have lords Athenry or 
Curcy Christian names prefixed, seven bishops being also defec- 
tive in that respect, while in both, four barons take precedence 
of viscounts, who are followed by barons, a very unofficial mode 
of registry. No officer of parliament would be guilty of such 
heraldic anomalies or mistakes, precedence of rank (as all who 
have examined the journals of the Lords are aware) being a vital 
point, on which the Irish peers were particularly sensitive, so 
much so as frequently to require the royal interposition. 

The roll in question has been called by Sir William Betham, 
in his memoir of the family of Fleming of Slane, a parliament 
pawn, that is, a schedule of writs to be issued for the ensuing 
parliament, a title and character against which Lynch properly 
argues, from its heading, and from the fact that it contains lists 

Correspondence. 37 

of the knights, citizens, and burgesses, actually elected and 
returned by the sheriffs, proving that it must have been pre- 
pared some time or other after parliament had assembled. The 
time, or for what purpose, it is difficult to ascertain, but the de- 
fect of Christian names shows that it was not immediate, and the 
probability is, that it was fabricated to show summons and sittings 
of the temporal peers, in order to substantiate peerage claims for 
which such proofs were absolutely necessary. The name of 
Roger (Skiddy), bishop of Cork and Cloyne, being inscribed on 
the roll, has always tarnished it as apocryphal, as it was not till 
29th October, 1561, he obtained confirmation from the dean and 
chapter, nearly a year after the parliament sat, and on which day 
he also obtained restitution of the temporalities from Queen 
Elizabeth by virtue of which he became a peer of parliament. 
It would certainly be very strange if the chancellor should sum- 
mon to parliament as a spiritual peer, one who, according to the 
construction of the laws of England, was not a full bishop, and 
who only received the queen's letter on 31st July, 1561, directed 
to himself and Sussex, for Skiddy's admission. The bishop of 
Ross is also entered on this roll, being one of those to whom no 
Christian name is prefixed. Ware writes that Dermod Mac 
Domnail died in 1552 ; yet it was a question with him whether 
he did not resign before his death, as he found one John, called 
Bishop of Ross, on the 12th of August, 1551. But this entry 13 
the only mention of such a bishop in any record, and the name 
John is most likely a mistake for Dermod. He gives as his 
successor Thomas O'Herlihy, who was sitting in 1563, having 
assisted at the Council of Trent in that year. We now know 
that O'Herlihy was not appointed by the Pope till December, 
1561, and consequently could not have been present in the par- 
liament of 1560, and although in the interval between Mac Dom- 
nail and O'Herlihy the Pope appointed Maurice O'Fihely and 
Maurice Hea to this see, no one will presume that the latter 
would be summoned, or attend if summoned. In like manner 
we have the " Episcopus" or " Epus.", " Aledenen", i. e. the 
Bishop of Killala. Redmund O'Gallagher had been appointed 
bishop by "the Pope in 1545, by whom he was translated to 
Derry in 1569, and was killed by the English in O'Kane'a 
country, 15th March, 1601. It is utterly incredible that he 
would attend, living so remote from English influence in the 
north-west of Connaught. 

Conceding for a moment that the document is genuine, and 
not fabricated for a special purpose, it affords within itself no 
evidence as to what part any of the lords took on any question 
brought before them, how they voted, content or non-content. 
Some of them may have acquiesced in the surreptitious passing 

38 Correspondence. 

of the act of uniformity; for instance, of the spiritual peers, 
Curwin of Dublin, and Devereux of Ferns ; but it is admitted on 
all hands that two of these named on the roll, namely, Walsh 
of Meath, and Leverous of Kildare, acted quite otherwise. Butler, 
Earl of Ormond, or as he is generally called " Black Tom", may 
have been a supporter of English minions to gratify his revenge 
against Desmond ; but it was a hypocritical support, for when the 
hour of death came, he, like many another unfortunate, died an un- 
worthy member of the Church of Rome. Gerald Earl of Kildare, 
so often in after life suspected and imprisoned by the Dublin cabal, 
the unfortunate Gerald Earl of Desmond, and Eustace Viscount 
Baltinglass, who were the suffering champions of Catholicity, we 
may be assured never revolted against their original principles ; 
in fact Sussex as well as Curwin, as all extant records show, were 
in the then existing uncertainty of the descent of the crown, 
mere temporizers, not knowing how soon Mary Stuart, the de- 
Voted and inflexible adherent of Catholic principles, would be 
queen, and therefore very unlikely to exercise coercive measures. 
But were these lords present, and did they vote ? The former 
is not only the crucial test of the authenticity of this roll, on 
which depends whether it was an after-invention or not, but is 
the sole and real question involved. I have no doubt it is a 
fabrication; the anomalies and mistakes and difficulties as to 
Skiddy and Gallagher are very strong ; but there is one other 
objection which I consider conclusive, and which will require 
great ingenuity to controvert and set aside. One of the tempo- 
ral peers named on this famous roll as being present, was actually 
dead when the parliament sat. The heading of the roll states 
that it sat on the llth of January, in the second year of the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth, that is 1560, as she ascended the 
throne, lYth November, 1558. Now the thirteenth on the list is 
" Ricardus Nugent miles, baro de Delvyn". Turn now to Arch- 
dall's Irish Peerage, vol. i. p. 232, and we find that this Richard 
Nugent, eighth baron of Delvin, made his will 23rd November, 
1559, and that it was found by post mortem inquisition he died 
on the 10th of December, same year. The entry, therefore, of 
his attendance and sitting is false, and from this fatal mistake 
we may judge of the entire document. There could be no mis- 
take about the Christian name ; it is Richard on the roll ; and his 
eldest son and successor was Christopher, only fifteen years old 
at his father's death, who consequently could not sit as a peer. 
Archdall observed this, but merely says that the fact of his 
having died on the 10th December, " proves that the inserting 
his name in this roll, as one of the lords present in the parlia- 
ment held by the Lord Deputy Sussex, 12th January, 1559-60, 
is a mistake". But it was a fortunate mistake for the elucida- 

Liturgical Questions. 39 

tion of truth and exposure of falsehood, no matter how ingeni- 
ously concocted. It is very questionable but the name of Barry, 
lord of Buttevante, is not also fraudulently introduced. It was 
a feudal title ; the preceding peer left daughters, and it was by 
entail James Fitz Richard Barry Roe succeeded his deceased 
cousin, who died in March, 1557, and it was not till 27th April, 
1561, that the former had special livery of the inheritance by 
which he became entitled. But the case of Lord Delvin is 
enough and satisfactory. J. W. H. 


I. A Limerick correspondent asks what is to be understood by 
the formula ob inopiam sacerdotum, which occurs in the petition 
addressed by the Irish bishops to Propaganda, and which seems 
to limit the permission granted by the Holy See for masses de 
Eequiem to be celebrated on doubles praesente cadavere. See 
Irish Ecclesiastical Record, vol. i. page 296. 

To this question we reply : 

1. That this formula having been inserted in the petition of 
our bishops to the Holy See, each bishop is the authentic inter- 
preter of it for his own clergy. 

2. The inopia sacerdotum is not to be too strictly interpreted, 
as if it should necessarily imply the absence of a sufficient num- 
ber of priests to sing a high mass. It is to be understood as the 
normal condition of our parishes and churches, contrasted with 
the facilities for solemn ceremonies which are to be met with in 
continental Catholic countries. 

3. The general scarcity of priests in our Church as contrasted 
with other Catholic countries, oftentimes occasions many diffi- 
culties, which must be taken into account when explaining the 
above formula : for instance, the necessary expense and similar 
inconveniences which might not be compatible with the circum- 
stances of the relatives of the deceased. 

4. The same formula occurs in the permission granted to 
England by rescript of 7th March, 1847. Now it is interpreted 
in England in its widest bearing; and even in religious houses, 
where we should suppose that a sufficient number of priests 
might easily be found, a low mass is said praesente cadavere, in 
accordance with this concession of the Holy See. 

II. A much respected correspondent inquires " if an altar may 
be consecrated in a church which has not yet been consecrated". 

We believe that an altar may be consecrated in a church which 
has not been consecrated. It has been done in the Basilica of St. 
Paul's at Rome. 




Perillustris ac Rme. Domine, 

Quum Sanctissimus Dominus Noster Pius PP. IX. in supremo 
Apostolici Ministerii fastigio Speculator a Deo datus sit domui Israel, 
ideo si ulla sese offerat opportuna occasio, qua veram populi Chris- 
tiani felicitatem promovere, vel mala eidem iam illata ac etiam tan- 
tummodo forsan impendentia agnoscere queat, earn nulla interposita 
mora arripit et amplectitur, ut providentiae et auctoritatis suae stu- 
dium impense collocet, aut aptiora remedia alacriter adhibeat. 

Iam vero in hac tanta temporum rerumque acerbitate nonnisi sin- 
gulari Dei beneficio sibi datum iudicans, quod in proxima festiva 
celebritate centenariae memoriae de glorioso Sanctorum Apostolorurn 
Petri et Pauli martyrio, et canonizationis tot Christianae religionis 
heroum, amplissimam pulcherrimamque solio suo coronam faciant 
nedum S. R. E. Cardinales, sed etiam tot Rmi. Episcopi ex omnibus 
terrarum partibus profecti, periucunda eorumdem praesentia et opera 
sapienter sibi utendum statuit, mandavitque Episcopis in Urbe prae- 
sentibus quasdam proponi quaestiones circa graviora ecclesiasticae dis- 
ciplinae capita, ut de vero illorum statu certior factus, id suo tempore 
decernere valeat, quod in Domino expedire iudicaverit. 

Quae sint huiusmodi disciplinae capita, super quibus ex mandate 
Sanctitatis Suae haec Sacra Concilii Congregatio ab Amplitudine 
Tua relationem et sententiam, quantum ad Tuam Dioecesim pertiriet, 
nunc exquirit, luculenter prostant in syllabo quaestionum quern hie 
adnectimus. Si quid vero aliud forte sit, quod abusum sapiat, aut 
gravem in urgenda sacrorum Canonum executione difficultatem in- 
volvat, Tibi exponere et declarare integrum erit : Apostolica namque 
Sedes, re mature perpensa, succurrere et providere, prout rerum ac 
temporum ratio postulaverit, procul dubio non remorabitur. 

Ne autem ad hanc relationem cumulate perficiendam Domination! 
Tuae congrua temporis commoditas desit, trium vel quatuor, si opus 
fuerit, mensium spatium a die praesentium Literarum conceditur. 
Caeterum eamdem relationem mittendam curabis ad ipsam Sanctita- 
tem Suam, vel ad hanc S. Congregationem. 

Interim impensa animi mei sensa ex corde profiteer Amplitudini 
Tuae, cui fausta quaeque ac salutaria adprecor a Domino. AmplituJinis 

Datum Romae ex S. C. Concilii die 6 Junii 1867. 

Uti Prater 

Documents. 41 

Quaestiones quae ab Apostolica Sede Episcopis proponuntur. 

1. Ultrum accurate serventur canonicae praescriptiones, quibus 
omnino interdicitur, quominus haeretici vel schismatici, in administra- 
tione Baptism!, patrini munere fungantur ? 

2. Quanam forma et quibusnam cautelis probetur libertas status 
pro contrahendis matrimoniis : et utrum ipsimet Episcopo vel eius 
Curiae episcopali reservetur iudicium super status cuiusque contra- 
hentis libertate. Quidnam tandem hac super re denuo sancire expe- 
diret, prae oculis habita Instructione die 21 Augusti 1670 s. m. de- 
mentis X. auctoritate edita ? 

3. Quaenam adhiberi possent remedia ad impedienda mala ex civili 
quod appellant matrimonio provenientia ? 

4. Pluribus in locis, ubi haereses impune grassantur, mixta con- 
nubia ex Summi Pontificis dispensatione quandoque permittuntur, 
sub expressa tamen conditione de praemittendis necessariis oppor- 
tunisque cautionibus, iis praesertim quae naturali ac divino iure in 
hisce connubiis requiruntur. Minime dubitari fas est, quin locorum 
Ordinarii ab huiusmodi contrahendis nuptiis fideles avertant ac de- 
terreant, et tandem, si graves adsint rationes, in exequenda apostolica 
facultate dispensandi super mixtae religionis impedimento, oruni cura 
studioque advigilent, ut dictae conditiones, sicuti par est, in tuto 
ponantur. At enimvero postquam promissae fuerint, sanctene dili- 
genterque adimpleri solent, et quibusnam mediis posset praecaveri, 
ne quis a datis cautionibus servandis temere se subducat ? 

5. Quomodo enitendum, ut in praedicatione verbi Dei sacrae con- 
ciones ea gravitate semper habeantur, ut ab omni vanitatis et novitatis 
spiritu praeserventur immunes, itemque omnis doctrinae ratio, quae 
traditur fidelibus, in verbo Dei reipsa contineatur, ideoque ex Scrip- 
tura et traditionibus, sicut decet, hauriatur ? 

6. Dolendum summopere est, ut populares scholae quae patent 
omnibus cuiusque e populo classis pueris, ac publica universirn insti- 
tuta, quae litteris severioribusque disciplinis tradendis et education! 
iuventutis curandae sunt destinata, eximantur pluribus in locis ab 
Ecclesiae auctoritate moderatrice vi et influxu, plenaque civilis ac 
politicae auctoritatis arbitrio subiiciantur ad imperantium placita et 
ad communium aetatis opinionum amussim : quidnam itaque effici 
posset, quo congruum tanto malo remedium afferatur, et Christifideli- 
bus snppetat Catholicae instructionis et educationis adiumentum ? 

7. Maxime interest, ut adolescentes clerici humanioribus litteris 
severioribusque disciplinis recte imbuantur. Quid igitur praescribi 
posset ad Cleri institutionem magis ac magis fovendam accommoda- 
tum, praesertim ut latinarum litterarum, rationalis philosophiae ab 
omni erroris periculo intaminatae, sanaequetheologiaeiurisquecanonici 
studium in seminariis potissimum dioecesanis floreat ? 

8. Quibusnam mediis excitandi essent clerici, qui praesertim sacer- 
dotio sunt initiati, ut emenso scholarum curriculo, studiis theologicis 
et canonicis impensius vacare non desistant ? Praeterea quid statuen- 
dum efficiendumque, ut qui ad sacros ordines iam promoti, excellen- 
tiori ingeuio praediti, in decurrendis philosophiae ac theologiae stadiia 

42 Documents. 

praestantiores habiti sunt, possint in divinis sacrisque omnibus dis- 
ciplinis et nominatim in divinarum Scripturarum, sanctorum Patrum, 
ecclesiasticae historiae sacrique iuris scientia penitius excoli ? 

9. luxta ea, quae a Concilio Tridentino c. 16, vers. 23 de reform. 
praescribuntur, quicumque ordinatur illi Ecclesia aut pio loco pro 
cuius necessitate aut utilitate assumitur adscribi debet, ubi suis fun- 
gatur muneribus nee incertis vagetur sedibus : quod si locum incon- 
sulto Episcopo deseruerit, ei sacrorum exercitium interdicitur. Hae 
praescriptiones nee plene neque ubique servantur. Quomodo ergo 
his praescriptionibus supplendum, et quid statui posset, ut clerici 
propriae dioecesi servitium, et suo Praesuli reverentiam et obedien- 
tiam continuo praestent ? 

10. Plures prodierunt et in dies prodeunt congregationes et insti- 
tuta virorum et mulierum, qui votis simplicibus obstricti piis mune- 
ribus obeundis se addicunt. Expeditne ut potius congregationes ab 
Apostolica Sede probatae augeantur latius et crescant quam ut novae 
eumdem prope finem habentes constituantur et efformentur ? 

11. Utrum sede episcopali ob mortem vel renunciationem vel 
translationem Episcopi vacante, Capitulum Ecclesiae cathedralis in 
Vicario capitulari eligendo plena libertate fruatur? 

12. Quanam forma indicatur et fiat concursus, qui in provisione 
ecclesiarum parochialium peragi debet iuxta decretum Concilii Tri- 
dentini sess. 24, de reform, c. 18, et Constitutionem Bene- 
dict! XIV. quae die 14 Decembris 1742 data incipit Cum illud. 

13. Utrum et quomodo expediret numerum caussarum augere, 
quibus parochi ecclesiis suis iure privari possunt : nee non et proce- 
dendi formam laxius praestituere, qua ad huiusmodi privationes faci- 
lius, salva iustitia, possit deveniri ? 

14. Quomodo executioni traditur quod de suspensionibus ex infor- 
mata conscientia vulgo dictis decernitur a Concilio Tridentino c. 1, 
sess. 14 de reformat. Et circa huius decreti sensum et applicationem 
estne aliquid animadvertendum ? 

15. Quonam modo Episcopi iudiciariam qua pollent potestatem in 
cognoscendis caussis ecclesiasticis, potissimum matrimonialibus, exer- 
ceant, et quanam procedendi atque appellationes interponendi 
methodo utantur ? 

16. Quaenam mala proveniant ex domestico famulatu, quern fami- 
liis Catholicis praestant personae vel sectis proscriptis vel haeresi 
addictae vel etiam non baptizatae : et quodnam hisce malis posset 
opportune remedium afferri ? 

17. Quidnam circa sacra coemeteria adnotandum sit : quinam hac 
de re abusus irrepserint et quomodo tolli possent ? 


Venerabiles Fratree, 

Universus catholicus orbis noscit, Venerabiles Fratres, maxima 
damna, grayissimasque injurias Catholicae Ecclesiae, Nobis, et huic 

Docwnents. 43 

Apostolicae Sedi, Episcopis, Sacrisque Administris, Religiosis utri- 
usque sexus Familiis, aliisque piis Institutis a Subalpiuo Gubernio 
pluribus abhinc annis illatas, omnibus divinis humanisque juribus 
conculcatis, et ecclesiasticis poenis, ac censuris plane despectis, que- 
madmodum saepe lamentari, et reprobare coacti fuimus. Idem vero 
Gubernium quotidie magis vexans Ecclesiam, eamque opprimere con- 
tendens post alias editas leges ipsi, ej usque auctoritati adversas, et 
iccirco a Nobis damnatas, eo injustitiae devenit, ut minime exhor- 
ruerit legem proponere, approbare, sancire, et promulgare, quae in 
suis, et usurpatis regionibus temerario, ac sacrilego prorsus ausu 
Ecclesiam propriis omnibus bonis cum ingenti ipsius quoque civilis 
societatis damno spoliavit, sibique vindicavit, et eadem bona ven- 
denda constituit. Omnes profecto vident quam injusta, et quam 
immanis sit haec lex, qua et inviolabile possidendi jus, quo Ecclesia 
ex divina sua instutione pollet, oppugnatur, et omnia naturalia divina 
et humana jura proculcantur, omnes utriusque Cleri viri de re catho- 
lica, et humana societate optime meriti, et Virgines Deo sacrae ad 
ad tristissimam egestatem, ac mendicitatem rediguntur. 

In tanta igitur Ecclesiae ruina, omniumque jurium eversione Nos, 
qui ipsius Ecclesiae, et justitiae causam pro supremi Apostolici Nostri 
ministerii officio studiosissime tueri, defendere et vindicare debemus, 
nullo certe modo silere possumus. Itaque in hoc amplissimo vestro 
eonventu Nostram extollimus vocem, et commemoratam legem auc- 
toritate Nostra Apostolica reprobamus, damnamus, eamque omnino 
irritam, et nullam declaramus. Ipsius autem legis auctores, et fau- 
tores sciant se misere incidisse in ecclesiasticas poenas, et censuras, 
quas Sacri Canones, Apostolicae Constitutiones, et Generalium Con- 
ciliorum Decreta ipso facto incurrendas infligunt contra Ecclesiae, 
ejusque jurium, ac bonorum usurpatores, et invasores. Paveant 
insuper et contremiscant hi acerrimi Ecclesiae hostes, ac pro certo 
habeant, gravissimas, severissimasque eis a Deo Ecclesiae sanctae 
auctore et vindice poenas parari, nisi vere poenitentes redierint ad 
cor, et illata eidem Ecclesia damna resarcire, ac reparare studuerint, 
quemadmodum Nos vel maxime optamus, et a iniserationum Domino 
humiliter enixeque exposcimus. 

Hac autem occasione sciatis velimus, Venerabiles Fratres, men- 
dacem quemdam libellum gallice scriptum et Parisiis recens editum 
fuisse, quo cum summa perfidia, et impudentia in lectoris animum 
dubia insinuantur, ut luctuosissimae rerum in Mexico vicissitudines 
huic Apostolicae Sedi aliquo modo attribuendae sint. Quod quidem 
quam falsum, quam absurdum sit, omnes certe noscunt, atque id luce 
clarius apparet, inter alia documenta, ex epistola Nobis die XVIII 
superioris mensis Junii ab infelicissimo Maximiliano in carcere scripta, 
antequam indignam et crudelem mortem obiret. 

Hanc ipsam vero nacti opportunitatem continere non possumus, 
quin meritas, amplissimasque laudes tribuamus clarissimae memoriae 
Ludovico Altieri, Sanctae Eomanae Ecclesiae Cardinali, et Albani 
Episcopo. Ipse enim, ut optime nostis, summo loco natus claris vir- 
tutibus ornatus, gravissimisque muneribus perfunctus, Nobisque 

44 Notices of Books. 

cams, ubi primum accepit horrificum cholerae morbum Albanum 
grassari, sui omnino immemor et caritatis aestu in commissum sibi 
gregem flagrans, illuc statim advolavit. Ac nullis iaboribus, nullis 
consiliis, nullisque incommodis, et periculis parcens, dies noctesque 
sine mora et requie miseros infirmos, et moribundos spiritualibus qui- 
busque praesidiis, et omni alia ope suis propriis manibus juvare refi- 
cere ac solari nunquam cessavit, donee horribili morbo correptus, 
veluti bonus pastor dedit aniraam suam pro ovibus suis. Equidem 
illius memoria in Ecclesiae fastis semper in benedictione erit quando- 
quidem christianae caritatis victima fortunatam obiit mortem, et 
maximam ac nunquam interituram gloriam sibi, Ecclesiae ac nobilis- 
simo vestro, omniumque catholicorum Antistitum Ordini comparavit. 
Nos quidem etiamsi gravi moerore affecti fuerimus, vix dum ejusdem 
Cardiualis obitum audivimus, tamen magna consolatione sustentamur, 
quod certam spem habemus, illius animam ad coelestem patriam per- 
venisse, ibique in Domino exultare, ac fervidas Deo pro Nobis, Vobis- 
que, et universa Ecclesia preces offere. Debitam quoque laudem 
tribuimus utrique Albani Clero, qui illustria sui Antistitis vestigia 
sequens cum ipsius vitae discrimine omnem, religiosam praesertim, 
operam aegrotantibus, morientibusque sedulo narare non destitit. 
Omnibus etiam praeconiis digni sunt Nostri milites ibi morantes turn 
a publica securitate servanda, vulgo Gendarmi, turn qui Zuavi appel- 
lantur ; nam vitae periculo plane spreto, in defunctorum potissimum 
humandis corporibus praeclarum christianae caritatis praebuerunt 

Denique, Venerabiles Fratres, ne desistamus levare animas nostras 
ad Dominum Deum Nostrum, qui est multae miericordiae omnibus 
invocantibus eum et Ipsum jugiter oremus, et obsecremus, ut strerme 
Vobiscum stantes in praelio, atque opponentes murum pro domo 
Israel, Ecclesiae suae sanctae causam viriliter propugnare, et omnes 
Ecclesiae inimicos ad justitiae, salutisque semitas reducere possimus. 


The MacG-illicuddy Papers, etc., by W. Maziere Brady, D.D. 
London: Longman, 18 57. 

This work contains extracts from the family papers of the 
MacGillicuddy, and affords a valuable and trustworthy illustra- 
tion of the means by which family estates were preserved despite 
the persecution of Elizabeth and the confiscations of succeeding 
reigns. In 1718 the heir to that graat name signed the renun- 
ciation of the faith of his fathers : he thus improved his temporal 
estate, but lost all claim to the consideration and esteem of thig 
Catholic nation. 

Notices of Books. 45 


Familiar Discourses to the Young, etc., by a Catholic Priest, 

Duffy, 1867. 

We heartily commend this volume to our readers. The ex- 
hortations which it contains embrace the chief points of instruc- 
tion which are needed by the young of every grade. Parents 
as well as children those who are advanced in years, as well as 
the young who are beginning life's battle, will find much to 
edify and instruct them. The volume displays throughout a 
depth of piety and learning seldom to be met with under such an 
unpretending title. 


The Life and Letters of Florence Mac Carthy Reagh, etc., by 
Daniel Mac Carthy. London: Longmans, 1867. 

Mr. Mac Carthy in this work has rendered good service to our 
national history. Though he merely claims to present to us the 
life of an individual, he gives in reality the history of Ireland at 
a period of thrilling interest. Florence Mac Carthy, tanist of 
Carbery, was one of the chief opponents of Elizabethan rule in 
Ireland, and was one of those most feared by the English agents 
in this country towards the close of her reign. Hitherto his his- 
tory was scarcely known to us except through the pages of the 
Hibernia Pacata; and even in this prejudiced narrative of an 
open enemy, Florence Mac Carthy was found to display unusual 
abilities, and a military genius of the highest order. The pre- 
sent life is derived from the original State Papers and other 
authentic sources. It presents in detail the chief events of the 
war in Munster towards the close of Elizabeth's reign, and un- 
folds to us in the fullest light, that dauntless courage and con- 
summate skill which gave the stamp of heroism to the character 
of this Irish chieftain, and proves him to have been justly beloved 
by the people whilst he was the terror of the enemies of Ireland. 
The whole volume is an exhaustless mine of thrilling incidents 
and important details connected with the history of Ireland in 
Elizabeth's reign. 


Evangelia Dominicarum et Festorum totius anni, homiliticis ex- 
plicationibus secundum mentem SS. Patrum et Catholioorum 
interpretum illustrata, opera Francisci Xaverii Schouppe, S. J. 
Bruxellis, torn. i. ii. pp. 501, 494. 

This is one of the many useful compilations for which the 
clergy have reason to be grateful to F. Schouppe. It is intended 
as a companion book to the A djumenta Oratoris Sacri, of which 

46 Notices of Books. 

we gave some account to our readers last year. It does not con- 
tain set discourses methodically arranged, but rather gives a full 
exposition of the text, in order that the preacher may, by his 
own labour, construct therefrom his sermons for the people. 

The sources whence the explanation is derived are the works 
of the Holy Fathers, and of approved Catholic commentators, 
such as Toletus, Maldonatus, Lucas Brugeusis, A Lapide, 
Patrizi, etc. The moral or tropological sense is generally drawn 
from the meditations of Lud. de Ponte. Each Gospel has 
annexed to it a double explanation, the first according to the 
literal sense, the second according to the mystic and accommo- 
dated senses. 

An Introduction on the various senses of Scripture, a summary 
of the Gospel History, and an interesting table of the distances 
of the various places visited by our Lord in His journeyings on 
earth, contribute to make this excellent work still more complete 
and useful. 


Romanus Pontifex, tanquam Primas Ecclesiae et Princeps civilis 
e monumentis Omnium Seculorum demonstratur, addita amplis- 
sima litleratura, auctore, Augustino de Roskovany Episcopo 
Nitriensi: Nitriae, 1867. 5 vols. 

This valuable collection of documents from the Scripture, the 
Fathers, the letters and decrees of the Popes, declarations of coun- 
cils, bishops, and sovereigns, supplies the student with the ground- 
work of the entire treatise De Romano Pontifice. The literature, or 
list of books on the subject, in each age, which is subjoined, renders 
it easy to appreciate the relative value of each of the documents 
themselves. Vol. i., contains the documents and literature of the 
first fifteen centuries regarding the primacy; vol. ii., those of the 
sixteenth and seventeenth ; vol. iii., of the eighteenth ; vol. iv., of 
the nineteenth, down to 1865 ; and vol. v., those concerning the 
temporal power from the fourth century to the year 1865 of the 


The Diocese of Meath, Ancient and Modern, by the Rev. A. 

Cogan, vol. ii. Dublin, 1867. 

We congratulate the Rev. Mr. Cogan on having brought to a 
happy conclusion the second volume of his History of the 
Diocese of Meath. No one seems better suited than the author 
to achieve the great work which he proposed to himself. With 
untiring industry he examined every record connected with his 
subject: continual references to communications received from 
others, show that he spared no trouble to seek at the hands of 

Notices of Books. 47 

others particular items which their researches might have gleaned : 
he consulted the local clergy and the aged parishioners of each 
district: he visited the crosses, the holy wells, the ruined 
churches, the places of refuge hallowed by sacred traditions, the 
secluded spots where the Holy Sacrifice was offered up by 
stealth in the days of persecution ; and in a lively style presents 
to us the results of his investigations. 

He resumes the history of the bishops of Meath with Dr. 
William Walsh, who being appointed in 1554, braved the fury 
of Elizabethan bigotry, and in penalty was deprived of the tem- 
poralities of his see. For some years after his demise the adminis- 
tration of the diocese was entrusted to the care of vicars general 
till the consec. ation of Dr. Thomas Dease, on the 14th of May, 
1622. As early as 1611 he had been summoned to that dignity 
by Rome, but declined to accept it. He regarded, however, the 
second summons to it as a command, and courageously entered 
on the perilous duties imposed on him. Many interesting facts 
connected with him are given to us by Father Cogan, but there 
are some features of his public career which, we think, might be 
placed in a clearer light. The lives of the succeeding bishops, An- 
thony Mac Geoghegan, Patrick Plunket, James Cusack, Patrick 
Tyrrell, etc., are all treated with a master's hand ; but by far the 
most valuable contribution to our ecclesiastical history contained 
in the present volume are the original papers now published for the 
first time, connected with the episcopate of Dr. Patrick Joseph 
Plunket, a name still familiar to the more aged of our clergy. 
Our limits will not allow us for the present to enter into further 
details, but we trust we have said enough to awaken the interest 
of our readers, and we sincerely hope that the learned author 
will soon favour us with the third volume of his valuable work. 


When does the Church speak infallibly ? or the Nature and Scope 
of the Church's Teaching Office, by Thomas Francis Knox, of 
the Oratory. London: Burns, Oates, and Co., 1867, pp. 92. 

In the brief preface prefixed to this book, the reverend author 
modestly disclaims for it all pretensions to be a theological and 
scientific treatise. And yet, we believe that it will be highly 
esteemed by those who value theology, and by all who are trained 
to scientific method. The work is addressed to Catholics who 
as such believe in an infallible Church. Taking the infallibility 
of the Church as the starting point, it addresses itself to various 
questions concerning the subject, the object-matter of infallibility, 
and concerning the way in which the Church teaches. These 
questions are as follows : 

48 Notices of Books. 

1. What is the subjept of the Church's infallibility as teacher 
i.e., in what person or persons does her gift of teaching with 
infallibility reside ? 

2. What is the object-matter of her infallibility i.e., what 
precisely is the sphere within which she teaches infallibly ? 

3. In what way does she exercise her office as teacher ? 

4. What are the nature and character of her doctrinal con- 

5. What obligation does her teaching lay upon the faithful ? 

In replying to these questions the author displays much judg- 
ment and learning. Under the second question he considers as 
objects of infallibility 1, truths explicitly or implicitly contained 
in the original revelation ; 2, general principles of morality, if 
any, not contained in the deposit ; 3, dogmatic and moral facts 
under which come a. the meaning of books in relation to faith ; 
b. canonization of saints ; c. general ecclesiastical discipline and 
worship; d. approbation of religious orders; e. condemnation of 
secret and other societies, education, particular moral facts ; 4, 
political truths and principles; 5, theological conclusions; 6, 
philosophy and natural sciences. 

In conclusion the author offers a few brief remarks on the prac- 
tical bearing of the subject of which he has been treating. As 
a convenient mode of doing this he chooses the form of answers 
to objections which may suggest themselves against the doctrine 
he has set forth. We make room for one of these remarks : 

4< First, then, it may be said, that to oblige Catholics under pain of 
mortal sin to submit their intellect to the Church's teaching on a 
variety of matters philosophical, political, scientific, and the like, 
which are only remotely connected with faith and morals, is to lay 
upon them an intolerable burden, such as will crush out all activity 
of mind, and be a perpetual hamper to them in all scientific re- 
searches. To this objection it may be answered, that it really begs 
the question ; for all its force comes from the implied assumption that 
the Church is not infallible in such matters. If she is infallible, as 
she claims by her acts to be, what she teaches concerning these things 
is absolute truth. And no addition to our stock of truth, whenceso- 
ever it comes, and on whatever grounds it rests, can justly be regarded 
as an intellectual burden. On the contrary, it is an intellectual benefit, 
as tending to clear our views, to save us from possible errors, and to 
advance us in the pursuit of truth. The difficulty is at bottom pre- 
cisely the same as that which non-Catholics feel about the Church's 
teaching in matters of faith. To them it seems a tyranny in her to 
oblige reasonable beings to believe dogmas which do not rest for their 
evidence on natural reason". 



NOVEMBER, 1867. 


NO. Y. 

" READER, you are beginning to suspect us. ' How long do we 
purpose to detain people ?' For anything that appears we may 

be designing to write on to the twentieth century ' And 

whither are we going?' Towards what object? which is as 
urgent a quaere as how far. Perhaps we may be leading you 

into treason You feel symptoms of doubt and restiveness ; 

and like Hamlet with his father's ghost, you will follow us no 
further unless we explain what it is that we are in quest of". 

These words of Thomas De Quincey to his readers in the 
middle of one of his discursive essays, which, interesting as they 
certainly are in all their parts, yet sometimes beget a feeling of 
weariness from the uncomfortable apprehension that they will 
never come to an end, are, perhaps, scarcely less appropriate in 
our own case. It may be that our readers have been left too 
long in the uneasy state of suspense and hope deferred. They 
came to our pages to look for a practical solution of the question, 
Is Geology at variance with the Bible ? and what avails it, they 
may ask, to discourse to them of the Gulf Stream, and Rivers, 
and Glaciers, and Alluvial Plains, and Coral Rocks, and Coal 
Mines? Month after month they have been following us with 
painful steps through tedious disquisitions, straining their eyes 
to see the end, but the end is not yet in sight. Well, then, 
if they will rest for a few minutes by the way, we will pause, too, 
and tell them what we are about, and try to bring more clearly 
before their minds the object at which we are aiming. 

VOL. IY. 4 

50 Geology and Revelation. 

Our design from the beginning was to consider the points of 
contact between Geology and Revelation ; to examine the rela- 
tions that exist between these two departments of knowledge, 
one resting upon reason and observation, the other given to us 
from Heaven ; and to inquire how far it may be possible to adopt 
the conclusions of the former, while we adhere, at the same time, 
with unswerving fidelity, to the unchangeable truths of the latter. 
With this end in view, we proceeded at once to sketch out the 
more prominent features of Geological theory ; not the particular 
theory of one writer, or of one school, but that more general 
theory which is adopted by all writers, and prevails in every 
school. This theory, we were well aware, is in many points 
widely at variance with the common notions of sensible and even 
well-informed men who have not devoted much attention to the 
study of Physical science. And it occurred to us that, possibly, 
many of our readers might be disposed to cut the controversy 
short, by rejecting in a summary way the whole system of Geo- 
logy, and treating it as an empty shadow or an idle dream. 
This, we were convinced, would be a mistaken and a mischiev- 
ous course. Geology is not a house of cards that it may be 
blown down by a breath. It is a hypothesis, a theory, if you 
will: but we cannot in fairness deny that behind this theory 
there are facts, unexpected, startling, significant facts; that 
these facts, when considered in their relations to one another, 
and when illustrated by the present phenomena of Nature, and 
when skilfully grouped together, as they have been, by able men, 
disclose certain general truths, and suggest certain arguments, 
which do seem to point in the direction of those conclusions at 
which Geologists have arrived. 

If, therefore, we would investigate fairly the claims of Geology, 
we must first learn to appreciate the significance of these facts, 
and to estimate the value of these arguments. Now this is pre- 
cisely what we have been trying to do. We are not writing a 
treatise on Geology. Certainly not : it would be a presumption 
in us, with our scanty knowledge, to attempt it. Besides, 
Geology has its own professors, and its lecture halls, and its 
manuals. Neither do we mean to assume the character of the 
advocates or champions of Geology. It does not ask our services ; 
in its cause are enrolled the most illustrious names which for the 
last fifty years have adorned the annals of Physical Science. 
Nay, we do not even want to insist upon that more general 
theory of Geology which we are endeavouring to explain and to 
illustrate. We propose only to collect from various sources, and 
to string together the evidence that may be adduced in its 
favour ; that so, when we come hereafter to consider this theory 
in its relation with the History of the Bible, we may not incur 

Reasoning of Geologists. 51 

the risk of discomfiture by denying that which has been proved 
by facts, but rather approach the subject with such knowledge 
as may help us to discover the real harmony, that we know must 
exist between the truths inscribed on the works of God, and 
those which are recorded in His Written Word. 

In the accomplishment of this task we have devoted ourselves 
chiefly to the study of the Aqueous or Stratified Rocks. Ac- 
cording to Geologists, these rocks, such as we find them now, 
were not the immediate work of creation, but were slowly pro- 
duced in the lon^ lapse of ages, and laid out one above another, 
by a vast and complex machinery of secondary causes. The 
elements of which they are composed were gathered together 
from many and various sources; sometimes from the ocean, 
sometimes from the air, sometimes from other pre-existing rocks ; 
and, for aught we know, may have had a long and eventful his- 
tory before they came to assume their present structure and 
arrangement. Thus, for example, the Conglomerates, and Sand- 
stones, with which we are so familiar, are made up of broken 
fragments derived from earlier rocks, and then transported to 
distant sites by the mountain torrents, or the stately rivers of 
vast continents, or the silent currents of the sea ; the Limestone 
with which we build our houses is the work of living animals 
that once swarmed in countless myriads beneath the waters of 
the ocean ; and the Coal which supplies the motive power to our 
manufactories, our railways, our ships of war and commerce, is 
but the modern representative of ancient swamps and forests, 
which, having been buried in the earth, and there, by the action 
of chemical laws, endowed with new properties, were laid by for 
the future use of man in the great storehouse of Nature. 

This mode of accounting for the origin and formation of Stra- 
tified Rocks constitutes in a manner the framework that supports 
and binds together the whole system of Geology. If it be once 
fairly established, Geology is entitled to take high rank as a 
Physical Science. If on the contrary it should prove to be with- 
out foundation, then Geology is no longer a science, but a dream. 
Moreover, it is this theory of stratification which, from the first, 
has brought Geology into contact with Revelation. For Geologists 
have been led to infer the extreme Antiquity of the Earth, from 
the immense thickness of the Stratified Rocks on the one hand, 
and, on the other, the very slow and gradual process by which 
each stratum in the series has been in its turn, spread out and con- 
solidated. Those likewise who claim for the Human Race a greater 
Antiquity than the Bible allows, seek for their proofs in the sup- 
posed origin and antiquity of those surperficial deposits, in which 
the remains of Man or his works are sometimes found entombed. 

It is not to be wondered at, therefore, that the theory of 


52 Geology and Revelation. 

Stratified Rocks should engage the largest share of our attention 
when we undertake to discuss the relations of Geology to Re- 
vealed Religion. For the present we say nothing about the 
conclusions that flow from this theory, or the errors to which it 
has led when hastily or ignorantly applied : we are only investi- 
gating the evidence by which it is supported. In our former papers 
we have drawn out at some length the line of reasoning which 
is derived from the character of the Aqueous Rocks themselves, 
when considered in the light of Nature's present operations. We 
have shown that Stratified Rocks of many different kinds, just such 
as those which compose the Crust of the Earth, have been pro- 
duced by natural causes within historic times ; and we have ex- 
plained some of the more simple and intelligible parts of that 
complex machinery, which, even now, is busily at work gather- 
ing, sorting, distributing, piling up together, and consolidating 
the materials of new strata all over the world. These considera- 
tions, we took occasion to point out, beget a strong presumption 
in favour of the Geological theory. Here we have Nature at 
work, actually bringing into existence a stratum of rock before 
our eyes. And there, in the Crust of the Earth, we find another 
stratum of precisely the same kind already finished. What can 
be more reasonable than to ascribe the one to the action of the 
same causes which we see at work upon the other? And thus, 
by extending the area of our observations from one class of 
Aqueous Rocks to another, the idea gradually grows upon us 
that these rocks have been spread out, stratum upon stratum, 
during many successive ages, by the agency of secondary causes 
similar to those which are still in operation ; and that each stra- 
tum, in its turn, as it first came into existence, was for a time the 
uppermost of the series. 

We are now about to consider a new and independent testi- 
mony in favour of this conclusion. It is the testimony of Fossil 
Remains. On this branch of our subject we do not mean to offer 
.much in the way of argument strictly so called.- We shall con- 
.tent ourselves with a simple statement of facts, and leave them 
to produce their own impression. It will be necessary at the out- 
set to explain some technical matters, that what we have to say 
hereafter may be the better understood : and if in this we are 
somewhat dry and tiresome, we will try to make amends by the 
curious and interesting story of Nature's long buried works, 
which we hope in the sequel to unfold. 

When the word Fossil was first introduced into the English 
language, it was employed to designate, as the etymology sug- 
gests, whatever is dug out of the earth. 1 But it is now generally 
1 From the Latin Fossilis, dug up, homfodio, to dig. 

Reasoning of Geologists. 53 

used in a much more restricted sense, being applied only to the 
remains of plants and animals imbedded in the Crust of the Earth 
and there preserved by natural causes. When we speak of 
remains, we must be understood to include even those seemingly 
transient impressions, such as foot-prints in the sand, which 
having been made permanent by accidental circumstances, and 
thus engraved, as it were, on the archives of Nature, now bear 
witness to the former existence of organic life. 

Now in every part of the world where the Stratified Rocks 
have been laid open to view, remains of this kind are found scat- 
tered on all sides in the most profuse abundance. In Europe, in 
America, in Australia, in the frozen wastes of Siberia, in the 
countless islands scattered over the waters of the Pacific, there is 
scarcely a single formation, from the lowest in the series to the 
highest, that, when it is fairly explored, does not yield up vast 
stores of shells, together with bones and teeth, and sometimes 
whole skeletons of animals, and fragments of wood, and impres- 
sions of leaves, and other organic substances. 

These Fossil Remains do not always occur in the same state 
of preservation. Sometimes we have the bone, or plant, or 
shell, in its natural condition; still retaining not only its own 
peculiar form and structure, but likewise the very same organic 
substance of which it was originally composed. Examples innu- 
merable may be seen in the British Museum, or, indeed, in 
almost any Geological collection: the noble skeleton of an 
ancient Irish Elk, which stands erect in the Museum of Irish 
Industry, and of which all the bones are perfectly preserved, 
must be familiar to many of our readers. 

It happens, however, more frequently that the organic sub- 
stance itself has disappeared, but has left an impression on the 
rock, that now bears witness to its former presence. Thus, for 
instance, when a shell has been dissolved and carried away by 
water percolating the rock, it has very often left after it, on the 
hard stone, a mould of its outer surface and a cast of its inner 
surface, with a cavity between corresponding to the thickness of 
the shell. In such cases we have the form, the size, and the 
superficial markings of the organic body, but we have no part of 
its original substance, and no traces of its internal structure. 
This form of fossilization, as Sir Charles Lyell has well put it, 
" may be easily understood if we examine the mud recently 
thrown out from a pond or canal in which there are shells. If 
the mud be argillaceous, it acquires consistency in drying, and 
on breaking open a portion of it, we find that each shell has left 
impressions of its external form. If we then remove the shell 
itself we find within a solid nucleus of clay, having the form of 
the interior of the shell". 1 In many cases the space first occu- 
1 Elements of Geology, p. 38. 

54 Geology and Revelation. 

pied by the shell is not left empty when the shell has been 
removed, but is filled up with a calcareous, or siliceous, or some 
other mineral substance. The mineral thus introduced becomes 
the exact counterpart of the organic body which has disappeared ; 
and has been justly compared to a bronze statue, which exhibits 
the exterior form and lineaments, but not the internal organiza- 
tion nor the substance of the object it represents. 

There is a third form, more wonderful still, in which Fossil 
Remains are not uncommonly found. The original body has 
passed away as in the former case, and yet not only does its out- 
ward form remain, but even its internal texture is perfectly pre- 
served in the solid stone which has taken its place. This kind 
of change is exhibited most remarkably in the vegetable king- 
dom. Fossil trees of great size are formed, of which the whole 
substance has been changed from wood to stone; yet so, that the 
minute cells and fibres, and the rings of annual growth, may still 
be clearly traced ; nay, even those delicate spiral vessels which, 
from their extreme minuteness, can be discerned only by the aid 
of the microscope. 1 Thus the tree remains complete in all its 
parts ; but it is no longer a tree of wood ; it is, so to speak, a tree 
of stone. 

The mystery of this extraordinary transformation has not yet 
been fully cleared up by scientific men ; but the general princi- 
ple, at least, is sufficiently understood. It is thus briefly ex- 
plained by Sir Charles Lyell: "If an organic substance is 
exposed in the open air to the action of the sun and rain, it will 
in time putrefy, or be dissolved into its component elements, 
consisting usually of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon. 
These will readily be absorbed by the atmosphere or be washed 
away by rain, so that all vestiges of the dead animal or plant 
disappear. But if the same substances be submerged in water, 
they decompose more gradually, and if buried in the earth, still 
more slowly, as in the iamiliar example of wooden piles or other 
buried timber. Now, if as fast as each particle is set free by 
putrefaction in a fluid or gaseous state, a particle equally minute 
of carbonate of lime, flint, or other mineral is at hand and ready 
to be precipitated, we may imagine this inorganic matter to take 
the place just before left unoccupied by the organic molecule. 
In this manner a cast of the interior of certain vessels may first 
be taken, and afterwards the more solid walls of the same may 
decay and suffer a like transmutation". 2 This exposition, so 
simple and luminous in itself, may, perhaps, be rendered still 
more intelligible to the general reader by an ingenious illustra- 
tion of Mr. Jukes. " It is", he says, " as if a house were gra- 
dually rebuilt, brick by brick, or stone by stone, a brick or a 

J Lyell, Elements of Geology, p. 39. 2 Id., ib., p. 40. 

Reasoning of Geologists. 55 

stone of a different kind having been substituted for each of the 
former ones, the shape and size of the house, the forms and 
arrangements of its rooms, passages, and closets, and even the 
number and shape of the bricks and stones, remaining un- 
altered". 1 

This singular kind of petrifaction, by which not only the ex- 
ternal form, but even the organic tissue itself, is converted into 
stone, has been illustrated, in a very interesting way by Profes* 
sor Goppert of Breslau. With a view to imitate as nearly as he 
could the process of Nature, " he steeped a variety of animal and 
vegetable substances in waters, some holding siliceous, others 
calcareous, others metallic matter in solution. He found that in 
the period of a few weeks, or even days, the organic bodies thus 
immersed were mineralized to a certain extent. Thus, for ex- 
ample, thin vertical slices of deal, taken from the Scotch fir, 
were immersed in a moderately strong solution of sulphate of 
iron. When they had been thoroughly soaked in the liquid for 
several days, they were dried and exposed to a red heat until the 
vegetable matter was burnt up and nothing remained but an 
oxide of iron, which was found to have taken the form of the 
deal so exactly that casts even of the dotted vessels peculiar to 
this family of plants, were distinctly visible under the micros- 
cope". 2 

If we have succeeded in making ourselves understood, the 
reader will now have a pretty accurate notion of what is meant, 
in modern Geology, by Fossil Remains. They are the remains 
or impressions of plants and animals, buried in the earth by 
natural causes, and preserved to our time in any one of the three 
forms we have just described. Either the body itself remains, 
still retaining its own natural substance, together with its exter- 
nal form and its internal structure ; or secondly, the organic sub- 
stance and the organic structure have both disappeared, but the 
outward form and the superficial markings have been left im- 
pressed on the solid rock ; or thirdly, the substance of the body 
has been converted into stone, but with such a delicate art and 
with such exquisite skill, that it is in all respects, outwardly and 
inwardly, still the same body with a new substance. We should 
observe, however, that these three different forms of fossilization, 
which we have successively described, are not always clearly dis- 
tinct in the actual fossil specimens, but are often curiously 
blended together according as the original organic substance has 
been more or less completely displaced, or the process of petri- 
faction has been more or less perfectly accomplished. 

1 Jukes, Manual of Geology, p. 375. 
8 Lyell, Elements oj Geology, pp. 40-41. 

56 Geology and Revelation. 

It will probably have occurred to the intelligent reader that 
we have already had some insight into the Fossil world, when 
investigating the origin of Organic Rocks. We have seen, for 
instance, that Coal is the representative to our age of swamps and 
forests that once covered the earth with vegetation ; that Moun 
tain Limestone is chiefly formed from the skeletons of reef-build- 
ing corals; and that the great Chalk strata of Europe are 
almost entirely derived from the remains of marine shells. But 
we must observe that these and such like rocks, while they 
afford us much valuable information about the ancient organic 
condition of our planet, are not, strictly speaking, Fossil Re- 
mains. For, not only has the substance of the organic bodies 
they represent entirely passed away, but the internal structure 
has been in great part effaced, and even the outward forms and 
superficial markings have disappeared. They contain, it is true, 
great multitudes of Fossils : in the Coal, for example, are found, 
as we have seen, trunks of trees, together with the impressions 
of plants and leaves; in the Chalk and Mountain Limestone, 
fragments of shells and corals are often discovered in a state of 
perfect preservation : but the great bulk of these formations is 
made up not so much of Fossil Remains, as of that into which 
Fossil Remains have been converted ; Coal, for instance, is some- 
thing more than Fossil wood; Chalk, and Limestone, and 
Marble, are something more than Fossil shells and corals. 

He who would impress upon his mind a vivid and accurate 
idea of the nature and variety of Fossil Remains, must not be 
content with any mere verbal description, but try to gather his 
impressions from actual observation. Let him go, for instance, 
to the British Museum, and walk slowly through the long suite 
of noble galleries which are exclusively devoted to this branch 
of science. He will feel as if transported into another world, 
the reality of which he could scarcely have believed if he had 
not seen it with his own eyes. Before him, and behind him, and 
on each side of him, as he moves along, are spread out in long 
array forms of beasts, and birds, and fish, and amphibious animals, 
such as he has never seen before, nor dreamt of in his wildest 
dreams. Yet much as he may wonder at these strange figures, 
he never for a moment doubts that they were once indued with 
life, and moved over the surface of the earth, or disported in the 
waters of the deep. Nay more, though the forms are new to 
him, he will be at no loss, however inexperienced in Natural 
History, to find many analogies between the creation in the 
midst of which he stands and that with which he has been 
hitherto familiar. There are quadrupeds, and bipeds, and rep- 
tiles. Some of the animals were manifestly designed to walk 
on dry land, some to swim in the sea, and some to fly in the 

Reasoning of Geologists. 57 

air. Some are armed with claws like the lion or the tiger, 
others have the paddles of a turtle, and others again have the 
iins of a fish. Here is an enormous beast that might almost 
pass for an elephant, though an experienced eye will not fail to 
detect an important difference ; and there is an amphibious mon- 
ster that suggests the idea of a crocodile; and again a little 
further is an unsightly creature which unites the general charac- 
teristics of the diminutive sloth with the colossal proportions of 
the largest rhinoceros. 

If left to mere conjecture, the visitor would perhaps suppose 
that these uneouth monsters had been brought together by some 
adventurous traveller from the remote regions of the world. But 
no: he will find on inquiry that the vast majority belong to 
species which for centuries have not been known to flourish on 
the Earth ; and that many of the strangest forms before him 
have been dug up almost from beneath the very soil on which 
he stands, from the quarries of Surrey, of Sussex, and of Kent, 
and from the deep cuttings on the many lines of railway that 
diverge from the great metropolis of London. The life they 
represent so vividly is, indeed, widely different from that which 
flourishes around us ; but it is the life not so much of a far dis- 
tant country, as the life of a far distant age. 

It must not be supposed, however, that such skeletons as those 
which first arrest the eye in the galleries of the British Museum 
so colossal in their proportions and so complete in all their 
details fairly exhibit the general character of Fossil Remains. 
Perfect skeletons of gigantic animals are rarely to be found. 
They are the exception and not the general rule, the magnifi- 
cent reward of long and toilsome exploration, or. it may bo, the 
chance discovery that brings wealth to the humble home of 
some rustic labourer. Very different are the common every day 
discoveries of the working Geologist. Disjointed bones and 
skulls, and scattered teeth, and fragments of shells, and the eggs 
of birds, and the impressions of leaves, these are the ordinary 
relics that Nature has stored up for our instruction in the various 
strata of the Earth's Crust : and these likewise constitute by far 
the greater part of the treasures which are gathered together in 
our Geological Museums. 

We will, suppose, then, that the visitor has gratified his sense 
of wonder in gazing at the larger and more striking forms, few 
in number, that rise up prominently before him, and seem to 
stare at him in return from their hollow sockets : he must next 
turn his attention to the cases that stand against the walls, and 
to the cabinets that stretch along the galleries in distant perspec- 
tive. Let him survey that multitude of bones of every shape 
and size, and those countless legions of shell?, and then try to 

58 Geology and Revelation. 

realise to his mind what a profusion and variety of animal life 
are here represented. And yet he must remember that this is 
but a single collection. There are thousands of others, public 
and private, scattered over England, and France, and Germany, 
and Italy, and, beyond the Atlantic, on the continent of America, 
and even in Australia ; all of which have been furnished from a 
few isolated spots, scarcely more than specks on the surface of 
the Globe, where the depths of the Earth have chanced to be 
laid open to the explorations of the Geologist. 

Lastly, before he leaves this splendid gallery, let him take a 
passing glance at the Organic Remains of the vegetable world. 
There is no mistaking the forms here presented to his view. He 
will recognize at once the massive and lofty trunks of forest 
trees with their spreading branches ; the tender foliage of the 
lesser plants ; and, in particular, the graceful fern, which cannot 
fail to attract his eye by its unrivalled luxuriance. But if the 
forms are familiar, how stronge is the substance, of this ancient 
vegetation ! The forest tree has been turned into sandstone ; 
many of the plants are of the hardest flint ; and the rich green of 
the fern has given place to the jet black colour of coal. Let 
him take a magnifying glass and scrutinize the internal structure 
of these mineralized remains; for the more closely they are 
examined the more wonderful they are. He can observe with- 
out difficulty their minute cells and fibres, the exact counterpart 
of those which may be seen in the plants that are now growing 
upon the earth ; he may detect the little seed-vessels on the under 
surface of the coaly fern ; nay, if he get a polished transverse sec- 
tion of the sandstone tree, he may count the rings that mark its 
annual growth, and tell the age to which it attained in its prime- 
val forest. 

From the galleries of the Museum we must now descend into 
the subterranean recesses of the mine and the quarry. For it is 
not enough to be familiar with the appearance of Fossil Remains, 
as they are laid out for show by human hands: we must see 
them also as they lie imbedded in the successive strata of the 
Earth's Crust, which are the shelves of Nature's cabinet. We 
shall begin with the celebrated quarries of Monte Bolca, in 
Northern Italy, not far from Verona. The hill on which these 
quarries are situated is described as being " composed of argil- 
laceous and calcareous strata, with beds of a cream-coloured fissile 
limestone, which readily separates into laminae of moderate 
thickness". 1 Now in this hard limestone rock the entire skele- 
tons of many different species of fish are found imbedded in pro- 
fuse abundance, and in perfect preservation. They lie parallel 
1 Mantell, Wonders of Geology, p. 269. 

to the 1 

Reasoning of Geologists. 59 

to the layers of the rock, and are sometimes so closely packed 
together that many individuals are contained in a single block. 1 
The quarries have been worked only by students of Natural 
History for the sake of the Organic remains, and are, there- 
fore, of very limited extent; yet so abundant are these fossil 
treasures that upwards of a hundred different species have been 
discovered, and thousands of specimens have been dispersed 
over the cabinets of Europe. 2 From these facts Geologists have 
been led to conclude ; that the strata in question were deposited 
on the bed of an ancient sea in which these fishes swam; that 
the waters of the sea were suddenly rendered noxious, pro- 
bably by the eruption of volcanic matter ; that the fishes in con- 
sequence perished in large numbers, and were then almost im- 
mediately imbedded in the calcareous deposits of which the 
strata are composed. 

These views receive no small confirmation from a very 
remarkable phenomenon to which we may be allowed, in pass- 
ing, to call attention. In the year 1831 a volcanic island was 
suddenly thrown up in the Mediterranean between Sicily and 
the African coast ; and the waters of the sea were at the same 
time observed to be charged with a red mud over a very wide 
area, while hundreds of dead fish were seen floating on the sur- 
face. Is it not pretty plain that when the mud subsided 
many of the fish were enveloped in the deposit, and thus pre- 
served to future times? If so, then, we should have an exact 
modern parallel to the fossil fishes of Monte Bolca. But for the 
present it is our purpose rather to describe facts than to develop 

Our next illustration will be taken from the important group 
of rocks known by the name of the Lias Formation. In England 
this formation stretches, as a belt of varying width, from Whitby 
on the coast of Yorkshire, in a South-westerly direction, passing 
through Leicestershire, Warwickshire, Gloucestershire, and ter- 
minating at Lyme Regis, on the south coast of Dorsetshire. It 
is composed chiefly of limestone, marl, and clay, and is famous 
among Geologists for the number and variety of its great fossil 
reptiles. Of these the most remarkable, as well for its peculiar 
structure as for its immense size, is the Ichthyosaurus or Fish- 
like lizard. 

This monster of the ancient seas combined, as its name de- 
notes, the essential characters of a reptile with the form and 
habits of a fish. No such creature has been known to exist 
within historic times ; but, nevertheless, all the various parts of 
its complicated structure have their analogies, more or less per- 

1 Buckland, Bridgewater Treatise, vol. i. p. 123. 

2 Mantell, Wonders of Geology, p. 269 ; also Lyell, Elements of Geology, p. 687. 

60 Geology and Revelation. 

feet, in the present creation. It has the head of a Lizard, 
the beak of a Porpoise, the teeth of a Crocodile, the back bone 
of a Fish, and the paddles of a Whale. In length it sometimes 
exceeded thirty feet; it had a short thick neck, an enormous 
stomach, a long and powerful tail. This last appendage, toge- 
ther with four great paddles or fins, constituted the chief organs 
of motion. But of all its parts the head was perhaps the most 
wonderful and characteristic. In the larger species the jaws 
were six feet long, and armed with two rows of conical sharp- 
pointed teeth, a hundred below, a hundred and ten above. 
The cavities in which the eyes were set measured often four- 
teen inches across, and the eye-balls themselves must have been 
larger than a man's head. 1 

Now what we want particularly to impress upon our readers 
is, that the remains of this singular aquatic reptile abound 
throughout the whole extent of the Lias Formation of England. 
Far down below the surface of the earth they are found im- 
bedded in the marls, and clays, and limestones of Dorsetshire, 
and Gloucester, and Warwick, and Leicester, and Yorkshire. 2 
Sometimes whole skeletons are found entire with scarcely a 
single bone removed from the place it occupied during life ; but 
more frequently the scattered fragments are found lying about 
in a state of confused disorder; skulls, and jaw-bones, and teeth, 
and paddles, and the joints of the vertebral column and of the 
tail. The neighbourhood of Lyme Regis is a perfect cabinet of 
these curious treasures. In some of the specimens there ex- 
humed, a singular circumstance has been observed, which is 
deserving of special notice. We should naturally have expected, 
from the prodigious power of this animal, from the expansion of 
his jaws and the immense size of his stomach, that he preyed 
upon the other fish and reptiles that had the misfortune to inha- 
bit the waters in which he lived. And so indeed it was. For 
here enclosed within his vast ribs, in the place that once was his 
stomach, are still preserved the remains of his half-digested food ; 
and amidst the debris we can distinguish the bones and scales of 
his victims. Nay, in some of the more colossal specimens of this 
ancient monster, we can distinctly recognize the remains of his 
own smaller brethren ; which, though less frequent than the bones 
of fishes, are still sufficiently numerous to prove that, when he 
wanted to appease his hunger, he did not even spare the less 
powerful members of his own species. 3 

It is with facts like these, which are revealed by the Crust of 

1 See Buckland, Bridgewaler Treatise, vol. i., pp. 168 186; Mantell, Wonders 
of Geology, pp. 576-581 ; Lyell, Elements of Geology, pp. 420- 425 ; Jukes, 
Manual of Geology, pp. 598-599. 

2 Buckland, ib., p. 168. 3 Buckland, ib., p. 189. 

Reasoning of Geologists. 61 

the Earth all over the world, that Geologists are called upon to 
deal. When they meet with skeletons and bones such as we 
have been describing, buried deep in the hard rock hundreds of 
feet beneath -the green grass and the waving corn, they cannot 
help but ask the question : Where did these creatures come from ? 
When did they live ? And by what revolutions were they im- 
bedded here, and lifted up from beneath the waters of the deep ? 

The Pampas of South America are not less famous in Geology 
for the remains of gigantic quadrupeds, than the Lias of England 
for its colossal marine reptiles. These vast undulating plains, 
which present to the eye for nine hundred miles a waving sea of 
grass, consist chiefly of stratified beds of gravel and reddish mud : 
and it is in these beds that the remains of many unshapely but 
powerful terrestrial animals have been found imbedded. So 
abundant are they, that it is said a line drawn in any direction 
through the country would cut through some skeleton or bones. 1 
Indeed Mr. Darwin is of opinion that the whole area of the 
Pampas is one wide sepulchre of these extinct animals. 2 It will 
be enough for our purpose to describe one in particular, which 
from its prodigious bulk has received the appropriate name of 
Megatherium or the great wild least. 

As in the case of the Ichthyosaurus so also in the case of this 
great land monster, we can find some analogy to all its parts 
amongst the existing creation. In^ its head and shoulders it 
resembled the sloth which still browses on the green foliage of 
the trees in the dense forests of South America ; while in its legs 
and feet it combined the characteristics of the Ant- Eater and the 
Armadillo. These, it would seem, are the principal modern 
representatives of the family to which it belonged : but it is dis- 
tinguished from them all by its colossal proportions. It was 
often twelve feet long and eight feet high ; its fore-feet were a 
yard in length and twelve inches in breadth, terminating in 
gigantic claws ; its haunches were five feet wide, and its thigh 
bone was three times as big as that of the largest elephant. 3 
" His entire frame", as Dr. Buckland has admiiably observed 
and carefully demonstrated, " was an apparatus of colossal 
mechanism, adapted exactly to the work it had to do; strong 
and ponderous, in proportion as this work was heavy, and cal- 
culated to be the vehicle of life and enjoyment to a gigantic 
race of quadrupeds, which, though they have ceased to be 
counted among the living inhabitants of our planet, have, in 

1 Mantell, Fossils of the British Museum, p, 477. 

1 Id., ib. 

1 Buckland, Bridgewater Treatise, vol. i. pp. 139-164; Mantell, Wonders of 
Geology, pp. 16G-169; Fossils of the British. Museum^ pp. 476-480; Knight's 
English Cyclopaedia, Nat. Hist. Division, article, Megatheridae. 

62 Geology and Revelation. 

their fossil bones, left behind them imperishable monuments of 
the consummate skill with which they were constructed, each 
limb, and fragment of a limb, forming co-ordinate parts of a well 
adjusted and perfect whole; and through all their deviations 
from the form and proportions of the limbs o f other quadrupeds, 
affording fresh proofs of the infinitely varied and inexhaustible 
contrivances of Creative Wisdom". 1 

This Leviathan of the Pampas, as he has been justly called, 
became first known in Europe towards the close of the last cen- 
tury. In the year 1789 a skeleton was dug up, almost entire, 
about three miles to the south-west of Buenos Ayres, and was 
presented by the Marquis of Loreto to the Royal Museum at 
Madrid, where it still remains. 2 Since that time other speci- 
mens, besides numerous fragments, have been discovered, chiefly 
through the zeal and energy of Sir Woodbine Parish; by the 
aid of which the form, structure, and consequently the habits of 
this clumsy and ponderous animal have been fully ascertained. 3 
The complete skeleton which forms so prominent an object of 
attraction in the British Museum, is only a model; but it has 
been constructed with great care from the original bones, some 
of which are to be found in the wall-cases of the same room, and 
others in the Hunterian Museum of the Royal College of Sur- 
geons. 4 

Passing from the petrified fish, and the reptiles, and the quad- 
rupeds, that thus come forth as it were from their graves to 
bring us tidings of an extinct creation, we must next turn our 
attention for a moment to Fossil Shells. These relics of the 
ancient world, which are scattered with profuse abundance 
through all the strata of the Earth's Crust, may seem, indeed, 
of little value to the careless observer ; but to the practised eye 
of science they are full of instruction. They have been aptly 
called the Medals of Creation; for stamped upon their surface 
they bear the impress of the age to which they belong ; and 
they constitute the largest, we may say perhaps, the most valu- 
able part of those unwritten records from which the Geologist 
seeks to gather the ancient history of our Globe. 

As regards the prodigious abundance of Fossil Shells pre- 
served in the Crust of the Earth, it is unnecessary for us here to 
speak. We have already seen that the great mass of many lime- 
stone formations is composed almost exclusively of such remains, 
broken up into minute fragments, and more or less altered by 
chemical agency ; and besides, there are quarries within the reach 

1 Bridgewater Treatise, p. 164. 

8 Knight's English Cyclopaedia) loco citato. 

3 Id., ib. 

4 Mantell, Fossils of the British Museum, pp, 465, 477, 478, 479. 

Reasoning of Geologists. 63 

of all, where they may collect at pleasure these interesting relics 
of the olden time. But there are some facts of peculiar signifi- 
cance connected with Fossil Shells, which we shall here briefly 
state. In the first place, we should observe, that there is a 
marked and well known difference between the shells of those 
animals that live only in the sea, and of those that inhabit rivers, 
and of those, finally, that frequent the brackish waters of estu- 
aries. Now it has been made clear beyond all reasonable doubt, 
by the explorations of Geologists, that sea-shells abound in great 
numbers far away from the present line of coast, in the heart of 
vast continents. Again, they are found, not merely on the sur- 
face, but buried deep in the Crust of the Earth, and overlaid in 
many cases by numerous strata of solid rock, thousands of feet in 
thickness. Thirdly, " they occur at all heights above the level of 
the ocean, having been observed at elevations of more than eight 
thousand feet in the Pyrenees, ten thousand in the Alps, thirteen 
thousand in the Andes, and above eighteen thousand feet in the 
Himalaya". 1 Here, therefore, occurs once again a subject of in- 
quiry that must force itself on the mind of a Geologist : how can 
the shells of marine animals have come to exist so far away from 
the sea? how have they been lifted up to the highest pinnacles of 
lofty mountains? 

Before we bring our subterranean excursion to an end, we 
have yet to search among the cabinets of Nature's Museum for 
some Fossil Remains of the Vegetable Kingdom. No better 
example could be desired than that which is found in the 
celebrated quarries of Portland on the south coast of England. 
In one of these quarries a vertical section, extending from the 
surface downwards to the depth of about thirty feet, presents 
the following succession of strata arranged in horizontal layers : 
first, a light covering of vegetable soil, beneath which are 
thin beds of cream-coloured limestone, forming a stratum of solid 
rock ten feet thick ; then a bed of dark brown loam, mixed 
with rounded fragments of stone, and varying in thickness from 
twelve to eighteen inches. This is known to the quarrymen by 
the name of the Dirt-bed, and seems, in former ages, to have 
supported a luxuriant vegetation ; for all around are scattered 
the petrified fragments of an ancient forest. The prostrate trunks 
and shattered branches of great trees are met at every step ; but 
what is most striking and peculiar is, that, in many cases, the 
petrified stumps are still standing erect, with their roots fixed in 
the thin stratum of loam, and their stumps stretching upwards 
into the hard limestone rock. Immediately below the Dirt- bed 
is another thick stratum of limestone, and below this again is a 
stratum of the famous Portland stone, so highly prized for build- 
1 Lyell, Elements of Geoloyy, p. 4. 

64 Geology and Revelation. 

ing purposes. As the quarries of Portland are worked chiefly 
for the sake of this building stone, little attention is paid to the 
Dirt-bed and its contents, which are commonly thrown aside by 
the quarrymen as rubbish. 

The scene of this petrified forest is thus described by Dr. 
Mantell: " On one of my visits to the island (in the summer of 
1832), the surface of a large area of the Dirt-bed was cleared 
preparatory to its removal, and the appearance presented was 
most striking. The floor of the quarry was literally strewn with 
fossil wood, and before me was a petrified forest, the trees and 
plants, like the inhabitants of the city in Arabian story, being 
converted into stone, yet still remaining in the places which they 
occupied when alive ! Some of the trunks were surrounded by 
a conical mound of calcareous earth, which had, evidently, when 
in the state of mud, accumulated round the roots. The upright 
trunks were generally a few feet apart, and but three or four feet 
high ; their summits were broken and splintered, as if they had 
been snapped or wrenched off by a hurricane at a short distance 
from the ground. Some were two feet in diameter, and the 
united fragments of one of the prostrate trunks indicated a total 
length of from thirty to forty feet ; in many specimens, portions 
of the branches remained attached to the stem". 1 

It is time we should come to an end. We have tried to jot 
down some general facts about Fossil Remains, in such a manner 
as to present a faithful and comprehensive, though, of necessity, 
a very imperfect sketch of this great subject. Our readers will 
easily find opportunities of filling up for themselves the details 
of the picture. There are few, we should suppose, who may not 
occasionally have access to those splendid Museums of Geology 
which have been set up in all the great towns of Europe ; and 
the still more extensive cabinets of Nature's Museum, spread out 
beneath our feet, are within the reach of all. 

But even the scanty notions that may be gathered from these 
pages are sufficient, we hope, to satisfy all reasonable minds of 
this important truth, that the bones, and skeletons, and petri- 
fied trees and plants, we have been describing, are really the 
relics of organic life that once flourished on the earth or in the 
waters of the ancient seas. Yet obvious as this fact must appear 
to all who have fully realized the character and appearance of 
these Fossil Remains, it has been often vigorously assailed and 
vehemently denounced. In the early days of Geology pheno- 
mena of this kind were ascribed, not uncommonly, to the 
" plastic power of Nature", or to the influence of the stars. 2 Such 

1 Wonders of Geology, p. 400. 

2 Lyell, Principles of Geology, cap. ii. and iii. 

Reasoning of Geologists. 65 

notions, however, meet with little support among modern writers. 
They were nothing more than wild fancies, without any founda- 
tion either in the evidence of facts or in the analogy of Nature. 
The " plastic power of Nature" was a phrase that sounded well, 
perhaps, in the ears of unreflecting people; but no one ever un- 
dertook to show that Nature really possesses that " plastic power" 
which was so readily imputed to her. No one ever undertook 
to show that it is the way of Nature to make the stems, and 
branches, and leaves of trees, without the previous process of 
vegetation ; or to make bones and skeletons which have never 
been invested with the ordinary appendages of flesh and blood. 
Yet surely this is a theory that requires proof; for all our expe- 
rience of the laws of Nature points directly to the opposite con- 
clusion. And as for the influence of the stars, we may be con- 
tent to adopt the language of the celebrated painter Leonardo 
da Vinci : " They tell us that these shells were formed in the 
hills by the influence of the stars ; but I ask where in the hills 
are the stars now forming shells of distinct ages and species ? and 
how can the stars explain the origin of gravel occurring at diffe- 
rent heights and composed of pebbles rounded as if by the action 
of running water? or in what manner can such a cause account 
for the petrifaction in the same places of various leaves, sea- 
weeds, and marine crabs?" 1 

In modern times the form of objection has been somewhat 
changed. We are told by some writers that, when we seek to 
explain the existence of Fossil Remains by the action of natural 
laws, we seem to forget the Omnipotence of God. They urge 
upon us, with much solemnity, that He could have made bones, 
and shells, and skeletons, and petrified wood, though there had 
been no living animal to which these bones belonged, and no 
living tree that had been changed into stone. And if He made 
them, might He not disperse them up and down through His 
creation, on the lofty mountains, and in the hidden valley, and 
in the profound depths of the sea ? and buried them in the lime- 
stone rocks and in the soft clay ? and arranged them in groups, 
or scattered them in wild confusion as He best pleased ? 

To this line of argument we must be content to reply, that we 
have no wish to limit the power of God. But we have learned 
from our daily experience that in the physical world He is 
pleased to employ the agency of secondary causes ; and when we 
know that for many ages a certain effect has been uniformly 
produced by a certain cause, and not otherwise, then if we again 
see the effect, we infer the cause. When a traveller in the un- 
trodden wilds of Western America, comes upon a forest of great 

1 See Lyell, Principles of Geology, p. 31, who refers to " Da Vinci's MSS. now 
in the library of the Institute of France". 

VOL. IV. 5 

66 Geology and Revelation. 

trees, or a herd of unknown animals, surely he never thinks of 
supposing that the wild beasts and the forest trees came directly 
from the hand of the Creator, in that state of maturity in which 
he beholds them. And why ? for it might be argued that the 
power of God is unbounded, and He might have created them 
as they now are if He had so pleased. Is it not that the travel- 
ler is impelled, by an instinct of his nature, to interpret the 
works of God which he now sees for the first time, according to 
the analogy of those with which he has been long familiar i 
Now this is just the principle for which we are contending. 
According to all our experience of the works of God in the 
physical world, the living body comes first, and the skeleton 
afterwards ; the living tree comes first, and afterwards the pros- 
trate trunk and the splintered branches. Therefore when we meet 
with a skeleton, we conclude that' it was once a living body ; and 
when we find the petrified stems, and branches, and leaves of 
trees, we have no doubt that they are the remains of an ancient 

But in truth, if any one, with all the facts of the case fully 
before his mind, were deliberately to adopt this theory, that 
Fossils, as we find them now, were created by God in the Crust 
of the Earth, we candidly confess we have no argument that we 
should think likely to shake his conviction, just as we should 
be utterly at a loss if he were to say that the Round Towers of 
Ireland, or the Pyramids of Egypt, were created by God from the 
beginning. The evidence of human workmanship is certainly 
not more clear in the one case, than the evidence of animal and 
vegetable life in the other. We believe, however, that no such 
persons are to be found ; that theories of this kind have their 
origin, not so much in false reasoning, as in imperfect knowledge 
of facts; and we have, therefore, judged it more expedient not to 
spend our time in a discussion of philosophical axioms, but to 
set forth the facts, and leave them to speak for themselves. 



THE Archbishop of Canterbury, in his address to those bishops 
of the Reformed Church in visible communion with the United 
Church of England and Ireland, who were lately assembled at 
Lambeth, pronounced the Pan-Anglican conference to be "a 
remarkable manifestation of life and energyin the several branches 
of the Anglican communion". We are disposed to concede to 
the Lambeth meeting the representative character claimed for it 
in these words, and to accept it as presenting, upon the whole, 
a fair estimate of the amount of vital energy existing in Angli- 
canism. But, we are of opinion, that upon a careful examina- 
tion of all the facts which ushered in, accompanied, and followed 
the meeting itself, our readers will agree with us in considering 
it to indicate energies in a state of exhaustion, and a life that is 
passing away. 

We do not deny that orderly synodical action on the part of 
the bishops, regulated by the canon law, is a token of healthy 
vital energy in the ecclesiastical body. On the contrary, we 
point to the whole spirit of the canons prescribing frequent pro- 
vincial, and more frequent diocesan synods, as proof that the 
neglect of such action is a siijn of growing weakness. But then, 
what are we to think of the state of Anglicanism, which for 
three hundred years has been wholly without synods? If, to 
Anglican minds, a synod is a manifestation of life and energy, 
then they must admit that Anglicanism for some three hundred 
years has been torpid and prostrate. If, on the other hand, a 
synod is not an indication of vigour, what grounds are there for 
the Lambeth alleluias? 

We cannot look on the conference, whatever the amount of 
its success, as the result of a design suggested to the chief 
rulers of the Church by their desire to promote the general wel- 
fare of the body; on the contrary, it is due rather to a happy 
series of partial and unconnected efforts on the part of those out- 
side. The action which produced it was spasmodic rather than 
vital ; it originated at the extremities of the system, not at the 
heart. The conference was forced upon the church in England 
from without. It was at the instance of the Canadian bishops in 
the first place ; subsequently, at that of other colonial bishops, that 
the project was entertained at all. Afterwards, the Episcopal 
Church of America was included, one of its bishops having 
declared that it would be a very graceful act if the invitations 
were extended to that church also. And, be it remembered, the 
meeting claims not to be a synod, but a mere conference ; one 
out of the many conferences of which this year has been marvel- 
1 Conference of Bishops of the Anglican Communion, etc. Rivington. 

5 B 

68 The Pan-Anglican Conference. 

lously fertile. And why does it abjure the synodical character? 
Not, certainly, because the bishops are opposed to synodical 
action ; on the contrary, it is notorious that many among them 
sigh after such action ; and in one of the resolutions synods are 
suggested as among the most efficient remedies for the evils that 
afflict the church. The true reason is assigned by the president 
when he says " that the bishops deemed it far better on this occa- 
sion to do too little than attempt too much, and instead of deal- 
ing with propositions which can lead to no efficient results, to 
confine themselves to matters admitting of a practical and bene- 
ficial solution". In other words, they felt that they had no 
authority to make canons, and that, were they to attempt any 
exercise of authority, their own people would abandon them. 
It is a poor boast for a church to point, as to a manifestation of 
its vitality, to a conference which dared not be a synod ; which 
took place but once in three hundred years ; which even that once 
was convened almost by chance ; and which avowedly and deli- 
berately set itself to do too little, as the only practical result it 
could hope to achieve. 

The topics to which the bishops addressed themselves are not 
of a very important character. With the exception of the first, on 
the best way of promoting the reunion of Christendom, which 
is of general importance, and about which the bishops had 
nothing to propose, the other nine subjects concern the prac- 
tical difficulties that have sprung up in the colonial churches. 
The notification of the establishment of new sees, commendatory 
letters, the relation of metropolitans to their subjects, conditions 
of union with the church at home, missionary bishoprics, and 
the subordination of missionaries, are, after all, subjects connec- 
ted with the very rudiments and beginnings of a church. If 
such points are still unsettled, all we can say is, that we no longer 
feel surprised at the complete failure of the Anglican missions. 
A Church which has yet to fix the relations of missionaries to 
their bishops, of bishops to their metropolitans, of metropolitans 
abroad to the bishops at home, can hardly have much vitality 
and energy to boast of. But, what especially strikes us in this 
list of subjects submitted to the conference, is not so much what it 
includes as what it excludes. The Archbishop of Canterbury 
himself feels that some explanation is due to account for the 
omission of the more important subjects that the state of the 
English Church naturally suggests at this critical period of her 
history : 

" Some may be of opinion that subjects have been omitted which 
ought to have found a place in our deliberations ; that we should have 
been assembled with the view of defining the limits of theological 
truth : but it has been deemed far better, on the first occasion of our 

The Pan- Anglican Conference. 69 

meeting in such form, rather to do too little than attempt too much, 
and instead of dealing with propositions which can lead to no efficient 
result, to confine ourselves to matters admitting of a practical and 
beneficial solution" (page 9). 

It would indeed have seemed natural that at a moment when 
Anglicanism is rent with doctrinal controversies affecting almost 
every article in the Apostles' Creed, the assembled prelates 
should have borne witness to the faith that is in them. Between 
Rationalism, in forms that are of the wildest it has ever assumed, 
and Ritualism, which is changing the face of the Establishment, 
there is hardly a shade of thought which is not represented in 
Anglican pulpits. On the most essential points of Christianity, 
the faith of Anglicanism is divided and shifting. And yet, in 
this moment of supreme peril, the bishops are deliberately and 
wilfully silent, and the Archbishop of Canterbury warns them 
against defining the limits of theological truth. It was not thus 
that St. Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury, spoke to the bishops 
of his day, when dangers assailed the Church in England : 

" Dearly beloved brethren", said he to the English prelates, " why 
do you not rise with me against the malignant ? Why do you not 
take your stand with me against such as work iniquity ? Know you 
not that the Lord will scatter the bones of them that please men ? They 
shall be confounded because God hath despised them (Ps., Hi.). Your 
discretion knoweth well enough that the error which is not checked, is 
approved of; that truth, when left defenceless, is oppressed; and, 
according to Gregory, he that hasteneth not to correct what stands 
in need of correction, seems to side with the guilty". 1 

Nor is the archbishop's excuse for this silence, a satis- 
factory one, or creditable to Anglicanism. To say that any 
utterance pronounced by the conference on matters of doctrine 
could lead to no efficient result, may account, at the moment, 
for the silence of the bishops; but, on the other hand, it is a 
revelation of the depth of the abyss into which Anglicanism has 
fallen. Not only is it torn by controversies on the most central 
Christian truths, but its own bishops publicly declare that they 
are powerless to apply an efficient remedy to its wounds. 

As a matter of prudence this silence, however, was politic, if 
not Christian. It is pretty certain than any doctrinal decision 
the bishops might come to would carry with it no weight. But 
it is also pretty certain that the conference itself never would 
agree on any doctrinal decision. The elements of which it was 
composed were too heterogeneous and conflicting ever to be 
brought into unity of opinion on matters of faith. The list of 

1 Ep. S. Thorn. Cant, ad Epos. Angliae, apnd Harduin. Concilior torn. VI. part 2. 
page 1387. 

70 The Pan-Anglican Conference. 

signatures in the official document is broken up into five groups 
of names; and this arrangement invites and facilitates a closer 
examination of the component parts of the conference. The first 
group (23) embraces the bishops of the United Church of Eng- 
land and Ireland; trie second group (6) represents the Protestant 
Episcopal Church of Scotland ; the third group (24), the Colonial 
bishops; the fourth group (19), the Episcopalian bishops of the 
United States; and the fifth and last group (4), the bishops who 
have retired from the labours of colonial dioceses. The fact that 
these prelates met together is, no doubt, a prima facie proof that 
they agree together upon many points. But admitting this har- 
mony on the part of those who joined the conference, we are 
compelled to believe that those who, as a matter of principle, 
declined to come, are not of the same way of thinking with those 
who did actually come. And this is already one patent sign of 
discord in the Anglican body. 

Then, looking at the names forming the English and Irish 
group, we ask is there any power on earth that could bring into 
harmony the views respectively held by S.Oxon. and H. Kilmore ? 
Or how could John Lincoln, who denounces the pseudo-Catholic 
movement of to-day, agree with W. K. Sarum, who claims for 
himself all the priestly powers claimed by the Roman Church ? 
What form of Christian faith could be subscribed by the Bishop 
of St. David's and the Bishop of London, who are friendly towards 
Dr. Colenso, and by the Archbishop of Dublin, who anathema- 
tises him? Dr. Jeune, of Peterborough, according to the Church 
JNewsJ- " has floundered into heresy by indirectly reconrn ending 
to his flock that corrupt and corrupting novelty of semi-infidel 
Protestants, evening communions" ; how could he unite on the 
Eucharist-doctrine with an episcopal champion of the Directorum 
Anglicanum ? The High Church, and the Broad Church, and 
the Low Church, had each their representatives present, and is it 
to be hoped that they could agree ? 

The details which have been communicated to the American 
papers by some of the American prelates on their return from 
the conference fully bear out what we have said. As n>ay be 
seen from the curious statement in' the note, 2 not only did the 

October 16th, 1867.. 

2 See New York Church Journal: 

"The two subjects that caused the greatest discussion were first, the state- 
ment of the standard of true Catholicity, and secondly, the question of Natal. On 
the former of these points, the programme of proposed business mentioned only the 
First Four General Councils. On the first day, the Bishop of Vermont moved to 
change the four to six, and earnestly supported the motion. 

* The Bishop of Illinois moved to omit the numeral, making the reference inde- 
finite ; and the Bishop of Winchester then proposed to omit the phrase altogether, 
which was carried. But this conclusion was felt to be too unsatisfactory to stand. 
The discussions on that day were so prolonged, that they did not get through with 

The Pan- Anglican Conference. 71 

members disagree one from the other so thoroughly as to render 
it impossible to define even the number of general councils, but, 
it appears, the Archbishop of Canterbury previously to the meet- 
ing had actually entered into engagements with some of the 
bishops that the meeting should make no declarations of doctrine. 
Next comes the Scottish group, the members of which again 
are at war with each other and with their neighbours. The 
Bishop of Brechin, conspicuous by his absence from the confer- 
ence, is too Catholic for some of his compeers. The English 

the first resolution ; and, accordingly, on a subsequent day, when passing upon the 
latter clause of it, the ' undisputed General Councils' were ail acknowledged ; an 
expression precisely equivalent to the ' first six'. 

" The other matter of interest the Natal question will have a fair chance. 
The Archbishop of Canterbury, knowing the unwillingness of many of the English 
bishops to venture upon so entirely unprecedented a step as the calling of such a 
council, and anxious to forestall as much as possible their objections to so strange a 
novelty, had intended to keep the subject of Dr. Colenso out entirely. The 
colonial Church, however, regarded this as the most important subject to be 
treated ; and a large proportion of them, as well as of the American bishops, would 
certainly never have attended at all had they understood it was to be excluded. 
Not finding it in express terms on the programme, they first succeeded at the pre- 
liminary meeting in making the programme open to amendment, as well as to the 
introduction of new matter. Then, on three or four of the intervening days, a 
number of the colonial bishops met for consultation. But by conferring with lead- 
ing English bishops also, the difficulties of the question were made so apparent, 
that the Bishop of Cape Town was persuaded to accept the appointment of a com- 
mittee to consider anew the whole difficulty from the beginning. When the matter 
came up in this shape in the council, he made a noble and unflinching speech, 
upholding as fearlessly as ever the righteous necessity of the course that has been 
pursued in South Africa. 

" The Bishop of Vermont then moved as a substitute a preamble and resolution 
which comes straight up to the mark on the whole Colenso question, urging its 
adoption as the true course. The Bishop of Salisbury supported him with a whole- 
hearted singlenesss and boldness, worthy of all honour. Other bishops took the 
same ground, and not one word was said by anyone against the correctness of the 
position taken by the Bishop of Vermont. But the Bishop of St. David's rose and 
stated that the archbishop had pledged himself to him that the Colenso question 
should not be acted on in the conference, and he appealed to ' the honour' of the 
archbishop to say whether this were not so. 

" The archbishop said that it was so, and that to act directly on the question of 
Dr. Colenso would be the breach of an honourable understanding. It was intended 
to convey this understanding in those words of the invitation which said that the 
meeting would of course not be competent to make declarations of doctrine ; but 
this phrase was unfortunately too vague to convey the full strength of the ' under- 
standing' ; for the question in South Africa is not only one of doctrine, but of fact, 
and canon and civil law. After what had been said by the archbishop, however, 
it was seen that to push the matter against the engagements of the distinguished 
prelate who issued the invitations, was not advisable, and the matter dropped, the 
Bishop of Vermont making a closing speech on the sense of duty which had com- 
pelled him to make his motion. But the thing would not rest. On the last day, 
the Bishop of St. Andrew's earnestly appealed to the Bishop of St. David's to waive 
his ' understanding' with the archbishop, in order to introduce a declaration on the 
fact of the present status of Dr. Colenso, drawn up by the Bishop of Oxford, to be 
introduced and acted on. It was then produced as a paper signed ' by the bishops 
assembled at Lambeth', the words 'in conference' being omitted; and it was at 
once signed by all the American and colonial bishops, and, we believe, by all or 
nearly all the rest, the act being done in the same room and during the continu- 
ance of the session". 

72 The Pan- A nglican Conference. 

Church periodicals some time ago were full of statements and 
explanations concerning the treatment which the Coadjutor of 
Edinburgh met with from some English bishops, who refused 
him permission to officiate in their dioceses. And have we not 
heard Dr. Daly of Cashel denounce in his last charge the entire 
communion service of the Scottish Episcopal Church as here- 
tical ? And did he not publicly express his protest against the 
conduct of a distinguished prelate of the United Church of Eng- 
land and Ireland, who consented to communicate in sacris with 
the Scottish Episcopalians? The Scottish bishops, far from intro- 
ducing harmony, would prove to be an apple of discord in any 
attempt at a doctrinal decision. 

Next comes the Colonial group, who may really feel proud of 
the position they have achieved for themselves. Not only is the 
origin of the conference to be attributed to them, but almost all 
the resolutions deal with their special grievances. Unquestion- 
ably, however, they have cost their mother church dear. First of 
all, who selects the new bishops for the colonies and the missionary 
churches ? It is well known, that with some exceptions, they 
are designated by one or other of the great missionary associa- 
tions who annually pour out upon benighted foreign countries a 
torrent of Bibles and whole families of evangelical missionaries. 
These missionary societies for the most part are broad and evan- 
gelical in their views, and are not amenable to episcopal nor even 
to exclusively clerical control. The principle which would bring 
bishops thus appointed by such voluntary societies, and place them 
on the same benches with the bishops of P^ngland, is one fraught 
with danger to the Anglican Church. What if they outnum- 
bered the home bishops? What if they were representatives of 
as various forms of dissent as numerous as the countries to which 
they belong? As it is, they have been the occasion of con- 
siderable confusion and difference of opinion in the conference. 
In St. James's Hall, at the close of the conference, the Metropo- 
litan of Cape Town announced that 

" one of the last acts of the synod had been to endorse the righteous 
conclusion of the Province of Canterbury with regard to the ap- 
pointment of one who should go forth as a bishop to minister to the 
souls of those who felt themselves as sheep without a shepherd in 
Natal. Their beloved Primate was prepared to join in recommend- 
ing one to go forth to be the chief pastor in that distracted land". 
Upon which, a layman thus writes to the Times: 
" That is, there being already in Natal a branch of the Church of 
England with a bishop, appointed, like all other bishops of our Church, 
by the Queen, the lay head of the Church, and confirmed in his posi- 
tion by decisions of competent courts both in England and Natal, the 
Primate proposes to send out another bishop of Natal. 

The Pan-Anglican Conference. 73 

" Such a bishop must be either, first, a bishop of the Church of 
England, or secondly, a bishop of a local Church, whether of Natal 
or of South Africa is immaterial. 

"1. If he be the former, I hope that the Primate, or his grace's 
advisers, will explain to the lay members of the Church over which 
he presides, by what law of that Church or of this country he is 
authorized to send into a diocese a second bishop without the con- 
sent and against the wish of the existing bishop. 

" 2. If he be the latter, then still more should the Primaf e explain 
to us how he, the chief bishop in the Church of England, can justify 
the founding of a second Church in a country and diocesi in which 
the Church of England already has a branch. 

" Which horn of this dilemma will his grace prefer ? 

" To me, a plain layman, the contemplated appointment of an- 
other Bishop of Natal seems as a matter of policy to be more likely 
to increase than to heal the distractions which the Bishop of Cape 
Town laments, and, as a matter of churchmariship, to be an act of 

" If this be a specimen of the practical results of the Pan- Anglican 
Synod, in a multitude of counsellors there will no longer be safety, 
even to themselves". 

Another case in point is supplied by the Bishop of Dunedin 
in New Zealand, a prelate whose mitre and crosier were exhi- 
bited a few years ago at the York Exhibition. He was invited 
by the Bishop of Exeter to take his September ordination, the 
inviting bishop being ignorant of the fact that the invited was 
consecrated without letters patent from her majesty, " a defect", 
says the New Zealand bishop, " it appears, fatal to the legal 
validity of any ordination by me in this country". 

The American bishops add nothing to the probabilities of 
harmony. The very title of Protestant, which is assumed by Dr. 
Hopkins in his signature, is significant of the line of thought 
chiefly in honour among them. Thus the resolutions which are 
headed as coming from the bishops of " Christ's Holy Catholic 
Church" are signed by the bishops of the " Protestant Episcopal 
Church" in the United States. Dr. Henry W. Lee, Bishop of 
Iowa, soon after the conclusion of the conference, wrote a long 
letter to the Bishop of London, in which lie deplores the state of 
the Anglican Church, afflicted as it is with Ritualism, and ex- 
presses his fears for the future of a Church where such excesses 
are allowed. This censure notoriously strikes at some of the pre- 
lates beside whom Dr. Lee sat in the conference. On the other 
hand, the Episcopalian Church in America has rejected the 
Athanasian creed. It has also expunged from the ordinal the 
clause which in the form of ordination regards the power of 
remitting sin It also rejects the form of absolution. What 
prospects of united action docs all this afford? 

74 The Pan-Anglican Conference. 

Of the closing group of retired bishops we have little to say. 
The only name that sounds familiar to us is that of Dr. George 
Smith, late bishop of Victoria, China. Is this the Dr. Smith of 
whom The Hong-Kong Daily Press, a journal devoted to British 
and Protestant interests, thus wrote in 1861: 

" The conduct of the bishop is most reprehensible. .... For the 
last three years we feel sure he has not done three weeks' work in his 
diocese. He draws his stipend in consideration of the performance of 
specified duties those duties he neglects for other vocations which 
are more lucrative or agreeable, and we will defy him to reconcile his 
conduct to common honesty, to say nothing about his duties as a bishop. 
.... There is as much devotion in all the Protestant missionaries we 
know of in the South of China as there is in a bootjack" (Ap. 
Marshall's Christian Missions, vol., iii. p. 4.12). 

A conference consisting of bishops so far asunder as these in 
their doctrinal views, could have but slender hopes of being able 
to agree in defining what is to be believed and what to be 
rejected by their flocks. 

What results the conference has been able to achieve are pre- 
sented to us in two documents, viz., the Encyclical Letter and 
the Resolutions. Both the one and the other deserve some 
attention. We omit to remark on the style and manner of the 
Encyclical, although both style and manner tempt criticism. 
The Encyclical itself is remarkable, principally for the skill with 
which it avoids all those really serious questions upon which An- 
glicans are divided, and for the dexterity with which it makes 
its affirmations broad enough to cover all shades of thought. 

The most favourable interpretation of the document which 
has fallen in our way is that given By the Literary Churchman. 1 
The fiist result therein pointed out is the fact that the confer- 
ence witnesses to u a common connection ; that while there are 
such things as local churches, there is also the wider entity of a 
supra-local, i.e., a Universal Church". What a surprising dis- 
covery ! There is not a single Catholic child in the world to 
whose mind the idea of a Universal Church is not familiar. And 
is it for this that the Literary Churchman pronounces the Lam- 
beth conference to be " one of those events which are destined to 
hold a place in history, and of which the importance will be 
seen as years roll on"? The next benefit conferred by the Ency- 
clical, according to the Churchman, is that it defines the position 
of the Anglican Church in reference to Rome and to the Holy 
Scriptures. It protests against the supremacy of the Roman 
Pontiff; but who is there that did not know that this protest was 
the very basis of the Anglican schism? And touching this 

1 No. 20, p. 417. 

The Pan-Anglican Conference. 75 

matter of the supremacy, we would remark a singular inconsis- 
tency between the Encyclical and the Resolutions. The fourth 
resolution is to the effect " that, in the opinion of this con- 
ference, unity in faith and discipline will be best maintained 
among the several branches of the Anglican communion by 
due and canonical subordination of the synods of the several 
blanches to the higher authority of a synod or synods above 
them". We ask, is not this plainly a claim for a universal 
sovereignty over God's heritage, put forth on behalf of the cen- 
tral synod? And if it be not repugnant to the Gospel that a 
few bishops should have higher authority over a supra-local 
and Universal Church, as set forth by the conference, how can 
it be repugnant to the same that one bishop, successor of the 
Prince of the Apostles, should have higher authority to keep 
unity of faith and doctrine in the entire Church? The state- 
ments made in the address touching the Catholic cultus of the 
Blessed Virgin are as false as those put forward by Nestorius 
and his bishops at the time of the Council of Ephesus. As to 
the assertion that the Bible is the word of God, even Dr. 
Colenso would have no hesitation to subscribe it, as, in fact, he 
has already done ; reserving, however, the right of determining 
what books or parts of books compose the Bible. 

So far the address : the bearing of the Resolutions themselves 
is thus set forth by the Literary Churchman: 

" Passing by the first three resolutions, together with those two 
(Nos. 6 and 7) which bear upon the Colenso difficulty, let us come at 
once to those in which the Conference takes in hand the class of sub- 
jects we have specified. It is not too much to describe resolutions 
4, 5, 8, 9, etc., as sketching out the programme of a general Church 
Constitution which shall embrace upon one common footing all 
Churches whatever in communion with our own, irrespective of their 
various relations to the Secular Power. The object for which the Con- 
ference was devised was to take measures for securing unity in faith 
and discipline throughout the scattered and very differently circum- 
stanced branches of our Communion : and, however much this 
object seemed at one time likely to be frustrated through timid 
counsels, the firmness of the American bishops held the Conference 
to its purpose, and (practically) compelled our English bishops to look 
the real question in the face. The consequence is that the bulk of 
these ' Eesolutions' are devoted, not to the minor points announced 
in the Archbishop's original circular, but to what we may call the 
draft of a general Church organization elastic enough to fit all cases, 
and comprehensive enough to embrace any and every branch of the 
Anglican Communion, Missionary, Established, quasi-Established, or 

entirely efts- established, or wn-established Free mutual action 

and interaction by means of local and general representative bodies, 
acting under definite relations the one to the other, whether in the 

76 The Pan-Anglicun Conference. 

United States, the Colonies, or within the borders of our own 
4 Establishment' such is the foundation stone laid by this first 
Council of the Anglican Communion. Then from this first proposal 
for continuous concerted action they go on to the subject of the trial 
of cases of doctrine. In resolution 9, a committee is appointed ' to 
consider the constitution of a voluntary spiritual tribunal, to which 
questions of doctrine may be carried by appeal from the* local and 
provincial Colonial tribunals : while resolution 8 allows a margin of 
discretion to the Colonial Churches in reference to their Church 
Services, subject to the revision of a general Synod of the Anglican 
Communion in which the province concerned shall be represented. 
It is in these resolutions that the pith of the matter lies. There are 
other resolutions of no small importance, as for instance No. 10, upon 
the discipline to be exercised by Metropolitans, and by the Court of 
Metropolitans, and upon the scheme of legislation for Colonial 
Churches ; but it is in those which we have specially particularized 
that we see the root of the matter thoroughly gone into. It shows that 
our assembled Bishops are ready to face the great need of the Church 
as a body independent of the special civil circumstances of particular 
countries, and independent of the special and accidental relations in 
which it stands to the civil governments for the time being. It shows 
that our bishops are alive to the fact that while civil governments 
vary, the Church must be one and the same ; and if she is to be kept 
one and the same, it must be by some means which shall act altoge- 
ther apart from the varying civil organizations of the various coun- 
tries in which the Church has to carry on her uniform existance. . . . 
In all this we see the benefit of the presence and experience of the 
Transatlantic and the Colonial bishops. These men have had actual 
experience of needs and difficulties and how to meet them, to which 
our own bishops are as yet comparatively strangers. The quiet 
the torpidity if you please of our own Church during so many gene- 
rations, and the complete surrender of all questions regarding her 
action and organization to the civil legislature, and to (essentially) 
civil courts, has had the inevitable result of cramping at once their 
energies and their ideas. The cramping of their energies has been 
bad enough : the cramping of their ideas has perhaps been even 
worse. The Church in England will owe a lasting debt to her 
daughter churches, in that they have now, in this year of 1867, 
brought sharply home to the minds of the English Episcopate the 
fact that they must begin to look at Church questions in a larger 
spirit than merely asking how they will appear to a Court of Arches 
or a Court of Appeal named by the Minister of the day". 

This is no doubt what a section of Anglicans would wish to 
read in the Pan- Anglican resolutions. But the temper of mind 
now prevailing in the mass of Anglicans is most decidedly op- 
posed to any such action on the part of the bishops. The entire 
press, which is, in this case, a fair exponent of the public feeling, 
has placed it beyond doubt that the laity will resist to the last 

The Pan- Anglican Conference. 77 

this high episcopal tone. But even if the scheme of government, 
the outline of which the resolutions present, could be realized, 
would it work? Unquestionably not. A voluntary tribunal 
which of itself can claim no authority, which has been erected 
by itself, which has no sanction for its decisions, will never con- 
trol men in questions which are agitated with the warmth that 
always glows in ecclesiastical controversies. This elaborate sys- 
tem of synod over synod will be like the oriental system of the 
universe, in which the world is described as resting upon the 
back of a tortoise. The lower synods rest upon the higher, but 
there is no solid foundation upon which the final synod can rest. 
To rest securely it should rest upon the Rock on which Christ 
built His Church. There is no authority with which to clothe 
its decrees, so as to make them binding on men. Notwithstand- 
ing, however, the practical and theoretical difficulties which are 
arrayed against the resolutions, we are willing to admit that 
they contain much that is valuable. They contain an admission 
that the Anglican system is a failure ; that a national church is 
a mistake; that the old Protestant axiom, cujus est regio illius est 
religio, is a blasphemy ; that universality is a mark of the true 
Church. It is a justification of the principle on which the pri- 
macy of the Apostolic See is founded. " It shows", says the 
writer quoted above, " that our bishops are alive to the fact 
that, while civil governments vary, the church must be one and 
the same ; and that if she is to be kept one and the same, it must 
be by some means which shall act altogether apart from the 
varying civil organizations of the various countries in which the 
church has to carry on her uniform existence". St. Cyprian and 
St. Jerome point out the means by which this unity is to be 
preserved: "there is one Church, founded by Christ our Lord 
upon Peter for an original and principle of unity super Petrum 
origine unitatis et ratione jundatcf. Ep. 70 ad Januar. " Out 
of the twelve", says St. Jerome (lib. i. adv. Jov.), " one is chosen, 
that by the appointment of a Head, all occasion of schism might 
be removed". 

We conclude by summing up what we have hitherto said. 
The Pan-Anglican conference at Lambeth, considered in the 
circumstances that have occasioned it, in the objects set before 
it, in its own component parts, and in its results, is an unques- 
tionable argument that the energy of Anglicanism has departed 
for ever. 




THE town from which this celebrated French camp takes its 
name, stands on the right bank of the river Marne, and is pro- 
perly called Chalons-sur-Marne, to distinguish it from Chalons- 
sur-Saone, near Macon. It is the chief town of the department 
of Marne ; and Rheims, Epernay, and itself, are the three great 
capitals of the Champagne country. It is 107 miles east of Paris 
by rail. For the benefit of future tourists with military proclivi- 
ties, I may as well state at once, that the camp of Chalons is not 
at Chalons at all, but 16 miles from it, at a place called Mour- 
melon. There are, in fact, two places of that name at the camp, 
Mourmelon -le-grand, and Mourmelon-le-petit, both being very 

C' It. The camp is called the camp of Chalons, I should think, 
ause when it was formed, Chalons was not only the nearest 
important town, but also the nearest railway station, whence all 
visitors posted to the camp. Complete railway communication 
is not very long open between Chalons and Mourmelon. 

The ground on which the camp stands seems admirably suited 
for the purpose. From an elevated table-land, somewhat, but not 
altogether, central, the vast plain gradually slopes away in all 
directions, forcibly impressing the beholder with its great extent. 
The monotony which so much bare land would produce, is 
broken up by small groves, chiefly Scotch fir, planted in various 
parts of it, by the streets of huts and tents, by the pretty gardens 
cultivated by the soldiers, and by the cattle and sheep that graze 
upon it. There is also a considerable portion devoted to tillage 
by the government, causing a marked improvement in the soil, 
which naturally is extremely poor. It is a chalky soil, scarcely 
covered by the scant dry grass which it produces ; yet, strange to 
say, it seems to the eye, and is I believe subtantially, the very 
same character of soil which grows the famous champagne wine 
of the department. The sod is very firm and dry, which circum- 
stance must in no small degree promote the health of the men. 
I could get no trustworthy information as to the acreage of this 
great plain, but standing about the centre of a perfectly straight 
road by which it is traversed from north to south, it seemed to 
me that there were four or five miles of road at each side of me, 
all within the plain, although perhaps not all within the portion 
belonging to the government. What is certain is, that the 40,000 
men there at the time of my visit occupied but a very small por- 
tion of it, and I have no doubt that the whole French army could 
be encamped there without inconvenience. 

The imperial quarters, the residence of the Emperor when at 
the camp, the marshal, generals, etc., stand on the eastern brow 

Military Mass at the Camp of Chalons. 79 

of the high table land described above, and are very neat and 
elegant without being showy or expensive. At a long distance 
from them the lines of white conical tents are seen ; here fring- 
ing the plain, there peeping up beyond lines of trees, everywhere 
picturesque and beautiful. 

There are two very long streets of two-storied huts to the right 
of Mourmelon-le-grand, which town is fair in front of the impe- 
rial quarters. The huts and tents do not run completely round 
these quarters, but are distributed somewhat crescent shape at the 
front and sides, the exercise ground lying between. The tents 
are of various sizes, but the ordinary conical tent, constructed to 
hold six men, is about nine or ten feet in diameter. A portion of 
what may be called the floor of the tent, immediately inside the 
door, is cut away to the depth of six or eight inches. The thin 
lairs of loosely platted straw on which the men sleep are arranged 
on the higher ground, and converging to the sunken part in front, 
which appears to be the common property of all the men in the tent : 
here they dress, here they clean up their arms when the weather 
will not permit them to do so outside, here they sit and smoke 
and chaff, the higher part of the floor serving them for a bench. 
A portion of the tent opposite the door can be raised so as to 
give thorough ventilation. 

Some days before Sunday the llth August, the neighbour- 
hood of the camp was posted with the announcement that a grand 
military Mass would be celebrated at half-past eight o'clock on 
that day, at which the Emperor would assist ; and that after- 
wards a " marching past", as we call it, of all the troops in the 
camp would take place. Sunday morning came, and the plain 
and surrounding country, lighted up by a warm brilliant sun, 
looked joyous and beautiful. Although the rural population 
seems very limited in the neighbourhood of Mourmelon, as early 
as six o'clock all the roads converging to the camp became ani- 
mated with sightseers; some on foot, but the great majority 
carried in vehicles of the most various and unique builds. Many 
carriages and pairs of the gentry were to be seen, but the chief 
attraction was the peasants hurrying on their tidy little carts and 
cars, drawn by smart little horses and ponies. A whole house- 
hold, father and mother, with some boys and girls, generally 
managed to find accommodation in each of these. The people 
were not only scrupulously clean, but their simple attire was neat 
and becoming. The proud spirit of Parisian fashion, who rules 
in so many and distant lands, was never able to extend his influence 
to the quiet villages (within four or five hours of his capital) whence 
journeyed forth the rural congregation of the Grande Messe on 
that bright pleasant morning. 

At half-past seven the camp is all astir. The shrill, clear 

80 Military Mass at the Camp of Chalons. 

sound of bugles and the roll of drums are heard on every side, 
and the men begin to form outside their quarters. In wandering 
through the place during some previous days, I had noticed the 
men busy in polishing, brushing up, and putting everything in 
order, and certainly, on this morning, the full effect of their 
industry appeared ; for as they stood outside their tents ready to 
march, they looked superb in every part, speckless specimens of 
military neatness. Instead of that celebrated " thin red line 
tipped with steel", you could see across the wide and varied 
plain, solid masses of soldiers, their dark uniforms relieved and 
brought out by the bright serried squares of bayonets, which, 
high above their heads, reflected the morning sun like broken 
mirrors, and flung back his fiery beams with dazzling splendour. 

All moved towards the imperial quarters, where stands the 
permanent altar for the use of the camp. This structure is simple 
enough, arid yet imposing. It is a square wooden building. 
Ascending by eight or ten steps, you come to the altar proper, 
resting on a platform, leaving just room enough in front for the 
priest and his attendants. It is open on every side, but sur- 
mounted by a canopy, resting on four lofty pillars. On the 
morning of the grande Messe the open spaces were tastefully 
hung with scarlet curtains, looped to the pillars, while tri- 
coloured flags were neatly grouped at different points. This altar, 
with its canopy, being the highest object in the whole camp, 
impressed as I was, by its purpose and surroundings, strnck 
me, as I approached on this morning, as grandly imposing. 

Punctually, and without the slightest confusion, had the forty 
thousand men taken up their positions in front of the altar, some 
minutes before half-past eight o'clock. A wonderful sight they 
were. The infantry, in uniforms embracing almost every variety 
of colour, occupied the ground nearest the altar. The cavalry, 
all mounted, were in a fine bold line behind the infantry, and 
looked like a protective cordon to them. And as the Bishop of 
Chalons with his attendants ascended to the altar to prepare for 
the Holy Sacrifice, a tableau was before us which for grand 
scenic effect could not be surpassed. The bishop vests. The 
discharge of a cannon announces that all is ready, and in a short 
time the Emperor, his distinguished visitors and a brilliant staff, 
emerge from the imperial quarters. They are preceded by some 
fifty of the Cent Gardes, in those uniforms of theirs which are 
unmatched for grace and splendour. I remarked that they 
were saluted by the sentries on duty the same as commissioned 

The Emperor and Marshal Ladmirault, and none others, were 
attired as marshals of France. To an unmilitary spectator like 
myself, the chief distinction between the marshal and the gene- 

Military Mass at the Camp of Chalons. 81 

ral's uniform was, that the cocked hat of the former was fully 
and elegantly trimmed with lace, while that of the latter was not. 
The Emperor, who is barely middle size, looked fuller in face and 
stouter in person than he appears in any photograph I have yet 
seen of him. He seemed in excellent health, but he walked with 
the measured caution of one who was afraid to throw out his 
limbs with even ordinary freedom. Many of this distinguished 
party had the breasts of their rich uniforms covered with deco- 
rations, and as they walked slowly, and in a sort of procession, 
four deep, from the imperial quarters to the front of the altar, 
the effect was very grand. Famous as the French are for their 
military costumes, there was amongst the imperial party an Aus- 
trian, or more probably a Hungaiian officer, who outshone them 
all. He wore the most gorgeous hussar uniform, and excited so 
much attention that while he passed, the spectators cried out with 
admiration, Voila! Voila T etranger, voila T Autrichien f 

But there was a still more remarkable stranger among them, to 
whom I may devote a sentence or two, I mean Abd-el-Kader. 
The ex-Emir is rather low of stature, and of stout build. 
His face is oval, dignified, and intellectual. His nose may 
be almost called aquiline. His thick, well-trimmed beard, once 
black, is now sprinkled with gray. His complexion is light 
olive, and by no means unpleasing. His loose over garment, 
or bournouse, which I have seen him wear walking, driving, 
and riding, is very peculiar, and very unwarlike too, being 
white woollen stuff, made like a very full Galway cloak. 1 The 
hood is always up, and fastened on the Emir's head by what 
seemed to be a strand of coarse brown woollen thread, running 
completely round from back tc front, as ribbons were formerly 
worn to fasten women's caps. And, indeed, but for his beard 
and his breastful of decorations, to show which he threw back 
one side of his cloak, he might be taken for a quiet, middle-aged, 
rudely attired country woman. Abd-el-Kader looks vigorous, 
and scarcely beyond fifty-five, although he must be fully sixty, 
for it is nearly forty years since the young Emir became the rally- 
ing point of the jad, or holy war, which the native tribes of 
Algeria waged against the French. Considering that the father 
of Abd-el-Kader was regarded as a saint amongst his people, and 
that he brought up his son in the strictest principles of Islamism, 
having taken him on a pilgrimage to Mecca at eight years of 
age, and considering that the Emir claims descent from Fatima, 
the very daughter of the prophet himself, it rose almost to the 

1 There is a family connection between the Algerian bournouse and the Galway 
cloak, for the bournouse has been long used amongst the Spaniards, tinder the name 
of albornoz, which garment they, no doubt, derive from the Moors, as we derive our 
Galway cloak from the Spaniards. 

VOL. IY. 6 

82 Military Mass at the Camp at Chalons. 

romantic to see Kim among his French conquerors assisting at 
Mass on the plain of Chalons. 

A cannon is fired, and the bishop begins Mass, during which a 
military band played some selections of sacred music, but they 
were few and short. Pioneers, with their heavy axes, long white 
leathern aprons, copious beards, and tall bearskins, half conceal- 
ing their eyes, lined the steps ascending from the ground to the 
altar in single line at each side. At the foot of the altar there 
were eight attendants, four on each side, who bore standards 
surmounted by the imperial eagle. During the reading of the 
Gospel, these were elevated to a considerable height, so that 
persons at a distance could see them. At the instant of the 
elevation of the Host, two cannons are fired, all bend the 
knee simultaneously, lean forward, and present arms, while a 
murmur runs down the ranks, until it dies away in the far dis- 
tance. This manifestation was wholly unexpected by me. It 
was peculiar, and seemed to be something between a murmur of 
applause, and that striking expression of adoration which is some- 
times heard in an Irish congregation at the same solemn moment. 
The ceremonies observed at the elevation of the Host are 
repeated at the elevation of the chalice. The effect produced 
by the motion of the troops at the elevation is not easily con- 
ceived or described. Imagine a great many distinct flocks of 
birds, not flying, but merely keeping themselves balanced, and 
floating, as it were, a little above the earth ; imagine that some- 
thing underneath attracts their attention all at once, and that a 
simultaneous swoop downwards is made by them, their glossy 
backs and wings reflecting the rays of the sun ; and you have the 
idea that occurred to me, when the 40,000 soldiers bent in 
adoration, and presented their burnished arms glowing in the 
sunlight. The members of the imperial party observed the same 
ceremonies during Mass as the soldiers. 

After the communion the bishop gives the blessing to his vast 
congregation, a cannon is fired, the Domine salvum fac is sung, 
the bands of all the regiments strike up at once, and they move 
off to take up their places for the review. The imperial party 
walk back to their quarters, and for some time all is military 
music and preparation. 

Superbly appointed chargers, graceful in form and lithe of 
limb, are led forth by grooms with gilded cockades, and dressed 
in that dark green livery so well known as the imperial. The 
Emperor and his party mount, and coming leisurely through the 
little pleasure garden in front of the quarters, take their places at 
the Gospel side of the altar and on a line with it. Beside the 
Emperor, on his right, stood the commandant of the camp, 
Marshal Ladmirault, and next to him Abd-el-Kader, whose 

Military Mass at the Camp at Chalons. 83 

peculiar dress, as already described, seemed to unfit him for 
being on horseback at all. The back of his saddle was richly 
ornamented with gold, almost upright, and being of considerable 
size, it kept him in his place witli but little effort on his part ; in 
fact he seemed to be sitting in a small easy chair rather than a 

The " marching past" began with the infantry. When each 
regiment came within a few perches of the Emperor, the band 
struck up and the men fell into quick marching time. Arriving 
in front of him they give a cheer, Vive CEmpereur, and forward 
they go in that spirited dashing manner so characteristic of 
French soldiers. On, on they come, regiment after regiment, 
and precisely the same ceremony is gone through. At length 
there is a striking change. The lancers with their white richly 
braided tunics, their handsome square caps and shining lances, 
dash forward rapidly to the music of their band, and pass the 
Emperor dipping their lances in splendid style, and making one 
of the prettiest military pictures that can be imagined. Other 
regiments of cavalry follow. Meantime far away in the rere a 
great cloud of dust is seen ascending from the plain, while a 
heavy rumbling noise like distant thunder is heard. It is the 
artillery. Fixed on each gun carriage is a spare wheel, just as 
steamers carry a spare shaft to provide against accidents. As 
this formidable looking arm of the service passed quickly in front 
of us ten or twelve deep, it made the ground on which we stood 
literally shake. The men gave their cheer and their Vive, and 
received the usual salute from their master. 

It has been often said of Napoleon the Third that he is a very 
imperturbable man. I noticed a small but curious illustration 
of this at the review. He lifted his hat to each regiment as it 
cheered and passed. I watched him every time this occurred, 
and the uniform unimpassioned sameness with which he did it 
was really marvellous. Marvellous, because one can scarcely 
understand how, on such an occasion, he should remember to do 
so exactly in the same way. Yet he did. There could be no 
jealousy; regiment of the line, chasseurs, lancers, artillery, it was 
all the same ; he took the corner of his cocked hat in the same 
fashion, raised it to the same height, and replaced it with the same 
cool deliberation. 

An hour elapsed from the time Mass was over until the last of 
the artillery rolled by ; the Emperor and his staff returned to 
the imperial quarters, the crowds took their various routes home- 
wards, and the brilliant morning's work was over. 



THE able work by the Rev. Dr. Brady on the alleged con- 
version of the Irish Catholic bishops to the Reformed faith in 
the days of Elizabeth, is already well known to our readers. The 
assaults made on the bishops' constancy form but one part in the 
bloody drama then performed in Ireland by the English in their 
attempt to Protestantize this country. In a paper contributed to 
Frazer's Magazine? Dr. Brady supplements his original labour 
by giving an account of the general action of the machinery put 
in motion by the statesmen of the day to effect this purpose. 
Such an account amounts to a history, short, and yet full, of the 
Irish Protestant Church in the time of Elizabeth. It includes a 
sketch of the foundation of that Church, of its early growth, of 
the working of the causes that led to the failure of the attempt, 
and of the results, such as they were, which it achieved. We 
are certain that we shall give pleasure to our readers by extract- 
ing from this remarkable paper the conclusions to which Dr. 
Brady has arrived concerning each of these heads. We premise 
that our author comes to no conclusion rashly; that his is not a 
sketch from fancy ; but that for every detail he sets before us he 
has the sure warrant of documents of unquestionable genuineness 
and unimpeachable authority. 

I. Our first extract regards the foundation of the Establish- 

" Queen Elizabeth, on her accession to the throne, was a Roman 
Catholic. She had attended mass till her sister's death, and for some 
weeks after her accession her position was still ambiguous. At length 
she resolved to break with the Pope and establish Protestantism in 
her dominions. Her reforming measures were facilitated in England 
by the sympathies and active cooperation of many of her English sub- 
jects and by the power of her councillors. . . . But in Ireland it was 
different. The spiritual power of the Pope, which Henry the Eighth 
and Edward the Sixth had lessened but by a little, had been 
strengthened under Mary. The bishops and clergy, the laity both 
peers and peasants were Roman Catholic. The genius of the people 
was adverse to Protestantism. Nevertheless Elizabeth purposed and 
no other course seems to have ever suggested itself to her mind to 
make Ireland Protestant, pari passu with England. The acts of the 
English parliament, abolishing the Papal and enforcing the Reformed 
worship, were submitted to a so called Irish parliament in 1560. The 
Earl of Sussex, the deputy, who, under Mary and during the first 
months of Elizabeth's reign, was a public attendant at the Mass, 

1 The Irish Church in the time of Queen Elizabeth, by W. M. Brady, D.D., 
October, 1867. 

Rev. Dr. Brady on the Irish Church, etc. 85 

managed to get the Act of Uniformity and other reforming statutes 
passed by the Irish parliament by means of trickery or force. But 
the ' aversion' of this parliament ' to the Protestant religion and the 
ecclesiastical government' was such that Sussex was obliged to dis- 
solve it after a session of less than three weeks' duration. Arch- 
bishop Curwin, who was also Lord Chancellor of Ireland, was as 
unfortunate with a convocation of bishops, held in the same year, 
1560, as Sussex was with his parliament. The Bishop of Meath, 
* upon whom, as touching religion', the Irish ' wholly depended'- 
withstood him to his face, and this ' convocation' became abortive. 
These proceedings, delusive as they were, formed the basis of the 
State Church in Ireland. The Queen's Lieutenant warranted the 
consent of the Irish Lords and Commons. Curwin, the pliant Chan- 
cellor-Archbishop of Dublin, went voucher for the conformity of the 
Irish bishops, clergy, and people. The Reformation, assumed by a 
government fiction, was taken for an accomplished fact, and punish- 
ment was denounced wherever it was safe to do so upon all who 
ventured to reject it. The bishops of Kildare and Meath, whose sees 
were within the Pale, were the first victims to the new regime. They 
were cast into prison and deprived of their temporalities. The Bishop 
of Leighlin, who happened to have been in England, was brought 
before the Council at Greenwich, and made an abject submission, but 
when he returned to his diocese gave no further proof of conversion. 
Bishop Mant, whom Archdeacon William Lee quotes approvingly, 
asserts that the bishops of Meath and Kildare ' are the only two pre- 
lates who appear to have been deprived in the reign of Elizabeth', and 
that ' there is neither record, nor rational ground for suspicion, of 
the deprivation of any others'. The State Papers contradict both the 
bishop and the archdeacon, for in 1561 the Bishop of Ossory, and in 
1571 the Bishop of Limerick, and in 1585 the Bishop of Kilmore, 
were deprived of their sees. The bishops who were beyond the 
Queen's power, and therefore escaped deprivation, continued to 
enjoy their temporalities and celebrate the Mass, despite parliamen- 
tary prohibitions. The clergy in general, so far as they could, fol- 
lowed the example of their prelates. When overawed by an English 
garrison, they refrained from public celebrations. When the soldiers 
retired, they offered their worship in the churches as before. The 
people, whose faith had been thus altered for them by the Queen and 
her parliament, seemed nevertheless in no haste to desert their ancient 
creed. Within the Pale some few went to the Reformed service to 
escape the fines. Without the Pale they attended the Roman Catholic 
worship in defiance of the law. The unanimous testimony of the 
bishops whom Elizabeth appointed, was to the effect that the Irish 
people, from one end of the island to the other, pertinaciously per- 
sisted in the Roman Catholic faith. The church which the nation 
continued to love, and which Elizabeth affected to have altered or 
destroyed, experienced outside the Pale no very considerable incon- 
venience from the withdrawal of royal favour. The Irish chieftains 
solicited the Pope instead of the Queen to appoint their favourites to 

86 Rev. Dr. Brady on the Irish Church 

vacant sees. The temporalities were enjoyed by the appointees of the 
Pope, and her Majesty's nominees got little but empty titles. In 
Armagh the Catholic primate appeared in arms against her Majesty, 
the Protestant primate dared not adventure himself within his legal 
diocese, and the suffragan sees of Clogher, Derry, Kilmore, Ardagh, 
Down and Connor, and Raphoe remained, for twenty years and more, 
without a successful attempt on the Queen's part to introduce a Pro- 
testant prelate. In the provinces of Munster, Connaught, and Lein- 
ster, the Queen's bishops were mere political agents, trading on their 
position and plundering their see$. Loftus in Dublin, Sheyne in 
Cork, Magrath in Cashel, and O'Brien in Killaloe, were civil agents 
rather than bishops. The Queen chose her prelates not for their 
ability to persuade the people to purer doctrine, not for capability to 
preach the Gospel to them but for their fitness to increase the 
Queen's influence among powerful septs, and for their capabilities of 
conveying useful intelligence to the Castle. And thus the Reformed 
Episcopate became hateful to Irishmen as a mere machine of State, 
employed to aid in overturning the authority of the Irish chieftains, 
in destroying cherished customs, and in abolishing the national laws 
which the people had been from time immemorial accustomed to 
obey. It is not to be wondered at, under such circumstances, that 
the State Church should have remained for long a Church made up 
of English soldiers and settlers, and of English bishops, or of Irish 
bishops specially trained at Oxford or Cambridge in English habits. 
It is rather to be wondered at that Elizabeth and Burghley, Wal- 
singham and Sidney, should have for a moment regarded such an 
institution as the Reformed Church in Ireland as likely established 
and administered as it was to tend to anything but the permanent 
alineation of the Irish people". 

II. The early growth of the Establishment is thus described : 

" Loftus himself contributed to this deformity, and has left written 
tokens of how it was all done. For instance, in Ossory, the chief 
bishopric in his province, the Queen placed one Christopher Gafney 
as successor to John Thonery, a bishop appointed by Queen Mary, 
but returned as a defaulter in the First Fruit accounts, and deprived 
in 1561. Bishop Gafney, perhaps from conscientious scruples as to 
his own orders, ' never gave orders himself, but gave his license to 
a candidate for orders to get ordination more Romano from a Papal 
bishop of Killaloe lately consecrated by the Pope. Gafney's con- 
science, which kept him from ordaining, did not keep him from 
simony. He actually sold his archdeaconry ; and Archbishop Loftus, 
his metropolitan, allowed those Papal orders, and took no pains to 
punish his suffragan for getting a Papal bishop to perform his ordi- 
nation duties". 

In 1578 a dispute arose between the Irish Protestant bishops 
headed by Loftus, and the Queen's Ecclesiastical Commission for 
Ireland, which was not settled until Loftus was admitted to a 

in the time of Queen Elizabeth. 87 

share in the profits. This dispute led to much recrimination 
between the parties. The accounts forwarded by either side to 
the council contain strange revelations concerning the state of the 
Irish Establishment at that period. Dr. Brady thus profits by 
their candour : 

" The commissioners were two in number. One was George Ack- 
worth, Doctor of Civil Law, a clergyman who had been deprived of 
his living in England for inordinate life ; the other was Robert 
Garvey, who was not in holy orders, and was only a Bachelor in 

Civil Law 

" Garvey gives a list of some incumbents whom the bishops tolera- 
ted, but whom he ejected. As specimens of these Reformed incum- 
bents, * George Cusack' may be noted, * a lay servingman', who 
usurped the benefice of Kentstown in Meath ; and in the same 
diocese, at Galtrim, ' Robert Nugent, a horseman of the Baron of 
Delvin's retinue' ; at Kilmessan, ' John Barnewell, a young boy of 
Dublin' ; and at Killavy, ' Lucas Plunkett, prentice to a vintner in 
Dublin', On the other hand, Loftus charges the Commissioners with 
giving livings to laymen and persons who did not take the oath of 
supremacy and abjuration. * There have been a great sort admitted 
by them to benefices without taking the oath of her Majesty's title, 
whose names I will be ready to declare', writes the archbishop, 
* when I shall be thereto required'. Among the abuses which Ack- 
worth and Garvey committed, Loftus reckons the grants for simony 
made to William Keogh, or Keho, the archdeacon of Ossory, on the 
llth of April, 1577, and to Thomas Vale, the vicar of Kirke in 
Ossory, on the 13th of June, 1578. He mentioned also a dispensa- 
tion, granted on the 16th of November, 1577, to Thomas, son of 
Edmond Power, to hold Mothel (a vicarage with cure) without resi- 
dence, and with a dispensation for seven years of his minority, he 
being a boy of ten years old. To Robert Gafney, ' Chanter of Kil- 
kenny', who was ' very ignorant, utterly void of knowledge of God 
and his religion', and whose ' orders were given by one that had no 
authority thereto', a dispensation was also given on the 7th of 
August, 1578, for ' confirming orders taken by him of a runagate 
from Rome, pretending himself to be Bishop of Killaloe by the 
Pope's authority'. This practice of granting letters dimissory by the 
Queen's bishops to their Papal rivals, was not confined to one diocese 
or bishop, for Loftus says : ' Already there hath been allowances by 
dispensation made by the Commissioners of such as have within 
these two or three years received their orders of traitors, runagates 
which came from Rome, pretending to be bishops by the Pope's 
authority'. Garvey himself confesses to a ' great number of priests 
ordered as aforesaid, and admitted by the bishops' in Ireland, ' to 
serve in their several dioceses' ; and declares that ' the said Gafney 
took his orders [from the Papal bishop] by the license and with the 
commendation of his ordinary (the late bishop of Ossory [Christopher 
Gafney], who never gave orders himself), and was tolerated in his 

88 Rev< Dr. Brady on the Irish Church, etc. 

said orders, and had execution of them a good while after he took 
them, both by his ordinary and metropolitan'. This conduct of the 
Bishop of Ossory removes all surprise at the presence of his name 
among the bishops who, in 1569, petitioned (through the Papal arch- 
bishop MacGibbon) the king of Spain and the Pope 

Another glimpse into the character of Loftus and the work- 
ing of the Establishment is afforded by the articles sent to Eng- 
land in 1580 against Sir John Bell, who was nephew to Lord 
Chancellor Weston, and, although a layman, was Dean of St. 
Patrick's : 

" Ball was not in holy orders, and yet he got from Loftus the 
archdeaconry of Glendalough and the parsonage of Newcastle. He 
was not a civilian, and yet was appointed by Loftus to be com- 
missary to the Archbishop of Dublin. Ball was ' greatly suspected 
to be a Papist, or else a newter, which is worse'. He ' refused to wear 
a surplice in the time of cathedral service', and was ' not contented 
with his own stall next the chanter, but installed his wife in the seat 
next unto him'. It was further objected against Ball, that being com- 
plained of by many for his licentious life, and also being presented to 
the Lord Chancellor, the Dean of St. Patrick's, ' by the oath of the 
vicars of the said church, who were sworn to present the misdemean- 
ours in the same', for impropriety with one Cicely Fletcher, a woman 
of evil conversation, 'notwithstanding he is married and hath his 
wife there lechery being incident to popery yet by the sufferance' 
of the dean his uncle ' he is winked at, to the maintenance of others 
as evil disposed as himself, and to the great grief of a number of true- 
hearted subjects to see such apparent vices unpunished in the com- 
monwealth'. And being commissary, and having any rich men in 
the country in the censures of the church for similar offences, ' he 
absolves them for money in the fields, to cover their crimes with the 
Pope's absolution, " Absolvo te", etc., and hath been seen and heard 
by credible persons giving that absolution on horseback in the fields 
the penitent kneeling before him which is his common practice, to 
get money as he visits in the country*. Ball was also accused of 
affording special opportunities to ' fair and well favoured women' 
who needed absolution, never putting them to the annoyance of having 
their causes tried in open court, but politely hearing them in private. 
This John Ball, who was suspected of so many offences, was actually 
recommended by Loftus to Burghley, in the snme year, 1580, for 
the office of registrar to the Commission, and collector of fines under 
the Commissioners for ecclesiastical causes". 




A Dublin priest proposes the question, whether incense should 
be used at a Missa Cantata? 

The Congregation of Rites supplies us with the answer to this 
question; for, it expressly decides that in a Missa Cantata 
incense should not be used. Thus when consulted : " An quando 
Missa canitur sine ministris, thurificari possit tarn Altare quam 
Chorus, ut alias fit, quando Ministri adsunt?" it replied on the 
19th August, 1651, negative. Subsequently when interrogated: 
" An in Missa conventuali dierum solemnium quae absque cantu 
ac Ministris celebratur, fieri possit thurificatio ?" it again answered 
negative on 22nd January, 1701: and in fine, another question 
being proposed: "An in Missa conventuali absque Diaconis 
cantata, adsistentibus tamen Thuriferario et Ceroferariis, et prae- 
sente Clero seu Communitate, adhiberi possit thus tarn in princi- 
pio Missae quam in Evangelio et oifertorio?" it confirmed the 
preceding decisions, and again replied negative on 18th Decem- 
ber, 1779. 

Some authors, we are informed, hold that incense may be used 
at the Missa Cantata. But, as this opinion is clearly contra- 
dicted by the decisions quoted above, it is not allowable to follow 
it in practice. 

Other liturgical questions with which we have been favoured 
are unavoidably held over for the present. 



The Irish bishops whilst assisting in Rome at the solemn cele- 
bration of the Centenary of the Princes of the Apostles, availed 
themselves of that opportunity to present a petition to the Holy 
See, requesting that the diocesan festivals of Irish saints, which 
have hitherto through apostolic Indult been celebrated in particu- 
lar dioceses, might be extended to all Ireland. The Holy Father 
was pleased to grant their request, and thus the following saints 
will be henceforward commemorated throughout all the dioceses 
of our island : 



Name of Saint. 

Diocese in which hitherto 

Festival [Day. 

St Munchin, 


2nd January. 




* Ita, 








6th February. 



5th March. 




,, Macartin, 





17th April. 






3rd May. 









3rd June. 






7th ,. 

,, Fedlimidh, 


9th August. 


A chonry , 


















Down and Connor, 

3rd September. 


















24th November. 



18th December. 


Regni fliberniae. 

Eminentissimus et Reverendissimus Dominus Cardinalis Paulus 
Oullen Archiepiscopus Dublinensis, aliique Archiepiscopi et Epis- 
copi Hiberniae Romae praesentes ad solemnia canonizationis 
peractae in Vaticano Templo XVIII. Centenario recurrence 
quo gloriosi Apostolorum Principes Petrus et Paulus sanguinera 
suum pro Christo fuderunt, humillimis precibus a Sanctissimo 
Domino Nostro Pio Papa IX. postulaverunt ut Festa Sanctorum 
Hiberniae qui de Apostolicae Sedis venia modo in una vel altera 
Dioecesi recoluntur, amodo in singulis Kalendariis Dioecesium 
illius regionis inscribi valeant; verum sub ritu duplici minori 
tantum. Sanctitas vero Sua haec vota ab infrascripto Substitute 
Secretario Sacrorum Rituum Congregationis relata, clementer 
excipiens benigne pro gratia annuere dignata est juxta preces; 
dummodo tamen in assignandis diebus pro illorum celebratione 

Documents. 91 

in singulis Kalendariis Rubricae et decreta adairmssim serventur. 
Contrariis non obstantibus quibuscumque. 
Die 8 Augusti, 1867. 

C. Episcopus Portuensis et S. RUFINAE, CARD. PATRIZI, 

S. R. C. Praef. 
% Locus sigilli. 

Pro R. P. D. DOMINICO BARTOLINI, Secretario. 
Concordat cum origin ali. 




Illme. et Rme. Domine. 

Literis die 3 Februarii anni 1865 ad RR. PP. DD. sacrorum 
Antistites Angliae datis Sacrum Consilium Chr. Nom. Propag. sighi- 
ficavit se libentissime confirmasse sententiam a laudatis Episcopis in 
recenti Londinensi conventu unanimiter propositam de Collegiis penes 
Universitates Anglicanas Oxfordiensem ac Cantabrigensem non eri- 
gendis, deque parentibus catholicis opportune persuadendis ne suos 
filios ad eas Universitates mitterent, quod videlicet idem Sacrum 
Concilium Episcoporum sententiam apprime consonam vidisset prin- 
cipiis iuxta Summi Pontificis mentem a se traditis, quoties de 
scholarum mixtarum periculis consulta fuerat. Porro cum per epis- 
tolam encyclicam ad clerum datam sub die 24 Martii 1865 praesules 
sententiam supradictam a sacra hac Congregatione connruiatam 
Sacerdotibus per suas Dioeceses patefecissent, sperandum erat fore 
ut eidem patresfamilias catholici se conformarent, quo filios suos a 
perversionis periculis omnino arcerent. Verum nonnulla quae 
recenter evenerunt facta satis ostenderunt declarationes in rem a 
S. Sede emanatas ac laudatam Episcoporum ad minores Sacerdotes 
encyclicam non fuisse sufficiente'r promulgatas, ideoque necessarium 
apparet ut literae pastorales a singulis Angliae Praesulibus divul- 
gentur, quibus Cleris pariter ac fidelibus suarum Dioecesium perspi- 
cuam ac certain tribuant agendi normam in re sane gravissima, quae 
cum aeterna animarum salute apprime connectitur. 

Quoniam vero non omnes idem tulere iudicium acatholicis Univer- 
sitatibus devitandis, ac quidam etiam non defuerunt, qui censerent 
tolerari posse ut catholica iuventus praedicta instituta frequentaret 
sive ob temporalia emolumenta quae in iis comparantur, sive quod in 
ipsorum sententia certa lex non appareat qua ad illis accessus absolute 
prohibeatur, operae pretium arbitror, ut Amplitude tua clare explicet 
in epistola pastorali doctrinam de proxiinis peccandi graviter occasio- 

92 Documents. 

nibus devitandis, quibus nemo sine lethali peccato exponere seipsum 
potest, nisi gravis urgeat ac proportionata necessitas, ac nisi tales 
adhibeantur cautiones, quibus periculum peccandi proximum remo- 
veatur. lam vero in re de qua agitur, cui, ex Summi Pontificis 
declaratione, intrinsecum gravissimumque inest periculum non pro 
morum tantum honestate sed praesertim pro fide, quae ad salutem 
omnino est necessaria, quis non videt vix aut ne vix quidem dari 
posse adiuncta ilia in quibus absque peccato acatholicae Universitates 
frequententur ? Levitas ingenii atque instabilitas adolescentium, 
errores qui quasi cum aura in dictis Institutis hauriuntur absque anti- 
doto solidioris doctrinae, maxima vis quam in iuvenes exercent 
humani respectus ac sodalium irrisiones, tarn praesens tamque proxi- 
mum in adolescentes inducunt labendi periculum, ut nulla generatim 
sufficiens ratio concipi queat, propter quam adolescentes acatholicis 
Universitatibus committantur. Quae cum ita sint erit sapientiae 
tuae ita argumentis auctoritatis ac rationis uti in epistola divulganda, 
ut tandem aliquando omnibus sacerdotibus pariter ac fidelibus laicis 
quid in negotio isto gravissimo sentire atque agere oporteat perspi- 
cuum sit. Ceterum non praetermittam Amplitudini tuae inculcare, 
ut ita agas cum ceteris Angliae Episcopis, quo videlicet epistola, de 
qua supra, et uniformi ratione concipiatur et pari uniformitate execu- 
tion! mandetur. 

PrecorDeum ut Te diu sospitem servet incolumemque. 
Komae ex Aed. S. C. de P. F. die 6 Augusti 1867. 
A Tuae, 

Ad officia paratissimus 

H. Capalti, Secrius. 

R. P. D. Henrico Ed. Manning, 

Archiepiscopo Westmonasteriensi. 


OCTOBER, 1867. 

On the Disendowment of the Protestant Church Establishment, and 
the Application of its Revenues. The Archbishops and Bishops of 
Ireland, seeing that the Government and Parliament are preparing 
to deal bylaw with the Irish Protestant Church Establishment, deem 
it their duty to declare : 

1. That the Irish Protestant Church Establishment is maintained 
chiefly, almost exclusively, by property and revenues unjustly alie- 
nated from the rightful owner, the Catholic Church of Ireland : 
that Irish Catholics cannot cease to feel as a gross injustice and as an 
abiding insult the continued, even partial, maintenance of that Es- 

Documents, 93 

tablishment out of that endowment, or in any other way, at their 
expense an Establishment, to which, as to their fountain-head, are 
to be traced the waters of bitterness which poison the relations of 
life in Ireland, and estrange from one another Protestants and Catho- 
lics, who ought to be an united people. 

2. That, notwithstanding the rightful claim of the Catholic Church 
in Ireland to have restored to it the property and revenues of which 
it was unjustly deprived, the Irish Catholic Bishops hereby reaffirm 
the subjoined resolutions of the Bishops assembled in the years 
1837, 1841, and 1843 ; and, adhering to the letter and spirit of 
those resolutions, distinctly declare that they will not accept endow- 
ment from the state out of the property and revenues now held by 
the Protestant Establishment, nor any other State endowment what- 

The following are the Resolutions referred to: 

RESOLVED " That, alarmed at the report that an attempt is likely to he made, 
during the approaching session of Parliament, to make a State provision for the 
Roman Catholic Clergy, we deem it an imperative duty not to separate without 
recording the expression of our strongest reprobation of any such attempt, and of 
our unalterable determination to resist, by every means in our power, a measure 
so fraught with mischief to the independence and purity of the Catholic Church in 
Ireland" Resolution of the Irish Bishops in 1837. 

RESOLVED "That His Grace the Most Reverend Dr. Murray he requested to 
call a Special General Meeting of the Prelates of all Ireland, in case that he shall 
have clear proof, or well-grounded apprehension, that the odious and alarming 
scheme of a State provision for the Catholic clergy of this portion of the empire 
he contemplated by the Government, before the next General Meeting" Resolu- 
tion of the Irish Bishops in 1841. 

RESOLVED "That the preceding Resolutions he now repuhlished, in order to 
make known to our faithful clergy and people, and to all others concerned, that 
our firm determination on this subject remains unchanged; and that we unani- 
mously pledge ourselves to resist by every influence we possess, every attempt 
that may be made to make any State provision for the Catholic clergy, in whatever 
shape or form it may be offered" Resolution moved by the Most Rev. Dr. Mur- 
ray^ seconded by the Most Rev. Dr. flattery, and unanimously adopted at a 
Meeting of the Prelates of Ireland, in Dublin, loth A'oy., 1843, the Most Rev. 
Dr. MacHale in the Chair. 

3. That in thus declaring their determination to keep the Church 
of Ireland free and independent of State control or interference, the 
Bishops of Ireland are happily in accord with instructions received 
from the Holy See in the years 1801 and 1805, as well as with the 
course pursued by the Irish Bishops of that day in conformity with 
those instructions. 

When a project for the endowment of the Catholic clergy hy the British Go- 
vernment was proposed at the end of last century, Pope Pius the Seventh gave 
the following instructions to the Irish Bishops through the Secretary of Propa- 

"The Holy Father most earnestly desires, that the Irish clergy, continuing to 
pursue the praiseworthy line of conduct hitherto followed hy them, shall scrupu- 
lously abstain from seeking for themselves any temporal advantages; and that, 
while by word and deed they express their unvarying attachment, gratitude, and 
submission to the British Government, and give still more sensible proof of their 
gratitude for these fresh favours offered to them, they shall, nevertheless, decline 
to accept them, and thereby give a bright example of that constant disinterested- 

94 Documents. 

ness which so becomes the apostolic zeal of the ministers of the sanctuary, and 
which confers so much advantage and honour on the Catholic Religion, by win- 
ning for its ministers, in a remarkable degree, that esteem and respect which ren- 
der them more worthy of the reverence and love of the faithful committed to their 
spiritual charge. 

" These are precisely the sentiments which our Holy Father has commanded 
the Secretary of the Propaganda to communicate to you, Reverend Father, that 
through you they may be conveyed without delay to the excellent Metropolitans 
and Bishops of the Kingdom of Ireland". 

The same sentiments are repeated, and at much greater length, in another let- 
ter from the Secretary of Propaganda, dated 29th September, 1805. 

4. That the Bishops are confident that the Catholics of Ireland 
will receive with joy this repudiation of a State endowment for the 
Irish Church ; and that they will never cease to give, without any 
legal compulsion, the support which they have hitherto freely and 
dutifully accorded to their Clergy and Religious Institutions. 

5. That by the appropriating Ecclesiastical property of Ireland 
for the benefit of the poor, the Legislature would realize one of the 
purposes for which it was originally destined, and to which it was 
applied in Catholic times. 

On National Education. 1. The assembled Bishops hereby reaf- 
firm the resolutions in reference to Education adopted in a General 
Meeting, held by the Bishops of Ireland in Dublin, on the 4th and 
following days of August, 1863, which are as follows : 

(a) " That the Bishops of Ireland, assembled in obedience to the instructions of 
the Sovereign Pontiff, and having their attention particularly directed, by his 
authority, to the National System of Education, reiterate their condemnation of 
the principle on which that system is based, namely, the principle of mixed edu- 
cation, as intrinsically unsound, and as unsafe in practice, as at variance with the 
interests of Catholic religion and dangerous to the faith of their flocks. 

(6) " They object to the enforcement on the Catholic people of Ireland of a 
system in which religion is unnaturally separated from secular instruction ; in 
which the State would substitute its own power for the authority of the Catholic 
Church in respect to the education of Catholic youth, and by ignoring the pastoral 
rights of the Catholic clergy, would deprive education of the only adequate secu- 
rity for its religious safety which the Catholic Church can acknowledge. 

(c) " That no change in the constitution of the body charged with the admin- 
istration of a mixed system of education can compensate for its inherent defects, 
or neutralize its injurious action. 

(cO " That the constitution of the Model and Training Schools, as has been 
repeatedly declared by the Bishops of Ireland, evidently conflicts with the prin- 
ciples of the Catholic Church ; that we again condemn them as specially dange- 
rous ; that we again hereby warn our flocks against them; and we enjoin on our 
priests to use their best exertions to withdraw children from them, and at the same 
time to endeavour, to the utmost of their ability, to provide equally good secular 
education for the youth of their respective parishes ; and that we require a punc- 
tual observance of the resolution adopted at the last General Meeting of Irish 
Bishops a copy of which we here subjoin, viz. : 

" ' That, convinced of the importance of Catholic teachers being trained only in 
Catholic model schools, we direct that no priest shall, after the first day of next 
term, send any person to be trained as a teacher, either in the central or model 
school, or in any other model school, or in any way cooperate with other patrons 
of National Schools in sending, after that date, teachers to be so trained, and that 
no teachers who shall be sent to be trained after that date in any model school, 
shall be employed as such by any priest, or with his consent'. 

(e) "That we have leained, with the greatest satisfaction, that in the dioceses 
in which the Model Schools were introduced or upheld against the authority of the 

Documents. 95 

respective Bishops, the measures taken to prevent the attendance of Catholic children 
have been most successful ; that we congratulate those zealous Bishops on that 
success, and on the fidelity of their clergy and people. 

(/ ) " That the fiction of a mixed attendance of Catholics and Protestants 
at ordinary National Schools has been so thoroughly exposed in a Parlia- 
mentary report, as" to render it quite easy for the Government to accede to the 
legitimate claims of Catholics for the reconstruction of those frequented by 
Catholic children. Those claims are : that the Teachers be Catholics, approved 
of by the Bishops and priests severally concerned; that school books, such as those 
compiled by the Christian Brothers, or like them in Catholic tone and spirit, be 
used in those schools ; that the use of religious emblems in the schools and the 
arrangement for religious instruction be not interfered with ; and that those schools 
be inspected only by Catholic Inspectors appointed as in England. 

(#) " That as it is expedient to have teachers trained to teach, and as such 
training, being part of a well-regulated system of education, is acknowledged to 
be justly chargeable on the public educational funds, an adequate portion of that 
public money is due to the Catholic people of Ireland for the training of Catholic 
teachers for Catholic schools receiving aid from the State ; and that, as Catholic 
teachers cannot have recourse with safety to the existing Training Schools, a sepa- 
rate establishment for Catholics, approved of by competent ecclesiastical authority, 
is necessary, and should be provided at the public expense; or Catholic teachers 
should be trained and supported at the public expense in existing Catholic Institu- 
tions approved of by the Bishops. 

(Ji) " That, as it is forbidden by the Bishops to send Catholic teachers to the 
existing Training Schools, and as it is the duty of Catholic parents, in obedience 
to the instructions of their pastors, to withdraw their children from existing 
Model Schools, Catholic Commissioners fail in the respect and obedience due to 
ecclesiastical authority, if they require Catholic schoolmasters or induce Catholic 
pupils to go for training or education to those Schools. 

(i) "That we declare it to be the duty of Catholic Commissioners of National 
Education to use their utmost endeavours to effect such a fundamental alteration 
in the system as will allow aid to be granted for Schools exclusively and avowedly 
Catholic, as to teachers, books, and other religious characteristics; and that, fail- 
ing to effect such change, they ought to withdraw from a position in which they 
they can neither do good nor prevent mischief. 

(/ ) " That we caution our priests against accepting building grants under such 
conditions as arc contained in leases which the National Board has lately prepared, 
and against concurring in the acceptance of grants on those conditions by others". 

2. The Bishops call particular attention to the resolution (c?) which 
declares that the constitution of the Model and Training Schools 
evidently conflicts with the principles of the Catholic Church, and 
which enjoins on priests to use their best exertions to withdraw 
children from them, as being specially dangerous. They direct that 
that resolution be promulgated anew in all parishes from which it 
may be apprehended that children would go to those schools, and 
that priests be again instructed that it is their duty to enforce it to 
the utmost of their power. 

3. They also direct that the resolution of the Bishops assembled 
in May, 1862, regarding the training of teachers, and of which, in 
their meeting of August, 1863, the Bishops required a punctual ob- 
servance, be again notified to all Catholic managers of National 

4. The meeting decides that a petition be sent to Parliament 
praying for such a change in the existing National System of Educa- 
tion as may afford to the Catholics of Ireland all the advantages to 
which they are entitled. 

9$ Documents. 

On the Catholic University. .That we call on the people and clergy 
of Ireland to contribute generously to the funds of the Catholic Uni- 
versity, and to use every effort to make the approaching collection as 
ample as possible. 

On Secret Societies, and on the Means of establishing Peace and 
Prosperity in Ireland. Whilst we warn our flocks against the crimi- 
nal folly of engaging in secret societies or open insurrection against 
the Government of the country, we also declare to the Government 
our profound conviction, that peace and prosperity will never be 
permanently established in Ireland till the Protestant Church is 
totally disendowed, education in all its departments made free, and 
the fruits of their capital secured to the agricultural classes. 


The Bishop of Birmingham has addressed a Pastoral to his flock, in 
which he communicates to them the letter of the Propaganda which 
we have given above at page 91. We give the following extract : 

" This document was at once published to all and each of the 
clergy throughout England. But although formally addressed to the 
clergy, it was obviously an instruction for the laity. To them also it 
became widely known, and received a new circulation through our 
Catholic press. Yet some among the laity drew the unsound dis- 
tinction, that what was only addressed to the clergy was not directed 
to them ; although its very terms indicated that the clergy received 
this instruction for the express purpose of its being conveyed to the 
laity. However, to remove all further objection on this head, we 
now give this document the same promulgation to the laity which has 
already been given to the clergy. And we declare to all the faithful 
within our pastoral charge, that parents ought to be in every way 
discouraged from sending their children to pursue their studies at 
Protestant universities. To send them to these universities is to place 
them within an atmosphere and beneath a combination of influences 
so completely and exclusively Protestant, that it cannot be otherwise 
than perilous to the faith and conscience of Catholic youth. From 
their constitution, the religious views of their teachers, and the spirit 
that pervades them, these great educational institutions are essentially 
anti- Catholic. Nor could any legal relaxation of their exclusiveness 
make them otherwise. On the contrary, it will but open them to a 
wider sectarianism, to a freer scepticism, and to a confirmed spirit of 
indifferentism ; to all, in short, that is adverse to the fundamental 
principle of Catholicism. And what is this principle ? That there is 
a fixed and certain truth made known to man, a creed imposed upon 
his conscience, which he can neither change nor question without 
apostatizing from the light and law of God", 



__^ ' / 

DECEMBER, 1867. 


WE hear it sometimes asked, " Why does the Catholic Church 
have so many canonizations, jubilees, and religious displays?" 
We pity those who speak in this way, for they do not seem 
to understand the destiny of the Church. If the Church, con- 
nected as she is with the advance of the human race, has her 
interests to look after in the revolutions which agitate the world ; 
if, in order to protect her rights, which are attacked or are not 
recognized, she is obliged occasionally to interfere in the strug- 
gles which arise between men, this is but one aspect of her his- 
tory, though it seems to be the only one which impresses super- 
ficial and unthinking minds. At the same time that she shows 
this exterior action of Catholicity, there is wrought in her heart 
a mysterious work, which reveals the divine illuminations of the 
faith. It is an admirable exchange, a divine intercourse between 
heaven and earth the world offering to heaven its supplications, 
its atonements, the heroic virtues of its saints, and the merits of 
its martyrs; heaven bestowing upon the world its aid for the 
combat, its abundant graces, the seeds of sanctity. At certain 
eventful periods, when greater perils call forth more generous 
sacrifices and more earnest appeals to heaven, the mystery of 

1 The feast of the Martyrs of Gorcum lias long had its place among the feasts 
proper to the Irish clergy. The sketch here presented to our readers cannot fail 
to increase devotion in Ireland to those heroic men so lately enrolled among the 
saints. We are indebted for it, in the first instance, to the Etudes Reliyieuses, 
edited by the French Jesuits, and next, to the Catholic World, edited by F. 
Hecker, of New York, in which it appeared as we now reprint it. 


98 The Martyrs of Gorcum. 

this inward life of the Church shines forth in marvellous events, 
which overturn all preconceived human opinion, and confound 
the wisdom of the world. We see, then, a throne, which remains 
firm without any apparent support, and on this throne an old, 
helpless man, who holds all the powers of revolution in check; 
we see a society, against which are unchained all anarchical pas- 
sions, face the storm which threatens to overwhelm it, proclaim 
its proscribed doctrines without fear, lead nations which had 
wandered into the paths of naturalism back to the fold of the 
Church, and maintain its independence against the coalition of 

Has a pontificate ever shown this divine spectacle of the 
struggle of spiritual forces with the powers of materialism better 
than that of Pius the Ninth ? To the increasing oppression of vice 
the Pope does not cease to oppose the miracles of virtue and the 
fruits of grace which distinguish the elect of God. To the inso- 
lent cries of error he replies by the calm affirmation of eternal 
truth. The assaults of impiety he resists only by the prayers of 
pure souls, by the intercession of those saints to whom he has 
in-anted the honours of veneration, and by the aid of the Blessed 
Virgin, whose conception he has proclaimed immaculate. So, 
when a voice, disturbing the harmony of our love and gratitude, 
was lately heard to ask the ill-timed question, " Why so many 
saints?" what was the reply of the pontiff, in whom his faithful 
children venerate the wise man of the gospel, drawing from his 
treasure in opportune time the old good and the new? " They 
reproach me", said he, with his accustomed sweetness, "for 
making too many saints, but I cannot promise to correct this 
fault. Have we not more need than ever of intercessors in heaven, 
and models of religious virtue in the world ?" 

In 1852, a distinguished prelate, who has since entered into 
the repose of the Lord, Mgr. de Salinis, pointed out to the faith- 
ful of the diocese of Amiens, in announcing a jubilee, the super- 
natural character which distinguishes the acts of Pius the Ninth. 
* You do not ask", he wrote, " the reason of the munificence 
which lavishes upon you lavours which at other times go forth 
but rarely from the treasure of the Church. It suffices for us to 
know that the Vicar of Jesus Christ receives light from above 
which is given only to him. He who holds the keys of the 
kingdom of heaven can alone tell the time when it is good to 
spread over the earth the waves of divine mercy. He who directs 
the bark of the Church through the storms of this world can 
question the winds, and discover in the horizon the signs which 
warn him to urge on the journey of the ship. He who is the 
common father of all Christians alone knows the needs of his 
immense family. His glance, which watches over every place 

The Martyrs of Gorcum. 99 

that the sun shines upon his solicitude, which embraces all 
evil and all virtue his heart, which feels all the sorrows of the 
Spouse of Christ his prayers, in which are summed up all the 
prayers of the Church, the particular inspiration which God 
reserves for him who holds His place on earth all these reveal 
to him, so far as is necessary, the proportion which should exist 
between grace and misery". 1 

This is the reply that should be made to these petiis gSnies 
who presume to criticise the Holy See, and put the counsels 
of their mean diplomacy in the place of the inspirations of God. 
Do these men, whose minds are so enlightened, not see that 
they are in the presence of an administration of supernatural 
power? Do they not feel the strength of the church mili- 
tant ranged about its chief, and praying with him for the assist- 
ance of the church triumphant ? Do they not witness the pious 
eagerness of the people to venerate, to invoke, and to imitate the 
new patrons which are given them ? 

The eyes of all the obedient children of the Church are now 
turned toward Rome. The Catholic world, in a rapture of faith 
and piety, is united to the pilgrims of the holy city, to the 
bishops, and to the bishop of bishops, celebrating the triumph 
of Peter, always living and reigning in his successors, applaud- 
ing the glory of the legion of the blessed that the churches of 
Poland, of Spain, of the Netherlands, of Italy, of France, and 
of Japan, have given to the Church of Rome, their common 
mother, and to the Church of Heaven, the lasting city of the 

We should have'liked, if our space and time allowed, to say 
something of the many beautiful subjects -that this happy time 
suggests ; the coming, the episcopate, and the martyrdom of St. 
Peter at Rome, the lives and virtues of the saints proposed for 
our veneration. We should have taken pleasure in retracing the 
sweet picture of that humble child of the people who represents 
France in this illustrious group of the Blessed; of that little 
shepherdess of Pibrac, whose name will henceforth be popular 
in the fatherland of Genevieve and Joan of Arc. 2 But who 
among us has not heard of Germaine Cousin, her poor and suffer- 
ing life, her angelic virtues, the marvellous favours due to her 
intercession ? And who can add to the glory of this young saint, 
who in addition to the honour of being placed upon our altars, 
has had such a historian as M. Louis Veuillot, and such a pane- 
gyrist as the Bishop of Poitiers ? 

1 Charges, Pastoral Instructions , and Various Discourses of Mgr. de Salinis, 
Paris, Vaton. 1856. 

2 Vie, Vertus, et Miracles dn h B. Germaine Cousin, bergere. Par. M. Louis 
Veuilllot. Paris, Palme. (Euvres de M. I'Eveque de Poitiers, t. ii. p. 109. 

100 The Martyrs of G or cum, 

We propose, then, to follow those saints who are at present 
less known among us, but who in the future must not be 
strangers. It is a page in the history of the Church which should 
be made prominent, and in devoting our time to it we are sure 
of obtaining the approbation of him whom God has given us 
to be at once our Father and our Master. 


"We are aware that even the name of the martyrs of Gorcum 
was until recently quite unknown to the greater part of the 
learned. Modern historians are not accustomed to eulogize the 
merits of the victims of schism and heresy. But the Church 
never forgets her children who have perished in the cause of 
God ; and God Himself takes care of His servants by multi- 
plying miracles over their tombs. These nineteen martyrs of 
Gorcum, who suffered for the faith on the 9th of July, 1572, 
were placed in the ranks of the blessed by Clement the Tenth 
in 1675, and since that time they have always been held in 
the greatest veneration in Belgium and Holland. It is now 
almost three years since our Holy Father, yielding to those 
inspirations of which his life is full, felt the desire that the 
supreme honours of the Church should be paid to these noble 
champions of Jesus Christ; and January 6th, 1865, the day 
of the Epiphany, his Holiness caused a decree to be read 
in his presence, ordering the proceedings to be instituted for 
their solemn canonization. The preamble of the decree deserves 
notice, it says: "Born of the blood of Jesus Christ, and 
nourished with the blood of martyrs, the Catholic Church will 
be exposed to bloody persecutions until the end of the world. 
And it is not without a marvellous design of divine Provi- 
dence that the cause of these illustrious victims of the Calvin- 
istic heresy of the sixteenth century is taken up and completed 
in these unhappy days, when heretics and false brothers are 
recommencing a war, an implacable war, against Jesus Christ, 
against His holy Church, and against this holy Apostolic See". 
Tne Holy Father expressed the same thought in a discourse 
which followed the promulgation of the decree. " The Most 
High", said he, " has reserved for this time the glorification of 
these Holland martyrs, to prove to our century, full of scorn or 
indiffeience for the revealed faith and plunged in the grossest 
materialism, that the memory of the martyr is never forgotten 
in the Church of Jesus Christ, that there always are men ready 
to shed their blood for that faith, and a supreme authority which 
is always ready to recognize their merits". 

The object of the Sovereign Pontiff is not uncertain ; it is to 
call the attention of the world to the fact of the continual recur- 

The Martyrs of Gorciim. 101 

rence of martyrs in the Church ; to cite these heroes, who have 
sealed the faith with their blood, as an example and a witness ; 
such has been the special aim in canonizing the martyrs of Gor- 
cum. Far be it from the holy Church to stifle the voice of 
blood which has flowed from the veins of her children for nine- 
teen centuries! This blood, shed in every land, from the most 
barbarous to the most cultivated, bears witness everywhere that 
the mother of martyrs is also the faithful spouse of Jesus Christ. 
The Catholic Church is peculiarly a witness, while the sects about 
us are founded on negation and doubt. Our blessed Lord was the 
first witness, and the truth of His testimony He Las sealed on 
the cross and in His cruel passion ; the apostles were witnesses to 
Him who had sent them and the doctrine they were bidden to 
teach ; they have gone to give their testimony to the Good Mas- 
ter ; and now their faith and prayers sustain their children even 
to the extremities of the earth, making them gladly choose to 
die sooner than deny that faith that cost the Son of God His life. 
This illustrious testimony of blood has never ceased from the 
day of Calvary up to the present nineteenth century ; the suc- 
cession of martyrs is like the Church herself, for it knows no 
limits of time or space ; they are dying to-day in Cochin-Ciiina 
and Corea, as they have died in Japan in former years, as they 
have died in Europe, when Protestantism swept over that fair 
portion of the flock of Christ, and as millions died in the Roman 
.Empire under the pagan Caesars. Look at what Rome offers 
to-day to the world: a noble army of martyrs gathered about 
Saints Peter and Paul, the victims of Nero, the valiant soldiers 
of such fearless chiefs ; the B. Josophat, Archbishop of Polotsk, 
slain by followers of the Moscovite schism ; B. Peter Arbues, 
murdered by Jews in the church of Saragossa; our nineteen 
martyrs of Gorcum, the victims of the assassins of Calvinism; 
and two hundred and five who sweetly yielded up their lives 
for the faith in Japan. 

Schism and heresy are always ready to conceal the blood 
which stains so many pages of their annals, and to hide the 
crimes which dishonour their ancestors. But, if the living are 
silent, the dead are now speaking to us from their tombs; the 
victims of Protestantism have risen from their graves to bear 
witness to the truth. We cannot thank Pius the Ninth too much 
for proposing for the veneration of the Church these champions 
of the faith, who have fallen so gloriously in the struggles of 
modern society, and on the same battle-field, as it were, where 
we continue to engage the foes of our holy mother, the Church. 
Nor can we praise the historians enough who have consecrated 
their talent to the sacred work of writing the account of these 
persecutions, and showing forth to Catholic and Protestant the 

102 The Martyrs of Gorcum. 

glorious record of these martyrs of tiie sixteenth century. The 
time has now come to count our slain, that the remembrance 
of their fortitude may awake Christian faith and zeal in our 

The three centuries that have passed since the impious Luther 
first dared to raise the standard of revolt against the holy Church 
bear a resemblance to the first centuries of the Christian era. 
To-day Protestantism is ready to fall to pieces; it is the " sick 
man" among the religions of the world, as Turkey is among the 
nations ; it is the time to present the well-meaning souls that its 
myriad sects embrace with a clear view of its origin, and of what 
it now teaches in its closing years. The reestablish ment of the 
hierarchy in England and Holland, the restoration of the epis- 
copal see of Geneva, the beatification of F. Canisius, the third 
centennial anniversary of the Council of Trent, and several other 
acts of the Holy See, show us the unity of the Catholic Church 
compared with the disorganization of the Protestant sects, which 
are now, we can truly say, without faith or law. We should 
take care that those who have been misguided should know the 
violent means the so-called reformers used to establish their opi- 
nions. Their origin was stained with the blood of the faithful, 
and they have completed their course by adopting atheism. 
Such has been the sad story of Protestantism ; a destiny 
that must ever be the fate of those who oppose the teaching 
of the Church that our Lord has bidden to convert the 

Vainly do Protestants attempt to evade the shameful acts of 
the first " reformers" by showing its own scars and framing a list 
of martyrs. No wounds are glorious while the cause they sustain 
is an iniquity; and heresy can never be justified in its rebellion 
against the Church of Christ. If its apologists tell us that revolu- 
tion is necessary in order to get liberty, we deny this theory of 
the end sanctifying the means, of a bad end sanctified by unjust 
means. Let heretics not speak of their martyrs. A martyr is one 
who witnesses, not one who protests; a man who dies, not to 
sustain a passionate and obstinate denial, nor in defence of 
speculative opinions and personal ideas, but as a witness to seal 
the traditional teaching, to confirm the faith which is sustained 
by unexceptionable evidence. A martyr is not a conspirator, an 
instigator, and upholder of civil war; he lives without reproach, 
defends the truth without fanaticism, sufTers without vain exal- 
tation, and dies without anger; his memory is irreproachable 
before God and man. Would that heresy could point to such 
heroes ! We are only too proud and happy in presenting to our 
friends and foes the picture of such men, in whose holy hands 
the Church has put the palm of martyrdom. 

The Martyrs of Gorcum. 103 


In the Low Countries, more than elsewhere, Protestantism Las 
concealed from its posterity its sanguinary and tyrannical 
instincts. It has perfidiously taken advantage of the national 
sentiment, and appears clothed in the cloak of liberty. How 
many consider Philip the Second a monster, the Duke d'Alva an 
executioner, and that they are solely responsible for all the 
blood shsd in the Low Countries ! But the time has come when 
we should no longer allow ourselves to be duped by hypocritical 
declamations against Catholic reprisals. They who have first 
taken arms and begun the war are held responsible for the blood 
that is shed. 

One of the most learned students of modern history, Baron de 
Gerlache, said, in opening the congress of Malines, on August 
24th, 1864: "The history of the sixteenth century, written by 
Protestants and copied by Catholics, needs to be rewritten from 
beginning to end, from the real statement of the facts, which are 
contained in the archives of the Church. Then Protestants will 
appear as they really are, such as they are now in Ireland and 
elsewhere, aggressive, violent, intolerant, inaugurating persecu- 
tion when they are powerful enough, and demanding liberty when 
they are weak". These words sum up the history of the pre- 
tended reform, acting its double part, the farce of liberty and the 
tragedy of blood, according to the number of its partisans. 

The seventeen provinces had unfortunately prepared their 
country for the introduction of Protestantism; their nobility was 
immoral and their people poorly instructed in their religion, 
strongly attached to worldly goods, impatient of the control of 
the Church, while continual wars kept the people in a state of 
excitement, and even the very geographical position of the 
country and its- commercial relations contributed to open the 
way to the new and, as yet, unknown religion. The Church 
could not oppose the rapid growth of heresy ; there were but 
four episcopal sees in the whole territory; and, although the 
colleges and abbeys were rich and numerous, they were subser- 
vient to the civil power. The Church could neither guard them 
from the error, nor act with energy when it had obtained a foot- 
hold in the land. Charles the Fifth, who was aware of the 
seditious and anarchical character of the " reform", put forth in 
vain all the severities of the law against its preachers ; he could 
not check the torrent. Error can scarcely be repressed by force 
when it meets no opposition in the conscience, and when it has 
already gained a part of a people. 

The severity of Charles the Fifth, while it did not prevent the 
increase of the heresy, at least kept the dissenters from forming 

104 The Martyrs of Gorcum. 

a sect powerful enough to menace the Church or the state. 
Philip the Second added nothing to the edicts of his father. 
And this despot, this tyrant, even made concessions to them that 
are to be regretted. Three thousand Spanish troops were in the 
Netherlands at that time, and they were v.B.cient to hold the 
rebels in check; but, when they protested against the presence 
of these soldiers, Philip recalled them to Spain. Cardinal Gran- 
velle aided the regent, Margaret of Parma, with his counsel: they 
protested against this able and worthy minister, and Philip gave 
him his dismissal. Everything served as a pretext for the 
disturbers; the hypocritical and ambitious Prince of Orange, 
William of Nassau, the chief of the leaders who had taken the 
name of Gueux, 1 spread discontent and insurrection on every 
side. He found fault with all the measures that the government 
took and all that he accused it of wishing to take. The creation 
of fourteen new bishoprics by the king with the consent of the 
Pope was looked upon as an outrageous act of tyranny. At last 
the government was unarmed, the victims had been sufficiently 
worked upon by their leaders, and the Catholics were completely 
intimidated: the rage of the sects was now let loose to pervert 
and destroy the fair fabric that God had in the land. We shall 
not attempt to describe the hideous saturnalias of the " reform-;" 
we leave that to Protestant authors, to Schiller, to Schoel, to 
Prescott. We cite from the latter a few lines to give our readers 
an idea of what learned Protestants say of their ancestors : " The 
work of pillage and devastation was carried on throughout the 
country. Cathedrals and chapels, convents and monasteries, 
whatever was a religious house, even the hospitals, were given 
up to the merciless reformers. Neither monk nor religious dared 
to appear in their habit. From time to time, priests were seen 
fleeing with some relic or sacred object that they desired to 
preserve from pillage. To the violence they did, they added 
every outrage that could express their scorn for the faith. In 
Flanders, four hundred churches were sacked. The ruin of the 
cathedral of Anvers could not be repaired for less than four 

hundred thousand ducats One becomes si:d in seeing that 

the first efforts of the reformers were always directed against 
these monuments of genius, erected and made perfect under the 
generous protection of Catholicism ; but, if the steps of the reform 
have been made on the ruins of art, the good it has produced in 

1 Gueux, beggars. The origin of the word is as follows : Three hundred Calvin- 
istic deputies were sent to Margaret of Parma to protest against the measures of 
the government. She became much alarmed at this demonstration, when Count 
Barleymont said, " Ce ne sont gue gueux" (they are only beggars), alluding to 
the meanness of their appearance. This imprudent remark was overheard and at 
once adopted by the insurgents as their title. See Bouillet's Dictionnaire Univer- 
8tl d'Histoire et de Geographic, article Gueux. 

The Martyrs of Gorcum. 105 

compensation cannot be denied, in breaking the chains that 
bound the human mind and opening to it the domains of science, 
to which until then all access had been refused". The readers 
know how much this compensation is woith. 

And now may we ask, if it be true that Philip took too severe 
a vengeance for these outrages, if the Duke of Alva followed the 
rebels with an unreasonable severity, if all that is said of them be 
multiplied a hundred times, is there a single argument in favour 
of that liberty of conscience which makes its way at the sword's 
point? Catholicism has never hesitated to disavow and con- 
demn all violence, and every coup d'etat done in her name ; she 
has always separated from politicians who pretend to defend her 
in any other way than she demands ; no " compensation" can 
disarm her justice against criminal abuses which are excused for 
" state reasons". The " reform" which does not feel itself inno- 
cent ventures to proclaim an anathema which falls upon its own 
doctrines and disciples. It is more easy for their historians to 
turn the anger of posterity upon the " sallow tyrant before whom 
the people were filled with terror", or upon the executor of his 
vengeance, " the ogre thirsting for human flesh". Such authors 
as M. Quinet find material here for their eloquence, (?) and 
subjects for such articles as suit the Revue des Deux Mondes. 
But history will pay but little attention to these melodramatic 
effusions. What esteem can scholars demand when they delibe- 
rately calumniate governments and nations in order to conceal 
the heinous crimes perpetrated in the name of free thought ; or 
pamphlet writers who industriously circulate the silly stories of 
the inquisition, and have not a word, a single word of blame for 
the sectarians who have covered Europe with blood and ruins? 

To those who desire to know, without seeking far, the judg- 
ment of history upon these facts and persons, we counsel the 
reading of Feller, who?e opinions always bear the stamp of truth. 
" The severity of the Duke of Alva or, if you wish, his hard- 
ness, or even his inhumanity was legal, and conformed most 
scrupulously to judicial proceeding, and forms a striking con- 
trast with the chiefs of the rebellion and their tools, whose cruel- 
ties had no other rule than fanaticism and caprice. William of 
Marck, for example, the des Adrets of the Low Countries, mur- 
dered in a single year (1572) more peaceable citizens and Catho- 
lic priests than the Duke of Alva executed rebels in the whole 
course of his administration". 1 To support his statements, Feller 
quotes three or four works which recount the atrocities of the 
Protestants. We shall content ourselves with a statement of the 
death of our nineteen martyrs, which happened in this same sad 

1 Dictionnaire Historique^ article Toledo, Ferdinand Alvarez du, due d'Albe. 

106 The Martyrs of Gorcum. 

year, 1572, and by the orders of thia same William of Marck, 
one of the most abominable of the wretches who figured in the 
revolution of the sixteenth century. In this single example we 
shall see the barbarous fanaticism of the " reform", and the sub- 
lime virtues which distinguished these martyrs of the Catholic 
faith: error will show its power as a persecutor; truth, the divine 
fortitude with which it vests its faithful champions. 


The Duke of Alva had quelled the revolt: he had not rooted 
it out of the land, for its numerous and powerful ramifications 
were only waiting to begin a new life. The Prince of Orange, 
who had taken care to avoid the punishment due to his treason 
by a voluntary exile, was raising troops, conspiring and intrigu- 
ing with the great Iconoclastic sect of Calvin and with the court 
of France, then under the influence of the Huguenots. The 
Admiral de Coligny advised him to build a fleet and attack the 
northern provinces, where the "reformers" were in greater num- 
bers. There had been beggars on land, and now there were to 
be beggars at sea ; they rivalled each other in massacre and sacri- 
lege, to the. great honour of the " reform" and the " reformers", 
who by these means had obtained a partial triumph. We are 
aware that political prejudices are complicated with this religi- 
ous war ; but facts prove beyond doubt that these people were 
urged on by a deep hatred of the Catholic faith. 

A fleet of about forty sail had been fitted out in the ports of 
England, and from thence, under the direction of the ferocious 
William of Marck, the beggars made their course across the 
North Sea and along the cost of Flanders. The Duke of Alva 
complained to Elizabeth, Queen of England, and as she did not 
wish at this time to break with Spain, she gave the corsairs 
orders to leave the kingdom. This was in the spring of 1572. 
An adverse wind drove them on the isle of Voom, at the mouth 
of the Meuse ; the neighbouring port of Briel was without defen- 
ders, and was captured by these Calvinists on April 1st, 1572. 
41 They pillaged the convents and churches about the city, broke 
images, and destroyed all that bore marks of the Roman 
Church". 1 This town was fortified by the pirates, for whom it 
was a place of refuge, and afterwards the nucleus for insurrection. 
Three months after its occupation, Brandt, a captain, ascended 
the Meuse as far as Gorcum. As soon as the people saw 
his vessels, they sought shelter in the citadel; religious and 
priests hurriedly transported the sacred vessels and objects of 
veneration to this place of safety. However, the town council 

1 The, Delights of tie Netherlands, A General History of the Seventeen Pro- 
vinces. New edition, 1743, t. iv. p. 121. 

The Martyrs of (jrorcum. 107 

and the body of magistrates began a parley with Brandt, who 
assured them that he only desired religious liberty, and that no 
outrage would be committed by his followers. They opened the 
gates. The band was increased by several inhabitants of the 
town, who were partisans of this Calvinistic rebellion, and they 
then required all the citizens to take an oath of allegiance to 
William of Nassau, Prince of Orange, governor royal of the 
Holland provinces. During this time that the revolutionary 
troops had posses-ion of the city, 'the commander of the palace 
still held out, but was eventually compelled to capitulate because 
of the failure of hoped-for supplies. Brandt solemnly promised 
to spare their lives and give them their liberty ; but, scarcely had 
they taken possession of the place, when, forgetting their oaths, 
they confined their victims as prisoners. The laymen were 
finally released in consideration of large sums of money, except 
a few who were put to death as firm Catholics and royalists ; 
the priests and religious, nineteen in number, remained; they 
could hope for no deliverance but that of martyrdom. 

Then the scenes that are ever recurring in the Church, the 
scenes of the passion of our Lord, were reenacted. As our 
divine Saviour had to undergo the outrages of a brutal soldiery, 
so did these heroes of Gorcum ; they, like him, were forced 
through crowds of infuriated people, who greeted them with 
scorni'ul questions, with blows, and scourges, and mockery, and 
imprecations, and last of all, with the gibbet. In the midst of 
this display of rage and hate, our heroes were entirely tranquil, 
blessing God, praying for their executioners, encouraging each 
other to bear their sufferings with patience, gladly offering their 
lives as a testimony to their sincerity in professing the dogmas 
denied by the heretics; in one word, they bore themselves as 
true witnesses of our Lord should. 

The facts of their martyrdom have been told by well-informed 
historians. God, who leaves nothing hidden in the lives of 
those whom He has determined to honour, raised witnesses to 
testify to the merits of those who were such faithful witnesses of 
His Son. History celebrated their triumph while waiting for 
the Church to crown them. One of the most intrepid of the 
martyrs, Nicholas Pieck, superior of the Franciscans, had a ne- 
phew living at Gorcum, who was a witness to these events, and 
who is now known as the, celebrated William Estius, chancellor 
of the university of Douai. He collected all the facts that were 
known, and then wrote a complete history of their martyrdom, 
which reflects much credit upon his country and iamily. A 
young Franciscan novice, who begged for mercy when he was 
to be executed, lived to tell of the firmness of these confessors 
of the faith; a canon, Pontus Heuterus, who was also unfaithful 

10 The Martyrs of Gorcum. 

to the grace of martyrdom, wrote the story in Holland verse. 
It is useless, however, to detail a list of our authorities; for 
there are no pages in the annals of the Church more luminous 
than the acts of these nineteen martyrs. Surely Gcdhas wished 
to erect from their heroic virtue a monument to the sanctity of 
the Church and to the satanic character of this heresy. 1 

As we have already said, there was but one way to please 
these Calvinistic executioners, and that was to renounce the 
faith ; but their victims chose rather to endure all the sufferings 
that their malignant cruelty could suggest. The martyrs affirmed 
successively the right of the Church to impose laws in the name 
of God, the divine maternity of the Blessed Virgin, and the 
veneration which is due to the real presence of Jesus in the 
sacrament of the altar, and the primacy of the pope. 

The first day of their captivity (June 27th) was a Friday. 
They had no food offered them but meat, from which they 
cheerfully abstained, rather than put in doubt their fidelity to 
the precepts of the Church. There was but one who thought it 
necessary for him to take some nourishment, and he was one of 
those who did not persevere to the end. 

In the following night a band of Protestants rushed into their 
cell and pretended they had come to execute them immediately. 
" Behold me", said Leonard Vechel, the aged pastor of Gorcum, 
" I am ready". His assistant, Nicholas Van Poppel, was dared 
to repeat what he had so often preached in the pulpit. " Will- 
ingly", he answered, " and at the price of every drop of my 
blood, I confess the Catholic faith ; above all, the dogma of the 
real presence of Jesus Christ in the holy eucharist". They then 
threw a rope about his neck and began to strangle him ; the 
superior of the Franciscans was treated in the same way ; they 
were both choked until they fainted, when the ruffians held their 
torches to the faces of their victims, recalling their lives in this 
gentle way ! " After all", said one of the monsters, " they are 
only monks. Of what account are they ? Who will trouble 
themselves about them ?" 

On July 2nd, the feast of the Visitation of the Blessed Vir- 

fin, Father Leonard was released for a short time, as his friends 
ad purchased permission for him to say Mass. The courageous 
pastor, in an address to his flock, extolled the virtues of our 
blessed Lady, and when concluding urged them to remain firm 

1 The work of Estius, Historiae Martyrum Gorcomiensium Libri Quatuor, was 
first printed in Douai in 1603. It was afterwards republished, with notes and a'sup- 
plement, by M . Keussen, professor in the university of Louvain. A French transla- 
tion of Estius appeared at Douai in 1606, under the title, Histoire Veritable des 
Martyrs de, Gorcum en Hollands, etc. Acta Sanctorum, t. xxvii. ad 9 Julii, fol. 
736-847. Esquisses Historiqucs dcs Troubles des Pay s-Bas au XVII. Siede. 
Par E. H. c!e Cavrines. Deuxieme edit. Bruxelles, Vromant. 1865. 

The Martyrs of Gorcum, 109 

in the faith of their fathers. This purchased for him increased 
tortures on his return to the prison. 

John Van Omal, the apostate canon of Liege, was the hero of 
another of these pretended executions. He was more than a 
Judas; for he was not only a traitor, but it was through his 
efforts that the execution finally took place. Enraged at having 
been foiled in his attack on Boinmel (July 3), he determined 
to revenge himself on the priests and religious of Gorcum. At 
that time the liberation of the captives was spoken of, as some 
members of the town council had been sent to the Prince of 
Orange to beg him to release them. The apostate, after reflect- 
ing upon the possibility of their release, concluded that he had 
better take them to the Count of Marck, who was at his head- 
quarters in Briel. In the middle of the night of the 5th, they 
were hurried, scarcely clothed and without food, on board of a 
vessel, which rapidly descended the Meuse. They reached 
Dordrecht at nine o'clock, and Van Omal had an opportunity to 
satisfy his malice by exposing the venerable band to the idle 
curiosity and unfeeling taunts of a Calvinistic mob. They 
arrived at Briel in the evening, but were detained on board the 
vessel all night, so that the news of their coming might be well 
known and their foes properly prepared to torture them. On 
the morning of the 7th, the count, who esteemed himself parti- 
cularly fortunate in having these poor monks and religious to 
torment, ordered them to march in procession through the town ; 
he chose for himself a most unenviable position, that of riding 
behind his unfortunate prisoners, with a huge whip, unfeelingly 
beating them as they made their way through the throngs of 
infuriated people. That nothing should be wanting to this 
humiliating scene, he commanded the martyrs to sing: a Te 
Deum was first intoned, and then a Salve Regina. He sought to 
turn them into ridicule ; but their heroism made them sublime. 

The afternoon of the 7th and the following morning were 
taken up by discussions with the ministers in the presence of 
the count. The generous soldiers of Christ sustained their 
belief firmly and with dignity ; they bore witness particularly to 
the dogma of the eucharist, and to the supremacy of the Roman 
pontiff. " Renounce the pope", said they to Father Leonard, 
" or you will hang". " How", answered he, " how can you con- 
tradict yourselves in this way ? You are always proclaiming 
that you wish for religious liberty, and that no one has the right 
to prevent the exercise of your worship. And now you desire 
to force me to deny my faith ! It is better for me to die than to 
be untrue to my conscience". 

However, a letter came from Gorcum, in which William of 
Nassau ordered the clauses of the convention of June 2 6th to 

110 The Martyrs of Gorciim. 

be strictly observed in regard to the prisoners. This, of course, 
only exasperated the Count of Marck, who saw that his prey 
might escape him. As he was going to bed, after one of the 
orgies which were habitual with him, he cast his eyes again over 
the note of the Prince of Orange. He then, for the first time, 
perceived that Brandt had sent him only a copy of the order, 
and had preserved the original. This served as a pretext for a 
display of temper, and he declared he was master of the place, 
and that it was high, time for it to be known ; an order was 
issued at once to take the prisoners and conduct them to Ten 
Hugge, 1 a convent which he had sacked when he first captured 
Briel. The torture began about two o'clock in the morning of 
Wednesday, the 9th of July; it was accompanied by shameful 
outrages which we prefer to pass over in silence. Their captivity 
had lasted twelve days, nine of which were passed at Gorcum. 

Of the nineteen prisoners who were taken from the city, only 
sixteen suffered death. Three priests and religious filled the gaps 
in their noble band. "A mysterious judgment of Providence, 
of which there is more than one example in the history of mar- 
tyrs. There were nineteen called to martyrdom, and the defec- 
tion of some did not prevent the number being preserved to the 
end" (R. F. Cahier, S. J.). We have mentioned two of these 
unhappy deserters, whom God deigned to lead back to Himself; 
the third entered the service of the Count of Marck, and was 
hung three months after for stealing. But apostasy did not 
always preserve life ; for we read that the cure of Maasdam was 
put to death eight days after the martyrs, although he had 
renounced the papacy. 

William of Marck at last received his reward from a just 
Providence ; he was bitten by one of his dogs, and died in the 
most horrible agony, amid shrieks of rage and despair. It is a 
general law ; the Neros are plunged in the depths of shame and 
despair, while martyrs ascend to their eternal glory. Eighteen 
centuries after his crucifixion, Peter receives the honours of a 
triumph such as kings have never had; three centuries after 
their torment, the nineteen martyrs of Goicum are venerated in 
every corner of the earth where Christianity is known. 

We present to our readers the names of these martyrs: Fa- 
thers Nicholas Pieck, superior of the Franciscans; Jerome 
Werdt ; Thierry Van Emden ; N. Janssen ; Willehad Danus, a 
venerable old man of ninety years, who did not cease repeating 
Deo (jratias during the twelve days of his confinement; Antony 
Werdt ; Godfrey Mervel ; Antony Hoornaer ; Francis de Royse, 

1 Tho Catholics of Holland have recently repurchased this stolen convent for 
16,000 florins. It will soon be a place of pilgrimage for the pious people of Holland 
and Belgium. 

The Martyrs of Gorcum. Ill 

who was scarcely twenty-four years of age, being the youngest 
of the martyrs; Cornelius Wyk ; and Peter Assche. The fore- 
going were all friars minor. The Dominicans had a representa- 
tive in the person of Father John, of the province of Cologne, 
who was captured while going to baptize an infant. Father 
Adrian Beek and his curate, F. James Lacops, w r ere seized on 
the night of the seventh or morning of the eighth of July, and 
sent to Briel, where they joined those who came from Gorcum; 
they were both Premonstrants. There was a canon of St. Au- 
gustine, John Oosterwyk, who was directing a convent of the 
order at Gorcum. When he heard that his own convent (that 
of Ten Rugge, the place of martyrdom) was sacked, and the re- 
ligious put to death, he exclaimed: 4i Oh! may our Lord deign 
to grant that I may die as they have !" How exactly was his 
prayer granted ! The following were seculars : Leonard Vechel ; 
Nicholas Van Peppel ; Godfrey Van Duynen, a doctor of theo- 
logy and formerly rector of the university of Paris ; he had me- 
rited by his pure life the crown of martyrdom that he received 
when more than seventy years of age ; and, lastly, Andrew 
Wouters, who was taken near Dordrecht, and who was the third 
substitute for those who shrank from the trying ordeal. 


We are not astonished that God by miracles, and the holy 
Church by her veneration, has made this episode of the religious 
persecution of the Netherlands so prominent. If we will but 
reflect, it offers to us the most precious teaching ; it presents one 
of those striking proofs which are sure to convince the good 
sense of the people. A cause which succeeds by such crimes as 
this is already judged; we are not called upon to condemn it. 
And if this is the cause of a "reformed religion", what need 
has any honest man of any further arguments to convince him of 
its error? Was Christianity established in the Roman empire 
by overturning the government and giving up its inoffensive 
citizens to pillage, to outrage, and to murder? Does the 
"liberty of conscience " preached by the "reform" resemble 
the liberty that the Church asked of the Caesars, and which she 
is asking of Protestant governments to-day ? The champions of 
this modern " liberty " imposed their doctrines upon unwilling 
people at the point of the sword, while its opponents gave their 
blood in defence of their religious rights. In countries where 
Protestantism did not maintain itself by an unrelenting despot- 
ism, the people eagerly returned to the faith of their fathers, the 
violence of the sects causing a healthful reaction. 1 And this 

1 "France", says a Protestant historian, "having been almost reformed, found 
herself, in the result, Koman Catholic. The sword of her princes, cast into the 

112 The Martyrs of Gorcum. 

was also the case with the greater part of the provinces of the 
Netherlands, which gladly threw off the yoke of William of 
Orange and returned to their former allegiance an example of 
a wavering faith being revived by the lawlessness of its opponents. 
The sectaries retained only seven of the seventeen provinces, 
now known as Holland, and which were inundated with the 
blood of faithful Catholic priests. The martyrs of Gorcum 
were only a little band of this vast army of Jesus Christ. In 
the year 1572, there were more martyrs in the Low Countries 
than in all the preceding centuries together : the cradle of the 
republic of Holland floated in a sea of Catholic blood. 

We wonder what learned and sincere Protestants, such as M. 
Guizot, think in their hearts of these bloody pages of their 
ancestors? Do they believe in the "compensation" that Mr. 
Prescott talks about, and that such dreadful crimes were neces- 
sary to purchase freedom of conscience, which, after all, is only 
permission to believe nothing? " Notwithstanding the disorders 
it caused", says M. Guizot, " and the faults it committed, the 
reform of the sixteenth century has rendered to modern times 
two great services". M. Guizot tells the truth ; it has. It has 
given to the Catholic Church a noble army of martyrs, and con- 
firmed the promise of our Lord to Peter, when He declared " the 
gates of hell shall not prevail against the Church". " It (the 
reform) reanimated, even among its adversaries, the Christian 
faith". 1 " It has imprinted upon European society a decisive 
movement toward liberty". 2 Liberty for whom and liberty for 
what? For Calvinistic Holland, it was the liberty of civil war, 
the liberty to rob unprotected convents, the liberty to circulate 
immoral books, the liberty to follow licentious desires, to dese- 
crate the churches, and, above all, the liberty to persecute the 
adherents of Catholicism. 

Error must necessarily persecute, for this is the only way in 
which it can predominate; it never feels sufficiently protected 

scale, caused it to incline in favour of Rome. Alas ! another sword, that of the 
reformers themselves, insured the failure of the Reformation". (D'Aubignd, 
History of the Reformation, vol. i. p. 86). 

1 We are at a loss to discover M. Guizot's authority for this assertion. Erasmus, 
one of the most learned men of the sixteenth century, says : " Those whom I had 
known to be pure, full of candour and simplicity, these same persons have I seen 
afterward, when they had gone over to the gospellers, become the most vindic- 
tive, impatient, and frivolous ; changed, in fact, from men to vipers. 

Luxury, avarice, and lewdness prevail more among them than among those whom 

they detest I have seen none who have not been made worse 

by their gospel" (Epist. Tractibus Germaniae Inferiority. " Our evangelists", 
says Luther, " are now sevenfold more wicked than they were before the Refor- 
mation. In proportion as we hear the gospel, we steal, lie, cheat, gorge, swill, 

and commit every crime The people have learned to despise the 

word of God" (Luther, Werke, ed. alt. torn, iii.p. 519). 

2 L'Eglise et la Socicie Chretiennes en 1861. Deuxieme edit. p. 8. 

Tlie Martyrs of Gorcum. 113 

against the truth over which it has obtained a temporary triumph. 
It is first the tyranny of the sword, and then the tyranny of the 
law. Public opinion has long been imposed upon by followers 
of the "reform"; for they have cried so lustily for religious 
freedom and liberty of conscience, that few have taken the 
trouble to ascertain the fact that their acts have invariably 
belied their words. But history, which has been made an 
accomplice to this delusion, is now effectually unmasking it. 
If we attribute the introdution of religious toleration to Pro- 
testantism, it is not because it has practised it, but because it 
has made it necessary. Truth has tolerated error, while error 
has continually sought to exterminate the truth. The principle 
of religious toleration was introdued by Catholic governments : 
where heresy triumphed, as in England, Sweden, and Holland, 
the most severe laws were enacted against the former faith, 
laws so cruel that we can say they were written in blood, and 
that the Church has been for the past three centuries in a state 
of martyrdom in those countries. We shall notice briefly some 
of the enactments of Holland; but, before we do so, we will 
briefly refute a sophism by which the Protestants attempt to 
palliate their atrocities. The history of Protestantism is so con- 
stituted that, before any question can be discussed, it is neces- 
sary to remove a number of objections due either to ignorance 
or prejudice. 

Religious intolerance, say they, was a characteristic feature 
of the people of the middle ages. The Church held its autho- 
rity to be a fundamental principle, and, seeing this put in danger, 
it forgot the rights of liberty, and used force and the arm of civil 
power to enforce its dogmas. On the other hand, after liberty 
conquered its rights, it unfortunately went beyond its doctrines, 
and even embraced the opposite principle. Thus Christians 
persecuted each other, until the progress of society led them to 
mutual respect. But the illogical position of Protestan'* i is 
apparent ; it begins a war in the name of religious liberty, and 
finishes by putting the Church in a state of siege ! The Church 
was, at least, consistent, for she never said that men were free to 
deny their Maker and adopt a religion of their own brain; 
or that they possessed an imprescriptible right to preach false 
doctrine. An illustrious bishop who lives now among the 
children of the reformation, lately showed them on the forehead 
of their mother this sign of contradiction, and defended the 
honourable consistency which exists between the doctrines and 
the acts of the Church. " The Church distinctly holds that 
society, as well as the family, has its duties to Jesus Christ, and 
that God is equally the Master and Lord of man, regarded as 
an isolated individual, as of man in social relations with his 

VOL. IV. 8 

114 The Martyrs of Gorcum. 

fellows. She looks back with joy upon the times when, seeing 
her liberty protected, she became the inspirer of the Christian 
republic. .... But, if she has thankfully re- 
ceived the protection of the sword which vindicated her jusdce, 
and shielded her weakness when she was forced upon the 
defensive, she has never wished it to be used to impose doc- 
trine; faith is not a forced belief, but a free adhesion of both 
mind and heart to revealed truth. Liberty of conscience, 
in its proper sense, far from being scouted and condemned 
by the Church, is the essential condition of her spiritual sove- 

It was not enough to attempt to overturn the secular throne 
of the spouse of Christ, the queen of European civilization ; it 
must be put in chains and confined in dungeons, Let us cite 
some of the proscriptions of the Protestants in Holland : 

" 15^6. The Jesuits are forbidden to enter the country. 
Whoever attends their seminaries or universities shall be ba- 
nished from the country". 

"1602 IST. The police are ordered to arrest any Jesuit, 
monk, or priest of the Papist religion. 

" 2ND. The people are forbidden to take any oath or make 
any promise to maintain the power of the Pope of Rome. 
Public or private meetings, sermons, or collections in favour of 
the Papal superstition are prohibited". 

Another placard decrees " that every person in holy orders 
shall leave the country in less than six days, under pain of 
arrest and being punished as an enemy to the country". It 
was also forbidden Catholic teachers to instruct their pupils, if 
either of the parents had been of the reformed religion ; and to 
will any money to any priest, religious, or for any hospital or 
religious edifice. 

This will be sufficient to give our Protestant readers an idea 
of the liberty of conscience which flourished in Holland. Many 
endeavour in these times to hide the accusing witness of these 
acts, and to conceal entirely the manner in which the religion 
of our forefathers has been overcome ; but the day is breaking, 
the shadows of heresy are fast fading away, and they will not 
be able to bring them back again. Pius the Ninth, in an allo- 
cution in consistory on March 7th, 1853, alluded to the lamen- 
table calamities the Church had suffered in the Netherlands. 
The court of Holland, as it did not desire to acknowledge the 
odious acts of its former government, sent a letter to the Roman 
court protesting against these historical allusions. The able 
minister of the Holy See replied to this effrontery in the fol- 
lowing language: " The pontifical document only pointed out, 
in passing, something that is fully told not only by Catholic, 

The Martyrs of Gorcum. 115 

but also by Protestant historians, who are interested in giving 
impartially the true history of the facts 1 '. 1 

There is but one resource for Protestant powers who blush at 
the intolerance of those who have preceded them, and this is to 
strike from their laws the unjust proscriptions they have levelled 
against Catholicism. We owe it to justice to say that, while 
several Protestant countries, Sweden, for example, retain these 
unjust enactments, Holland is steadily giving up its former 
fanaticism, and has fairly entered into the way of religious 


The persecution of the sword and the law have demonstrated 
the cruel and hypocritical character of this heresy, at the same 
time it has proved the vigour and stability of the Church. 

More than once in these nineteen centuries, it has been 
attempted to extirpate Catholicism from the heart of a nation, 
as Russia is trying to do now : we do not know that they have 
ever succeeded. Even under Mohammedan rule, the Church 
has maintained its existence for more than twelve centuries in 
Turkey and in Northern Africa ; and though it has suffered one 
continual persecution, and lost innumerable multitudes through 
martyrdom, it counts to day in these very countries more than 
three millions of faithful children. 2 In Japan, where mission- 
aries had scarcely time to sow the seeds of Catholic truth before 
a savage war was waged upon it, its roots are still living, and 
show after two centuries an unwavering fidelity to the faith". 3 

Heresy, inspired with the same fury as Paganism and Islamism, 
has exhausted every resource to destroy the ancient faith : the 
young and flourishing churches of England and Holland pro- 
claim its failure. The Catholics have vanquished by faith those 
who overcame them by force : the blood of martyrs is always 
the seed of its liberty and life. Three centuries have passed, 
and God, through His vicar, pronounces the word of resurrec- 
tion: Puella, tibi dico, surge. And she has risen, weak, but 

1 Note of his Eminence Cardinal Antonelli. Ami de la Religion, t. clxi. No. 
5552, July 2nd, 1853. 

2 See Marcy's Christianity and its Conflicts, p. 405, and Marshall's Christian 
Missions, vol. ii. p 24, for a more complete statement of the Church in those 
countries. ED C W. The Bibliotheqm de I'Ecole des Chartes for May to June, 
1866, contains an interesting analysis of some curious documents on the relations 
of Popes Gregory the Seventh, Gregory the Ninth, Innocent the Fourth, and 
Nicholas the Fourth, with the Christians of Africa. 

" When some Japanese martyrs were added to the catalogue of saints a few 
years ago, there were found to be in Japan some thousands of Christians who had 
preserved their faith without any human ministry solely by the aid of their good 
guardian angels". D iscou n> e pronounced by the Holy Father on the Promul- 
gation of the Decree relative to the Beatification of the 205 Martyrs of Javan 
April 30, 1867. 


116 Education in the United States. 

glorious and full of hope; her fair countenance again shines 
over the land of St. Boniface and St. Willibrord, making even 
heretics tremble at her marvellous life. Poor fanatics! You 
said formerly, " Renounce the Pope, or you will be hung"; but 
how has God and the children of those martyrs revenged your 
cruelty ! The Pope yet rules at Rome ; he appoints bishops in 
your cities to govern your sees ; he places your victims on the 
altar; your fellow-citizens venerate these victims. The hour of 
the complete return of Holland to Christianity cannot be much 
longer delayed. The canonization of the martyrs of Gorcum is 
an additional element of strength for Catholics, while it must 
cause the most bigoted of its opponents to reflect upon the 
failure of Protestantism to overthrow " the abominations of 
Popery". " When Rome', says the great bishop of Poitiers 
" when Rome glorifies the saints of Heaven, she never fails to 
multiply the saints of earth". 


Extracts from a letter to the Editors of the " Irish Ecclesiastical Record". 

You ask me to give you the result of my observations on the 
religious teaching of our system of public education. The sub- 
ject is a vast one, and cannot, of course, be treated fully within 
the limits of a letter. Yet the following may not be considered 

There is an essential difference even with regard to their reli- 

fious tendency between the institutions which profess to give a 
igher grade of instruction, and those aiming at ordinary com- 
mon-school education. There is hardly a system amongst the 
former. The state no where that I am aware can be said to have 
itself established any of that class. It merely recognizes those 
that are established by private enterprise. It gives charters to 
any who have a fair prospect of support, leaving it to themselves 
to adopt any system of instruction and any religious views they 
please. Donations in land and money have been made by the 
states from time to time to several such institutions and some- 
times to ours also, without making any requirements as to systems 
of education or religious views ; but these grants being based on 
grounds which influence alone can make to be appreciated, we 
are, of course, much less favoured. 

But as to recognition and getting charters with power of giving 
degrees, we have little to coirs plain of, there being but one instance 
that I know where a charter was refused to a Catholic institution 

Education in the United States. 117 

because it was exclusively Catholic. This was in the case of the 
Jesuit College at Worcester, Massachusetts. A charter, however, 
has of late been granted here also. All our other institutions are 
freely chartered. Several of our colleges have even university 
charters, though there being as yet no demand worth speaking 
of amongst our people for the higher education of a university, 
they have not yet risen above the grade of ordinary colleges. 

The chief advantage of these charters consists in the con- 
venience of holding property without being subject to the neces- 
sity of passing it from hand to hand. A certain amount of such 
property, generally the whole of the buildings and grounds used 
for the institution itself, is free from taxation, and now and then, 
as stated, donations are made. 

From this you will easily conclude that the religious character 
of these institutions is different in every case. It is whatever 
those who have charge of each wish it to be. We have Catho- 
lic institutions and Protestant ones connected with almost every 
denomination, and several which profess to be unsectarian. 
Those latter, however, though they accommodate themselves to 
the different sects of Protestants, are universally considered by 
Catholics unfit for their children. Their directors may adopt a 
course which they think Catholics ought to be satisfied with ; 
but as we have no right to interfere, they are guided by their 
own views on this subject. Knowing that with all that could be 
done, these institutions would be unfit for our people, we never 
interfere with them, or complain, or ask any thing from them, 
and our people are so fully convinced of their unfitness for Catho- 
lic youth, that none who have any regard for their religion think 
of patronising them. Hardly any, even nominal Catholics, 
attend them. 

Our Catholic colleges generally receive non-Catholic pupils 
also, pledging themselves not to interfere with their religious 
views. Many such pupils are attracted to them by the success 
which the devotedness of the teachers secures both in their 
literary and moral training. The pledge of not interfering with 
the religious views of those who are not Catholics, is, of course, 
kept faithfully. But though the religious instruction of the 
Catholic pupils is provided for apart, there is no doubt that the 
Catholic tone of these* colleges is lowered by the intercourse of 
those who arc not Catholics, and by the restraint which the 
pledge alluded to necessarily imposes. 

It is true that this is entirely a different thing from what is 
called in Ireland the mixed system. The teachers are all Catho- 
lics of sound principles. The common teaching is sound as far 
as it goes. What is deficient in this is supplied, or is tried to 
be supplied, by separate instruction, yet there is no doubt of its 

118 Education in the United States. 

being attended with serious inconvenience. This has been felt 
to such a degree that some of our colleges have adopted the plan 
of receiving none but students who are, or who wish to become, 
Catholics. The plan of receiving pupils of all religions has been 
adopted, I feel assured, merely for its pecuniary advantage. In 
a religious point of view, every one admits its disadvantages. It 
is true that a certain number of persons grow up with less preju- 
dices against us, but this is a slight compensation for the loss 
of a more vigorous Catholic training that might be imparted in 
institutions exclusively Catholic. But every district wants its 
college and its boarding school. There is frequently not enough 
of Catholic patronage to support it. Hence every effort to 
obtain as many pupils as possible, and the consequent arrange- 
ments to accommodate those who are not Catohhcs. Without 
this, several such institutions could not have been commenced, 
some would have to be closed to-day. This, i have no doubt, 
is the only reason why this course is adopted. 

I have said that few of our Catholics attend any of the insti- 
tutions alluded to, except such as are Catholic. We all know by 
experience that those who are not Catholics would not sincerely, 
and scarcely could practically, abstain from interfering with the 
faith of Catholics, even though having a wish to do so. Experi- 
ence teaches us to look upon this as so much a matter of course 
that we have ceased to ask ourselves the reason. The cases of 
the very few who depart from the general practice confirm this 
conviction, though it is hardly fair to rely on them, as the few 
who go to such places seldom have any faith to lose. The 
medical schools are the only exception to this rule. With regard 
to these, however, as the students frequent them only to hear 
the lectures, and these occupy but a few months for two or three 
seasons, there is little temptation to wander out of their proper 
sphere. The medical profession, moreover, is less liable here 
than in continental Europe to the charge of unsoundness on the 
general principles of revealed religion, and they are above the 
art of low prosleytizing. In addition to this, the interests of the 
numerous rival institutions make each desirous to avoid every- 
thing that would give just ground of offence to any large portion 
of the community, on which all depend for support. The moral 
inconveniences that attend such institutions are almost exclu- 
sively such as naturally attend large agglomerations of young 
men removed from parental or any other control. 

Common school education, that is, education for the masses, 
is conducted on a plan entirely different from that of the col- 
leges. The former is provided or regulated by law, or rather a 
system is adopted for supplying education of that kind to all 
willing to receive it. 

Education in the United Slates. 119 

The system, however, as far as affected by law, is almost 
entirely confined to the external government, the obtaining 
means for the schools, etc. The selection of teachers and books, 
as well as the subjects and methods of instruction, are left almost 
exclusively to the directors, who are selected by the people in 
each locality. More or less general control and supervision are 
provided in different states, the tendency being to extend these 
more and more every year. But the quality of the education 
given is substantially left to the local directors. 

The idea is, that as all are taxed for its support, this instruc- 
tion shall be in things in which all agree, and of a character to 
which none can justly object. It is supposed that, details being 
left to those selected by a general vote, this end is sure to be 
accomplished. The law adopts very few other means to secure 
the rights of the different classes of religionists. With our 
numerous and ever-increasing and varying sects, it is supposed 
to be out of the question to meet the views of each. This idea, 
which looks so plausible at first sight, fails woefully in its appli- 
cation to Catholics, and is the source of serious evil even out- 
side the communion of the Catholic Church. 

Any effort to establish a really common system on a just basis, 
necessarily meets insuperable practical difficulties. But when 
this is attempted by the process of elimination of what is special 
amongst those for whom it is provided, though the plan appears 
in theory the most plausible, it is in practice the most difficult 
to be realised. 

The part of my religion which is excluded because my neigh- 
bour does not believe in it, is in my eyes as important as that 
which remains, to which he has no objection. The one and the 
other come from the same God ; both may be, and in fact many 
parts are, equally applicable in the work of education. To 
require me to be satisfied with the former, is practically to try to 
make me live with one half the elements of life. 

Then this separation of one part of religion from another 
draws a line of distinction which is calculated to weaken esteem 
for the proscribed portion, and eventually for all. 

The part so omitted receives as it were a black mark in the 
school. The school professes to prepare the pupil for the duties 
of life. What is deemed superfluous for this cannot be of much 
consequence r.i his eyes. Even where it is not openly decried 
as such, the course pursued naturally produces this impression. 
This works with special injustice as between Catholics and Pro- 
tants. For Protestantism is little more than a denial of a great 
portion of Catholic dogma. What is common, therefore, is 
almost the whole of what is positive in the former, while it is only 
a portion of the latter. 

120 Education in the United States. 

To liave children brought up under such a system, which they 
naturally look upon as a perfect whole, necessarily weakens 
their esteem and attachment to whatever lies outside of it, that 
is, to all that is special in Catholicism. 

This systematic separation of one portion of religion from 
another, and the consequent insinuation of a difference in the im- 
portance of the two, or rather of little importance in the part 
omitted, appears to me to be the inherent vice of a common 

As education is not intended to impart mere dry information, 
but much more to form the heart and character, religion of some 
kind is an indispensable ingredient. To attempt to divest it of 
all religious character, would be practically to try to make men 
what they ought to be without the aid of religion. The attempt 
would be successful only in rooting religion out of their souls. 
If a man believe that he can walk without a prop, he will fling it 
away altogether. He will hardly resume it on one day of the 
week if he thinks he has been able to do without it the other six. 
If some principles of religion are considered necessary, and suffi- 
cient to constitute a sound basis of education, the proscribed por- 
tion at least will soon go by the board for analogous reasons. 

Now this is precisely what we find to be the result of our com- 
mon system of education. 

There the eliminating process has not stopped at what is exclu- 
sively Catholic, in which case we would have been almost exclu- 
sively the sufferers. It has extended in a great degree to the 
whole Christian system, and the consequence is that Christianity 
is in a great degree losing its hold on the masses. 

To understand how this occurs, it is necessary to keep in min 1 
that our plan of common education does not aim so much at 
accommodating the different forms of religion, as at ignoring 
them. Thus shaped, it is launched on the country as a self- 
sufficient system. One of its defenders lately boasted, as one of 
the great achievements of the age, that education was now 
" emancipated from the Church", the word the " Church" in the 
language of such persons meaning all kinds of organized reli- 

This system, " emancipated from the Church", has a natural 
affinity for those who care nothing for definite religion. They are 
its most zealous champions, and become its administrators. This 
school finds in it a realization of its theories, and giving it sup- 
port receives support in return. 

As all things necessarily tend to realize more and more fully 
their constituted principles, this idea of separation and indepan- 
dence of positive religion is carried out more fully every day. 
What are called the common principles of Christianity, if any 

Education in the United Stales. 121 

such can be said to exist here (for what is the dogma that some 
do not call in question?), are doomed to be suppressed with the 
distinctive features of each sect. Those who believe in them 
are almost as willing to see this done as those who disregard 
them. For, who cares to have any of the sacred mysteries of 
religion expounded or insisted on by persons who could scarcely 
touch them without profaning them ? The consequence is, that 
nothing remains but what are called the general principles of 
morality, and a sickly allusion to abstract maxims devoid of life. 

Even these are made to rest on a mere human basis, which 
divests them of all power. 

The youths that are brought up under this system, while 
having their wits sharpened for business and political pursuits, 
receive only a moral training that might have been imparted by 
pagans. The school of those who look upon " emancipation 
from the Church 1 ', not as an incidental misfortune, but as a thing 
to be valued for its own sake, have matters their own way. 
" Emancipation from the Church", that is, disregard of all posi- 
tive religion, is becoming more and more the oider of the day, 
and is showing itself in the wide-spread immorality and disre- 
gard of sound principles, which all serious -minded men of every 
religion admit and deplore. 

Old-fashioned Protestants who have a sincere attachment to 
the great fundamental principles of Christianity are affected by 
this almost as much as we are. But those men who are so bold 
in assailing Catholicity, and resisting any demands that would 
prevent its being undermined, crouch like spaniels before the cry 
of the advanced school. Whenever we complain, they either 
stand aloof or join in one chorus to denounce what they call 
sectarianism, and enlarge on the Christian charity imparted 
ex opere operato by this new sacrament of juxta-position on the 
same school benches. They prefer to inconvenience themselves, 
hoping that we may be hurt still more, or they hope, and some- 
times succeed, in gaining control of the system, or they expect 
at least to be able to neutralize its results. 

Yet many of the more candid frequently acknowledge the 
evils that are growing out of this system. 

The convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Illinois 
lately complained that the Christian idea of marriage was losing 
its hold on the public mind, and this they did not hesitate to 
attribute to our system of public education. Their bishop in his 
address gave expression to the same sentiment. Similar corn- 
plaints are frequently heard. Several Protestant sects are making 
great efforts to establish schools of their own ; yet these gentle- 
men would oppose, or stand by if any effort were made to pro- 
duce a change, unless it were a change that would give them- 
selves control of the whole. 

122 Education in the United States. 

Our Catholics very generally feel the inherent evils of this 
system, and Catholic schools are established very extensively 
for the education of Catholic youth. 

But innumerable practical difficulties arise in their general 
establishment. Aid from the public funds is out of the question, 
so that their whole support devolves on our own people. In 
some places the population that forms a congregation is spread 
over so great a surface, that the attendance of the children at 
one school is out of the question, while schools multiplied and 
so placed as to accommodate them would in many cases have few 
pupils and would involve an expense which it is impossible to 
meet. Then where the population is dense, and still more where 
a majority is Catholic, by their influence in the election of direc- 
tors they are able to check to a great degree the most serious 
evils of the system. They can in such cases hardly be brought 
to believe that schools almost entirely under the control of 
persons whom they themselves select can do harm. While some- 
thing is gained by their partial success, their cooperation cannot 
be obtained in the general establishment of a better system, or 
rather they are averse to such an undertaking, judging of what 
exists by its operation amongst themselves. There is then the 
unwillingness to contribute twice for the same object, which is 
felt the more sensibly in consequence of the school tax being 
levied separately, and paid as such by each individual. Having 
paid the tax for the school to the public officer on one day, a 
man is loth to pay for a Catholic school on the next, unless it be 
made perfectly clear that the former is unsuited, and even then 
he feels it a great burden. There are, then, the superior material 
advantages naturally possess'ed by schools to which all are forced 
to contribute, in favour of which public opinion is disposed to 
be lavish. All these things render the establishment of Catholic 
schools most difficult. 

Yet our every day experience shows the baneful results of the 
public schools, notwithstanding all our efforts to neutralize them. 
This has led to a very extensive establishment of Catholic 
schools, notwithstanding the sacrifices necessary for the purpose. 

No day or hour is set apart for religious instruction, as with 
you in Ireland. The priest or parent must provide for this as 
best he can ; many cannot, many others will not, attend the Sun- 
day school ; and considering the large number present, the short 
time that can be given to it, and the other occupations of the 
priest, those who do attond derive but little profit. 

Thus the influence of the public schools is not faulty merely by 
omission: under the most favourable circumstances it has many 
positive defects 

Without speaking of the cases in which impartiality is intcn- 

Education in the United States. 123 

tionally departed from, or of the presence and the contagious 
character of the vices naturally found in such gatherings, the 
basis on which morality itself is taught is necessarily vicious. 

To deserve the esteem of men is the great cardinal virtue that 
is inculcated. The external means of obtaining it are the prac- 
tical points that are dwelt on above all else. Pride and self- 
sufficiency, instead of being checked, are stimulated to the highest 
point. It would be entirely out of the sphere of teachers " eman- 
cipated from the Church" to speak of God and our duty of serv- 
ing Him ; still more would it be beyond their sphere to speak of 
the examples of Christ and His saints. These are themes fit only 
for the pulpit or the Sunday school. They speak only of what 
will fit their pupils for the counting-house or the political posi- 
tion they may one day aspire to. Preferment in these things 
is the goal to which above all else they are led to aspire, and 
morality is inculcated only as a means for this purpose. The 
youngest stripling, if successful, is perhaps thinking of the presi- 
dency, or at any rate is looking forward to be a personage of no 
small importance, and he is led to believe that a decent deport- 
ment is a very valuable acquirement necessary for success, and as 
such to desire it. 

I need not tell you what kind of morality is acquired by such 
training, nor that the aspirations raised being frequently doomed 
to disappointment in honourable pursuits, success is often sought 
in the short-cuts of vice. 

The self sufficient stamp impressed on the character of the 
pupils is so marked and universal that several teachers in our 
Catholic schools have assured me that they can recognize a child 
amongst a hundred when it comes there after having been for 
some time in the public schools. It takes a long time if they are 
at all successful in imparting to it that modesty and meskness 
which are the usual attendants of Catholic education. 

In its negative and positive influence, the system of public 
education is thus productive of the most sad results. It takes 
from us the means of giving a religious education to many. 
Admitting none itself, it makes it almost impossible to supply 
the deficiency elsewhere in an adequate manner. By its worldly 
character it exalts the mere features of morality, building on 
and stimulating pride and self-sufficiency and humanitarian 
views, and all this apart from the false maxims and doctrines 
that necessarily must be inculcated by teachers and a system 
thoroughly " emancipated from the Church". 

In contrasting ours with your national system of education, 
you will see that, if yours has objections in its centralized charac- 
ter, to which ours is not subject, you have many advantages 
practically, which we would hope for in vain. We are free from 

124 Education in the United States. 

your centralized despotism, but are handed over to the tyranny 
of irresponsible village majorities. As a Catholic nation you 
have a perfect right to demand that all injustice be abolished, 
and that your system be made such that no well-founded objec- 
tion shall remain ; but even as things are, you have advantages 
which we do not possess. I hope you will not consider it out of 
place if I ask whether you turn the advantages which you 
actually enjoy to as much account as is possible and would be 
desirable. This question is not intrusive, as you are educating 
for us as well as for yourselves. An hour, I believe, may be set 
apart each day for religious instruction in your schools, and a 
whole day in each week. It is, I admit, galling to a Catholic 
people to be compelled to treat their religion as a proscribed 
topic the remainder of the time, even if this were sufficient for 
instruction. But after all, while properly seeking all that is 
your due, could not what you possess be turned to greater 
account ? Our times, and the future of the Irish people, that is 
being scattered over the whole surface of the globe, demand a 
very different amount of religious instruction and training from 
what was sufficient for a simple race destined to live and die in 
the homes of their fathers and with exclusively Catholic associa- 
tions. That hour in the day, and that day in the week, would 
enable you to do a great deal in this direction, even though you 
justly demand a freer scope. Permit me to say, candidly, judg- 
ing from what comes under our eyes daily, that it would enable 
you to do much more than is done, though that more is sadly 
wanted. In that time, if a proper system were adopted, a very 
extensive, if not a perfect, instruction might be given, that would 
not be confined to the mere catechism, but would, to a great 
degree, fit the pupils for their several positions in future life. 
Besides the advantages which we would derive from the better 
instruction of future accessions from Ireland, we would find in 
them persons who would feel the importance of thorough reli- 
gious instruction in the schools, which is a point on which our 
Irish Catholics here are sadly deficient. More efficient exertion 
in this direction would diminish that " falling oif" of our people 
which we all deplore. The day may not be distant when you 
yourselves, as well as we, shall have reason to regret bitterly the 
effects of neglect. 




THE authenticity of the seventh verse of the fifth chapter of I. 
John, known as the text of the three witnesses, has been fre- 
quently discussed between Protestants and Catholics. Since the 
edition of the New Testament, published by Augustine Scholz, 
even Catholic critics have been divided on the subject, some 
rejecting the verse as spurious, others believing it to be, at least, 
of doubtful authenticity. 

It is well known that the learned Father J. B. Franzelin, 
S.J., professor of Dogmatic Theology in the Roman College, 
has carefully treated this point in his treatise De Deo Trino 
secundum Personas. That treatise is as yet unpublished, but 
we are guilty of no impropriety in placing before our readers 
the substance of F. Franzelin's remarks on this important point, 
since, by his permission, they have already appeared in the pages 
of an Italian periodical. 1 

What renders this dissertation peculiarly useful is, that the 
writer approaches his subject from a Catholic point of view, and 
decides the question, as for Catholics, upon Catholic principles. 
His thesis runs thus: Catholics hold that it is the office of the 
Church to guard, with the assistance of the Holy Spirit, the 
Sacred Scripture as the public records of revelation, and to 
distinguish them from writings that are merely human. Ac- 
cording to these principles the passage I. John, v. 7, is to 
be received as genuine. As to the manner in which that 
text has been preserved, there exist documents which prove 
it to have been read from time immemorial, and which supply 
sufficient historical help to the lawful authorities to enable 
them to affirm the apostolic origin of the reading itself. The 
arguments which are alleged to the contrary do not amount 
to a proof of interpolation, but merely show that a more or less 
widespread omission of the text took place in ancient times 
in the transcribing of manuscripts. 2 

That the Church is assisted by the Holy Spirit in her office of 

1 Archivio deW Ecclesiastico,fascicoL 34. vol. sesto, p. 362. 

2 The dissertation thus divides itself into these parts: 

" Secundum principia Ca/ho/ica de munere Ecclesiae sub assistentra Spiritus 
Sancti Scripturns Sacras velnt pub/ica revtlationis instrumenta custodiendi et dis- 
cernendi a textibus humanis, locus I. Jo., v. 7, genuinus ctnseri debet. Ad modum 
conservationis quod special, suppetiint inonumenta guae lectionis vnmemorabilem 
antiquifatem demomtrant et sufficiens sunt praesidium historicum, ut a legitimis j'udi- 
cibns de te.rtus Apostollcn origin* decerni pnlu?rit. Dncumenta vero contraria 
guae obficiuntur non in/erpolationein demonstrant sed illud tanttimmodo c/uod ultra 
damns, ommissionein textus in transcriptions Codicum Jam anliquitus plus minus ve 
late propagalam juisse". 

126 On the Authenticity of the Text 

preserving the genuine inspired writings, no Catholic will call in 
question. In discharge of this her office, the Church in the Council 
of Trent has issued two decrees which bear upon our subject. One 
De Canonicis Scripturis; the other, De editione et usu sacrorum 
librorum. The motive which induced the Fathers to publish these 
decrees was dogmatic, and is thus described by the Legate : " That 
in the first place the canonical books of the Scripture should be 
made out and enumerated in order to determine with what arms 
the heretics should be combated, and on what foundation Catholics 
should establish their faith". 1 With this intention the Council, 
session iv., " Sacrorum librorum indicem huic decreto adscriben- 
dum censuit ; ne cui dubitatio suboriri potuit quinfonam sunt qui 
ab ipsa synodo suscipiuntur". Then follows the list of canonical 
books, after which comes the definition: " Si quis antem hbros 
ipsos integros, cum omnibus suis partibus, prout in Ecclesia 
Catholica legi consueverunt, et in veteri Vulgata Latina editione 
habentur, pro sacris et canonicis non susceperit anathema sit. 
Omncs itaque intelligant, quo ordine, et via ipsa Sy nodus, post 
jactum fidei confessionis fundamentum,sit progressura, et quibus 
potissimum testimoniis ac presidiis in confirmandis dogmatibus, 
et instaurandis in Ecclesia moribus sit usura". But as there were 
many translations of the Holy Book, " since it was right", says 
Pallavicino (lib. vi. cap. 17, n. 5), "in deciding on so many 
articles against heretics who were both obstinate and sophistical, 
to remove all doubt concerning the foundations of the decisions 
that were to be issued, the council resolved in virtue of the assis- 
tance promised to it by the Holy Spirit, to pronounce as authentic 
and sure some Latin translation of the Holy Scriptures 1 '. With 
this intent was published the other decree declaring the authen- 
ticity of the Vulgate: " Statuit et declarat, ut haec ipsa vetus, 
et vulgata editio, quae longo tot seculorum usu in ipsa Ecclesia 
probata est, in publicis lectionibus, disputationibus, predicationi- 
bus, et expositionibus pro authentica habeatur". That is to say, 
the sacred books of the Vulgate form and version agree with the 
primitive text written under divine inspiration in otherjanguages 
and other accidental forms. Wherefore we are bound to recog- 
nize the Vulgate text as inspired, not indeed as to each word, but 
certainly as to matter and the sentences. What manifests (and 
what led the council to decree) this authenticity is the reason 
already assigned in the definition of the canonical books, namely, 
the ancient use of the Catholic Church. The same dogmatic 
scope is indicated in this decree as in the first, namely, the great 

1 Pallavicino, lib vi. cap. xi. n. 4: " II medesimo Legato espose ; parergli ottimo 
consiglio, die in priino luogo s'accettassero e si annoverassero i libri canonici della 
bcrittuia, per istabilire cou quali armi si dovesse pugnare contra gli eretici, ed in 
qual base dovessero fondare la lor credenza i Cattolici". 

of the three Heavenly Witnesses. 127 

advantage on the part of the Church, and to the end that there 
might be no doubt of the genuineness of the Scripture in this 
version in publico lectionibus, disputationibus, predicationibus, et 
expositioriibus. Besides, the council was about to derive its 
texts and Scripture quotations from none other than this very- 
Latin edition ; and, therefore, this second decree, like the first, 
had reference to the declaration of the divine authority of the 
text which the holy synod would use to prove points of doctrine 
and to promote the reform of abuses. 

As to the meaning and extent of this definition, we must allow 
(as is shown by the scope of both these decrees, and by other 
reasons) that it does not assert a perfect and universal agreement 
of all passages without distinction, in matter and in form ; nor, 
for a like reason, are we to understand by the words cum omni- 
bus suis partibus prout in Ecclesia Calh. legi consueverant, each 
single word or phrase. On the other hand, from the scope which 
the council declared it had in issuing the two decrees it seems 
clear, in the first place, that all those parts prout in vetere Vul- 
gata Latina, which, of themselves and directly express a dogma 
or a moral law, are declared to be canonical; and hence that the 
Vulgate is declared authentic in the same manner. If it were 
otherwise, the decree would not answer the purpose for which it 
was intended. For if, as our adversaries think, by the expres- 
sion partibus were meant only the deutero- canonical parts of 
Daniel, Esther, etc., and if the Vulgate were declared authentic 
merely in general terms, without being declared such as to 
special dogmatic texts, it would follow that, in virtue of the 
dfcree, the fathers and the faithful would have no security for the 
inspiration of the texts quok-d by the synod as proofs of doc- 
trine from all the books and their parts as they existed in 
the old Latin Vulgate. Now, by the acknowledgment of the 
council itself, the decree is especially directed to insure this cer- 
tainty, that the source whence the texts were to be taken was 
divine; therefore, the canonical authority of the books was 
declared for all their dogmatic parts as they exist in the ancient 
Latin Vulgate. 

Secondly, those who measure the extent of the decree by the 
polemical scope of the council as against the reformers, which 
we too admit, 1 will surely acknowledge that the words, si quis 
libros integros cum omnibus suis partibus prout in Ecclesia 
Catholici legi consueverunt, must needs include a dogmatic text 
which for many ages had been in most frequent use in the 
Church, which was familiar to all, and which, about the very 
date of the council, was assailed and rejected by some, and 
especially by heretics. 

1 Pallavicin., 1, vi. c. 11, n. 4-8. 

128 On the Authenticity of the Text 

In the third place, it would be absurd to say that the mean- 
ing of the two decrees is this: the books of the Scripture are 
canonical, and the Vulgate is authentic, in those passages which 
can be proved genuine by a critical and historical examination 
of the text; for this meaning would sanction the very abuse 
which the decree was intended to extirpate, namely, that indi- 
viduals should presume to submit to their private examination 
the Holy Scriptures, at least in controverted passages, and form 
for themselves an opinion as to the authority of these passages. 
Far from this, the canonical authority of the parts, and the 
authenticity of the Vulgate are established in the edition as 
then in use, as it was read in the Catholic Church and employed 
by the council itself as a divine authority in matters of faith and 
morals. The reason which made manifest to the council this 
authenticity was the dogmatic principle, that the Holy Ghost, 
who assists the Church, would never have permitted that in the 
entire Church in a matter of faith, a merely human text should 
have been employed for many ages by common consent and 
public use. 

From these remarks it follows, that the right method of con- 
ducting the inquiry, whether a given dogmatic text existed in 
the original primitive edition, or at least in the primitive Latin 
edition, is not that which proceeds by a critical examination to 
establish its authenticity or spuriousness ; but, where there is 
question of a text which by its character comes under the 
Church's definition, which at the period of the council used to 
be read by the Church herself, and which was to be found in 
the ancient Latin Vulgate edition, and was thereby long held 
to be divine ; we are bound to look upon such a text as agree- 
ing, at least in sense, with the original sentence written under 
divine inspiration. And this would hold good, even if it were 
proved clearly that such a text had been admitted at a late date 
into the Latin Vulgate; for in that case all that would follow is 
that the genuine reading was preserved for us not by the author 
of that version, but by other means. These conclusions flow at 
once from the Catholic principle, that the Holy Ghost guides 
the Church, and that she is infallible in guarding the written 
and unwritten Word of God. 

Nor do we therefore refuse their due merit to those Catholics 
who devote themselves to the examination of different readings 
either in the original text or in the Vulgate version ; for, since 
truth cannot contradict truth, such studies serve wonderfully to 
confirm, or at least to throw light upon, the genuine reading. 
And although, in dogmatic 'matters, the true reading is to bo 
determined by a dogmatic principle, to which criticism itself 
must be subservient, still there are many other matters which 

of the three Heavenly Witnesses. 129 

cannot be determined but by the helps supplied by critical and 
historical investigations. Such investigations serve also to show 
the way in which dogmatic texts have been pieserved. 

This being once established, no one can hold that the verse of 
St. John (I. John, V. 7) does not come under both these decrees 
of Trent, and that it has not been declared part of the canonical 
Scriptures. For, firstly, putting out of sight critical and histo- 
rical investigations into the primitive condition of the Latin ver- 
sion, it is certain that, for many centuries prior to the council, 
by common consent of the pastors, doctors, and faithful of the 
Church, in public and private use, this text was held to be por- 
tion of the Sacred Scripture in the Vulgate edition which was 
employed by the whole Western Church. All admit that, at 
least from the ninth century, this verse is found in an immense 
number of manuscripts of the Vulgate, and with such uni- 
formity as to render the text which omits it an exception. 1 

From time immemorial it was recited in the Roman Liturgy ; 2 
it was employed by the Fourth Lateran Council as a text of 
the Sacred Scripture, without any doubt or hesitation ; it is put 
forward in the Canon Law Decretals as a dogmatic proof; 3 at the 
period of the compilation of the spurious decretals (ninth cen- 
tury), it is quoted as a well-known text of Holy Writ in the let- 
ters falsely attributed to Hyginus aid John the Second; in 
the prologue to the Catholic Epistles attributed to St. Jerome, 
wnich, from the earliest ages, was prefixed to the copies of the 
Bible, and is commonly found in the most ancient editions; 4 its 

1 Cf Apparnt. Crit. Bengel. in 1. c. 19-21. 

2 Ex epistola B. lo'tnns ho die no'n's est lectio recitata, in qua discimus testi- 
monium dari triplex i>* coelo, triplex in terra (S BERNARD., Serm. II in Octavo, 
Paschae). Rupe^us, at the beginning of the twelfth century, declared : Debet 
se.mpei epistola Evangelic suae praecursionis officv.un (in liturgia), et idcirco ilia 
(jUoque quae, huius Dominicae est (Dominicae in Albis;, lectio epistolae non omit- 
iitur. Nctm in kac lectione victor iosa fides nostra praedicatur et ipsa victoria mundi 
nuncupatur, quae tribus adiuta testibus, nam Pater et Verbum et Spiritus Sanctus 

in coelo attestantur totid^mque in terra testes ternis, inquam, in 

coelo et in terra testibus defensa (fides) regnum coelorum adiudicat (RuPEitxus, 
De divin offic., lib. vin cap. xvn.). Durandus, likewise (thirteenth century): 
Secundam Romanun Ordinem, leyuntur novem lectiones in Dommicis a Pascha 

usque ad Ptntecostem In epistola in fide iastruimur, quae incipit: 

Omne quod natum est ex Deo, vincit mundum (I lo. v. 4). Ostenditfidem per testi- 
'inonium in coelo et in terra et in conscientia. In terra cum dicit: Tres sunt qui 

testimonium pcrhibent in terra 'I'res perhibent testimonium in coelo, 

Pater in voce, Verbum in carne, Spiritus in columba, et hi tres unum sunt 
(DURAND., liational., div. offic. lib. vi. cap. xxxvu.). 

3 De, suiiinia Trin. Cap. JJamnamus (lib. i. tit. i. cap. i.) ; De celebr. Missae, 
Cap. In quodam (lib. in. tit. XLI, cap. viu). 

4 The _ author of the Prologus says: Illo praecipuo loco, tibi de Trinitatis 
unitate in prima loannis epistola positum legimus, in qua etiam a.b infidelibus 

translator ibus multum erratum esse a fidd ventate comperimus Patris 

Verbique ac Spiritus testimonium omi tentes, in quo maxime et fides catholica 
roboratur et Patris, Fihi,et Spiritus Sancti una divinitatis substantia comprobatur. 

VOL. IV. 9 

130 On the Authenticity of the Text 

omission is regarded as a dangerous error ; it was commented on 
by the interpreters without a shadoAV of doubt as to its genuineness, 
beginning with the glossa ordinaria of Walfrid of Fulda, and the 
interlinear gloss of Anselm of Laon, both of which works enjoyed 
the highest authority among all ; it was employed with like con- 
fidence, as the written word of God, and to demonstrate the faith, 
by all the theologians of all the schools, by pastors in instruct- 
ing the Christian people, etc. It is idle to mention Rupert, St. 
Bernard, Hugh of St. Victor, the Master of the Sentences, St. 
Thomas, St. Bonaventure, and others. It is beyond all gainsay, 
therefore, that the text of St. John, at least for the period of 
seven centuries prior to the Council of Trent, did form a part of 
the canonical letter as it was usually read in the Catholic Church 
and as it stood in the ancient Latin Vulgate. 

In the second place, there is no need of proving that the text 
itself has reference to matters of faith, rebus fidei, and that it is 
eminently doctrinal. Nor does it avail to reply that the doctrine 
of the Holy Trinity is expressed in other parts of Scripture, and 
that, therefore, even if this passage were rejected from St. John's 
context, it could not be said that the doctrine was not to be 
found in Scripture. For, it should be remembered, that, accord- 
ins: to Catholic principles the preservation and sufficient propo- 
sition of a revealed truth does not depend either solely or even 
principally on any text of Scripture, nor even on the entire 
Scripture. It is true, no doubt, that the doctrine of the Trinity 
is contained in, and may be proved from other passages of Holy 
Writ. But the verse in St. John forms part of a special context; 
nor does there exist in any other part of Scripture a passage 
which expresses in that form and in those terms the profession 
of the Church, and what Tertullian calls (Cont. Praxeam, cap. 
xxxi) substantiam Novi Testamenti, quod exinde Pater, et 
Filius, et Spiritus ires crediti unum sistunt. Our opponents 
ought to observe the method which Protestants follow in this 
particular, They impugn the genuineness of this text of St. 
John, and then maintain that elsewhere in the whole Scripture, 
this truth is not so explicitly set forth. The Socinians and the 
Rationalists would not insist so earnestly upon the spuriousness 
of this passage were it not for their aversion to the dogma it 
announces ; whilst others, 1 who profess to believe in the Trinity, 
hold it not to be one of the fundamental articles, because they 

1 Neander of Berlin, for example, says : Doctrina de Deo uno et trino non per- 
tinet ad articufas fundamentals Jidei christianae, ut iam ex eo patet, quod in 
nullo loco N. T. erpresse proposita reperitur ; nam locus unions, in quo expresse 
continetur, de tribus testibus I lo. v. definite spurius est, et in sua form a spuria 
demostrat, quam sit ta/is connumeratio (hi tres unum} aliena a Scripturis Novi 
Testamenti (NEANDER, Histor. ccles., torn. n. pag. 305, ed iv. 

of the three Heavenly Witnesses. 131 

reject this passage, which alone, according to them, explicitly 
asserts it. 

Finally, in the third place, as the Reformers and some over- 
daring Catholics (among whom Cajetanus, in the Council of 
Trent) impugned the authority of the Deutero-canonical books, 
and of certain other parts of Scripture, so also did they reject 
about the same period, and not without the scandal of the 
faithful, this verse. In 1522, Luther in a public dispute impugned 
the genuineness of this verse, and expunged it from his German 
version of the Bible (Michaelis In trod, in N. T. 1. c. sect, vii.) 
Bengel writes : J3ugenhagen collega Luther imagna obtestatione 
omnes deterruit ne Dictum posthaec insererent. 1 It was not 
until 1574, after Luther's death, that it was admitted for the first 
time into the Lutheran Bible. Erasmus omitted it from his two 
first editions of the New Testament, but finally, on account of 
the indignation expressed by the Catholics, inserted it from the 
Codex Britannicus in 1522. " Repertus est", he writes in bis latest 
notes on this passage, " apud Anglos codex unw, in quo habetur 
OTI rpac, etc. Ex hoc igitur codice Britannico reposuimus, guod 
in nostris dicebatur dcesse ne cui sit ansa calumniandi (Michaelis 
1. c. sect. 6). Even Cajetanus, in his commentaries, had insinua- 
ted some doubts about the genuineness of the verse. 

To resume what we have said thus far, there can be no doubt 
that the double decree of the Council of Trent on the canonical 
Scriptures and on the authenticity of the Vulgate must include 
a text which, beyond gainsay, forms part of a canonical book, 
prout in Ecclesia Catholica legi consueverat et in veteri Vulgata 
Latino, editione habebatur; which belongs in an eminent degree 
to the dogmatic texts which the decree was specially framed to 
include; and which, as being called in question ever since, 
almost as much as the Deutero-canonical books by the Reformers 
(not without scandal to Catholics), ought have been considered 
by the council on the same footing as those books. For in 
fact like the Deutero-canonical books, they were in use from 
most ancient date in the Catholic Church, and it was this use in 
the Church which guided the fathers in defining the canon of 
the sacred books with all their parts. We now pass on to the 
second point. 

In her custody of the Word of God and in her authentic 
judgments thereupon, the Church is not assisted by progressive 
revelations, but is saved from error by the assistance of the Spirit 
of Truth. Hence there should be humanly intelligible signs to 
make manifest the truth which she has to define, which trut i in 
our present case is the divine origin ot the book or text concern- 
ing which the Church utters her judgment. The council gives 
' Apparat, crit. in h. 1. n. 9. 


132 On the Authenticity of the Text 

us to understand that the external manifestation and statement 
upon which it rested its definition, resulted from the public, long, 
and constant usage of the Church, which without any ulterior 
examination proclaimed that these books with all their parts had 
been for at least several centuries received as the written Word 
of God. This proceeding is based on the following principle, 
that the Holy Spirit, who assists the Church and leads her into 
all truth, could not suffer that the whole Church in her public 
acts, in her decrees concerning faith, in her liturgy, in her instruc- 
tions to the people of Christ, in her explanations and defence of 
doctrine, should for many centuries receive and venerate as the 
Word of God a composition which was in reality not such. In 
this way, the assistance of the Holy Spirit, considered as present 
in the Council, is not only the active principle which renders the 
definition infallible, but the same assistance, considered as perpe- 
tual in the Church, became for the Council the objective reason 
of the definition itself. However, although the infallibility of 
the definition depends upon the assistance of the Holy Spirit, 
under whose influence it is uttered, and although it is this pro- 
mised assistance upon which rests our certainty of the truth of 
the definition itself, it is nevertheless the office of the theologian 
to inquire and set forth the form in which, in course of years, 
the truth was held and preserved. Hence, in the present case, 
we can examine both how our text was employed by the early 
Church, and how it has been handed down to us. 

We have already shown that the verse of St. John was received 
in the Western Church as part of Holy Writ, at least since the 
ninth century. Now, in virtue of the argument of prescription, 
especially when taken in connection with the constitution and 
principles of the Church, this universal use of the text can be 
explained only by admitting that the text itself came down from 
the beginning. But, besides this, we can show from records still 
existing that the text of the three heavenly witnesses was recog- 
nized as genuine in the early ages of the Church, as far back as 
we can trace the Latin version. That is to say, the text existed 
and was employed by the fathers in Africa, inltaly, in Gaul, and 
in Spain, from the eighth century, as far back as the second and 

In the assembly held by order of king Hunnericus at Car- 
thage, in February, 484, the Catholic bishops non solum uni- 
versae Africae sed etiam insularum multarum, 1 published a 
profession of faith, which afterwards, on the 20th April, they 
forwarded to Hunnericus by means of four bishops of the Numi- 
dian and Byzacene provinces. The names of these bishops, 

1 Victor Vitensis Epis., De Persecut. Vandal, lib. ii, n. 18. 

of the three Heavenly Witnesses. 133 

four hundred and sixty- one in number, may be found in Har- 
d urn's Collection of Councils, torn, ii., p. 869. First of all, as 
against Arians, they prove by texts of Scripture the consub- 
stantiality of the Father and the Son (n. 1-8), and then, the 
consubstantiality of the Holy Ghost with the Father and the 
Son, (n. 9-23), thereby proving the unity of nature in three dis- 
tinct persons. In this second part of the profession of faith, 
written in the name of all the Catholic bishops against the Arian 
bishops, their powerful and implacable adversaries, the text of 
the three witnesses is set forth as a testimony as certain and 
well-known as it is clear and irrefragable : " Et ut adhuc luce 
clarius unius divinitatis esse cum Patre et Filio Spiritum Sanc- 
tum doceamus, Joannis Evangelistae testimonio comprobatur. Ait 
namque: Tres sunt qui testimonium perhibent in coelo, Pater, 
Verbum et Spiritus Sanctus, ethi tres unum sunt". 1 Upon this 
we may remark: 1. Whosoever was appointed to draw up this 
document, whether Eugene of Carthage or other bishop, or 
several other bishops, no one would have dared to insert in 
the profession of faith (which was to be approved of by all the 
other bishops, and by them be set before the Arians), as a 
text from St. John, a passage which was not commonly read 
in the churches of Africa and the islands ; nor would the four 
hundred and sixty bishops have allowed it, were such an 
attempt made. 2. If the bishops had not been fully persuaded 
that the text was received also by the Arians, and read in their 
manuscripts, or if it were to be found but in few copies, and, 
even among Catholics, was not altogether beyond doubt, they 
would never have exposed it to the carping censuies of their 
bitter adversaries, by pronouncing it to be a confutation clearer 
than the light of the Arian heresy. And that the bishops were 
correct in thinking that the Arians did really accept the text as 
genuine, is shown by Virgilius of Tapsus, who was present at 
the meeting, and who is put down in the last place among the 
bishops of the Byzacene province. Virgilius openly appeals to 
this text as read by the Arians themselves: Cur tres unum 
sunt Joannem Evanyelistam dixisse legitis, si diversas naturas in 
personis esse accipitisf* It is absurd, therefore, with Michaelis 3 
and others, to wish to limit all the authority of the profession of 
faith to Eugeriius, Bishop of Carthage. 3. It is remarkable that 
in the first part of the profession, to prove the consubtantiality 
of the Father and the Son, the fathers collect numerous texts 
from all the books, especially of the N. T., and even from the 
first epistle of St. John, but are silent concerning the famous 

1 Libellus jidei n. 11, apud. Viet. Vit. 1. 3. 

2 Virgilius Tap. De Trinitate, lib. vii. in Bibliot. Max. PP. torn, vii., p. 789, 

3 IntroducL in N. T. cap. xxxi., sec. iiii., torn iv. 

134 Rev. Dr. Brady on the Irish Church 

verse. In the same way, the author of the book against the 
Arian Pintas, in the first part of his treatise, and St. FuLjentius 
in the whole of the second book to Thrasamundus, although 
they quote numberless passages of Soipture to prove the con- 
substantiality of the Father and the Son, nevertheless omit this 
text, although it was well known to them, and was quoted by 
them in other places when speaking of the Trinity. From this 
we may learn how fallacious is the general conclusion of our 
adversaries: "the fathers in disputing with the Arians omit to 
quote this text, which would have been of such advantage to 
their cause ; therefore it was wanting in their manuscripts". Such 
reasoning as this made it very easy for Scholz, after the Protes- 
tant critics, to present us with a series of Fathers, as testifying 
to the interpolation of the passage. As long as the attack of the 
heretics was directed against the Son (either by denying that 
He is distinct from the Father, as the Monarchians did, or by 
denying His Godhead as did other heretics, and afterwards the 
Arians), even though it assailed, by implication, the person of 
the Holy Ghost likewise, nevertheless, we find that the line of 
defence followed by the fathers was mostly limited to the dogma 
which was directly assailed. Now, in this dispute about the 
person of the Son, it was not necessary to quote the passage 
from St. John, since the Gospel supplies convincing passages 
concerning the distinction and consubstantiality of Father and 
Son. We do not, however, mean to sjy that it cannot be proved 
from certain contexts of the fathers, that this verse either was 
Wanting in their manuscripts, or that they looked upon it as 
not quite certain. We mean only to question the value of 
negative argument, which, from the silence of the fathers 
would deduce that they were unacquainted with this veise. 
( To be continued.) 


(Concluded from our last. 

1U. Dr. Brady thus notices the statement made by the friends 
of the Establishment, " that the moral and religious reformation 
of the people was earnestly and carefully thought and laboured 
for, from the commencement of Elizabeth's reign: 

"Few will believe that the 'moral and religious reformation' of 
the Irish was much thought of by the Queen's first deputv, Lord 
Sussex, who sold a deanery to an adulterer, and tried to assas- 
sinate O'Neil nor by Sir Henry Sidney, who recommended lay- 

in the time of Queen Elizabeth. 135 

men for bishoprics, and tolerated the presence of such corrupt 
prelates as Magrath, or Sheyne, or O'Brennan nor by that ' good 
man Weston', who, being a layman, was dean of St. Patrick's, 
and screened from punishment his profligate nephew nor by the 
said nephew of Weston, Sir John Ball, who though a layman 
usurped an archdeaconry, and as commissary to Loftus turned his court 
into a brothfi* nor by Loftus, who tortured Papal bishops, and 
enriched his family by the spoils of the church nor by Gerrard, 
the bloodthirsty chancellor, who advised, as a means of * thorough 
reformation', to * subject the whole Irishry to the sword'. 

" On examination it will be found that the ecclesiastics provided 
by Elizabeth during her entire reign, were, with scarcely an excep- 
tion, men who sought chiefly their own temporal advantage, and did 
nothing whatever to advance ' the religious reformation* of Ireland. 
The Queen did not permit religion to be pressed upon the people, 
except at Dublin and in some few other places within the Pale, if 
Sir Henry Sidney, her 'deputy-general' in 1565, is to be credited. 
Arthur, Lord Grey, her lord-lieutenant, complained in 1580, in a 
private letter addressed to the Queen herself, that her Majesty had 
charged him not to meddle too much with religion : * Your Highness, at 
my leave-taking, gave me a warning for being strict in dealing with 
religion. I have observed it, how obediently soever, yet most unwil- 
lingly I confess, and I doubt not as harmfully to your and God's 
service. A canker never receiving cure without corrosive medicines'. 
There is no trace of any letter directed to any bishops, 
except Curwin, calling on them to consecrate the Queen's bishops, or 
to introduce the new worship into their cathedrals. There is, on the 
other hand, ample evidence that the bishops set at nought with 
impunity those provisions of the act which prescribed the use of the 
English service, for in the cathedrals of Cork and Limerick, and in 
the chief towns, where the bishops and corporations were bound to 
see to the performance of the Reformed worship, there was Mass cele- 
brated in the presence and with the aid of the very bishops who, it 
is pretended, had voted in parliament for its abolition. The Queen's 
deputies, for years after her Majesty's accession, were met on their 
journeys through the provinces by bishops in pontificals, and priests 
arrayed in vestments and copes, walking in procession and singing in 
Latin, a cross the while being carried before them. These things 
were winked at by the governors, who in no case even rebuked the 
offending prelates. In 1574, fourteen years from the passing of the 
Eeformation Acts, Sir Edward Fitton furnished to Burghley a 
description of Thomond and Connaught, and gave the names of the 
bishops and the leading gentry in the five counties of Clare, Galway, 
Mayo, Sligo, and Roscommon. He mentions under the see of Killaloe, 
that O'Brien was 'custos', and says that Kilfenora was vacant. 
There was then no Papal bishop of Kilfenora, otherwise Fitton would 
have recorded his name as that of the bishop in possession, just as in 
the cases of Killala and Achonry, he gave the names of the Pope's 
nominees as occupants of those sees. The bishops of Kilmacduagh, 
Clonfert and Elphin, and Tuam, are duly and correctly noted. At 

136 Rev. Dr. Brady on the Irisli Clmrch 

Killala is entered ' Owen O'Gallagher, by the Pope's bull, incum- 
bent', and at Achonry, 'Owen O'ilarte, incumbent'. O'Gallagher's 
Christian name was incorrectly given by Fitton, for his name was 
Doriatus. O'Harte was a Papal bishop like O'Gallagher. The one 
had his brief in 1562, the other in 1570. O'Harte was at the Council 
of Trent, and O'Gallagher was a special agent of the papacy, and yet 
both these papal bishops are recognized as bishops in possession by 
her Majesty's ' Vice-treasurer and Treasurer at Wars', and left undis- 
turbed in their sees. O'Gallagher was subsequently translated by 
the Pope to Down, and O'Harte in 1585, was imprisoned by Sir John 

IV. He thus sums up the general results: 

"The Reformation under Elizabeth's early rule, if historical 
documents are to be accepted as evidence, was chiefly confined to 
the conversion of Hugh Curwin, and to the passing, by the pretended 
assent of a refractory parliament, of the Act of Uniformity and some 
other acts touching religion. Within Dublin and the precincts of 
the Pale, where the Queen had power, force was applied to eject the 
recusant bishops and replace them by more subservient prelates. 
Unless an armed force was sent to protect them, the bishops whom 
the Queen, some years after her accession, sent to Waterford, Ossory, 
Cashel, and Cork, ' dared not tarry' in their sees. Elizabeth's bishops 
were bitterly lampooned for their military feats, for their feasting in 
Lent, for their fondness for wives, and for their mammon worship. 
Magrath of Cashel, and Sheyne of Cork, O'Brenrian of Ross, and the 
Bishop of Killaloe, were held up to odium and ridicule in contem- 
porary Irish ballads. For want of military protection, Bishop Walsh 
was murdered in Ossory, Archbishop MacCaghwell was captured in 
Cashel, and Archbishop Magrath was ' wounded in seven places in 
his body' on his journey from his house to Dublin. As time advanced, 
the policy, spoken of in 1577, of bringing the Irish counties under 
law by degrees, and stretching the Pale gradually further, was carried 
out. But the process was slow. It took many years to introduce 
law and order, and to establish courts of justice in the corporate 
towns, and it took many more years before the assize circuits were 
aught but travelling courts-martial. The reign of Elizabeth had 
ceased before her sovereignty had been practically exercised in some 
of the remoter parts of Ireland. During that reign of five-and-forty 
years, religion had little chance of improvement. The slaughters and 
massacres, the treacheries and plots, the confiscations and attainders, 
which gained for the English a gradual and sure mastery over the 
Irish, implanted within Irish hearts an ineradicable aversion to the 
Establishment, which like a network spread its meshes over every 
parish as a sign and token of defeat and capture. The people, per- 
haps, saw little to admire in an establishment, wherein the ' bishops, 
cathedral churches, and clergy' had already in Burghley's time begun 
to make unconscionable long leases for two hundred and for ninety- 
nine years', and which continued for long a mere machine for collecting 

in i e time of Queen Elizabeth. 137 

the remnants of church property which the greed of laymen and 
churchmen had spared. The few English ministers who resided on 
their benefices were farmers and settlers rather than evangelists, and 
were incapable, from ignorance of the language, of teaching the 
reformed doctrines, even if their ill lives had not destroyed all desire 
to fulfil the functions of their calling. Archbishops and bishops, 
who tortured their papal rivals, and hunted down the Queen's rebels, 
could hardly be looked on as ' good shepherds' by the harried flock, 
and ministrations intruded upon poor wretches cast into prison to 
compel them to hearken to their persuaders, must have been highly 
offensive. Fining a young nobleman one hundred marks for ' hear- 
ing a Mass' may have seemed to Loftus and Sidney only a proper 
mode of advancing the Gospel within the Pale, but the victims to 
this species of proselytism clung all the more closely to the worship 
which cost them so dear, and were the less likely to embrace the 
worship which the State offered for nothing. 

"In fact the establishment, which Elizabeth founded, was an 
establishment and no more. It could not in her day be called a 
church, except by a kind of fiction. If it possessed a staff of digni- 
taries as well as bishops, it was entirely wanting in the essential and 
principal part of a church namely, people to be ministered to. It 
has been correctly likened unto a body of shepherds without a flock. 
It is impossible upon any recognized principles of Christian ethics, to 
associate the idea of true religion with such an establishment, even 
though its ritual may be regarded as excellent and its doctrines as 
pure. The Church of Christ, be it ever so pure in creed, ceases to 
be a Christian church, when it begins to teach the Gospel by fines 
and imprisonment and deprivations. The Establishment in Ireland 
commenced its career by violating the simplest rules of Christianity 
when it prescribed penalties for its support. Morality was outraged 
when the Establishment became the recipient of the confiscated church 
property of the Irish nation. Common sense is outraged when it is 
attempted to justify the continuance of that confiscation by the plea 
that Curvvin's consecrations were canonical, and by the assertion that 
two bishops of the Irish church joined him in his alleged conversion. 
History is falsified when it is said that the Irish church thus reformed 
itself. Against such falsehoods and sophistries the very stones of the 
temples and churches which Sidney saw ruined in his day cry out in 
the present generation. A voice from the ancient graveyards, with 
their broken chancels, mutilated crosses, and shattered towers, is lifted 
up in protestation against such an untruth. The wrongs of the elder 
sister church, and bitter wrongs she has undeniably and unjustifiably 
suffered, however she may have erred, have not been silenced. Her 
cry, not indeed of agony as in past time, but of remonstrance, carried 
from wave to wave of the wild Atlantic, and echoed back from the 
new world to the old, appeals now with greater force than ever, to 
the sympathies of the just and the interests of the powerful. 




Cum in unum convenerimus ut mandatis tuis obsequentes de 
rebus gravissimis ad ecclesiam Hibernensem pertinentibus consilium 
iniremus, muneris nostri esse existimavimus eos sensus obsequii et 
venerationis patefacere quos erga Sanctitatem Tuam et Sedem Apos- 
tolicam ad quam propter potiorem principalitatem omnis convenire 
debet ecclesia, in corde gerimus. Quippe ex nobis singuli cum S. 
Hieronymo dicere possumus: "Ego nullum primum nisi Christum 
sequens, Beatitudinis Tuae, id est cathedrae Petri, communione 
consocior. Super illam Petram aedificatam ecclesiam scio. Qui- 
cumque extra hanc domum agnum comederit, profanus est. . . . 
Quicumque Tecum non colligit spargit". 

Cum itaque arctissimo necessitudinis vinculo Sanctitati Tuae con- 
jungamur ut membra capiti Tecum in rebus afflictis et tristibus corn- 
patiamur necesse est, nee minus gaudendum nobis est curn felix rerum 
cursus laetitiam cordi tuo affert. Quare maximam nobis tristitiam 
ac dolorem ea attulerunt quae proximis annis a scelestissimis homini- 
bus gesta sunt praesertim in Italia, cum per summum nefas, ut quae 
contra episcopos, sacerdotes, et instituta religiosa sunt patrata silentio 
praetereamus, ditionem ecclesiasticam, patrimonium S. Petri invase- 
runt, ecclesiae universalis et sedis apostolicae jura conculcarunt, et 
Christ! vicarium ad summas angustias redegerunt. Quanquam tristis- 
sima haec acta et tot flagitiomm aspectus intirno nos dolore affligunt, 
non possumus tamen quin laetemur eo quod inter tot ingruentia mala 
insignem universae ecclesiae triumphum nuper parasti, et gaudii et 
consolationis argumentum omnibus fidelibus praebuisti ; cum solemni 
litu memoriam curasti celebrandam diei auspicatissimi quo sancti 
apostoli Petrus et Paulus ante annos mille et octingentos illustri 
martyrio Romae perfuncti immobilem catholicae unitatis arcem suo 
sanguine consecrarunt. Quam laetus universo orbi fuit nuntius 
rerum quae ad diem ilium commemorandum Romae gesta sunt : 
quarn pulchra exhibita sunt unitatis catholicae spectacula ! quae 
invicta argumenta omnium oculis fere subjecta sunt, cur unitatem, 
sanctitatem et inconcussam firmitatem ecclesiae admitterent. Equidem 
id omnino novum et admirandum fuit, quod vix significata Sanctitatis 
Tuae voluntate, quingenti sacrorum antistites, et innumeri sacerdotes 
et laici ex omni etiam dissitissima orbis regione divino quasi ageute 
spiritu, spretis periculis et incommodis itinerum, sponte unanimi 
quasi consensu Romam convolarunt ut devotionem et obedientiam 
erga sedem apostolicam ostenderent, atque sacra solemnia quae in 
honorem Principum Apostolorum celebranda decrevisti, adventu suo 
et studio quantum fieri poterat, decorarent. 

Documents. 139 

Utinam ut isti qui te exercent, magnalia Dei quae facta sunt in 
Jerusalem conspicientes aliquando convertantur, 'atque ut verbis 
episcoporum qui in solemni ista sanctorum apostolorum commemora- 
tione Tibi adstiterunt, in quorum numero plures ex nobis recense- 
bantur, caeteri vero domi necessario detenti spiritu adfuerunt; ut 
eorum verbis utamur; " Faxit Deus omnipotens*~qui amoris Tui 
et officii sui immemores voci tuae adhuc resistunt, meliora secuti 
consilia ad Te tandem redeuntes, lucturn tuum in gaudium conver 

Ad hunc optatissimum finem consequendum nihil magis conducere . 
Dosse existimamus quam saluberrimum et providentissimum istud 
consilium tuum, quo statuisti, quam primum id fieri poterit, synodum 
oecumenicam convocare. Etenim ex celebratione^hujusmodi^con- 
ventus spem habemus futurum ut Catholicae veritatis lux errorum 
tenebris, quibus mortal iurn mentes obvolvuntur^amotis, salutare 
suum lumen diffundat, quo illi varam salutis et; justitiae semitam, 
adspirante Dei gratia, agnoscant et instent. Ex hoc tuo consilio etiam 
spes effulget eventuruin ut ecclesia veluti invicta* castrorum acies 
oidinata hostiles inimicorum conatus retundat, impetus frangat, ac de 
ipsis triumphans Jesu Christi regnum in terris longe lateque propaget 
ac proferat. Ut haec tarn praeclara beneficia^consequatur ecclesia, 
pollicemur nos omnia esse praestituros quae in nostra sunt potestate 
et sine intermissione humiliter Deum obsecraturos, ut consilium quod 
inspirando praevenit, misericorditer adjuvet, et ad finem optatum 
perducat. Fausta omnia et felicia Tibi adprecatij-Deumque rogantes 
ut diu Te servet incolumem quo praelia Domini praeliari?invicta 
animi virtute, constantia et charitate prosequaris, adpedes Sanctitatis 
Tuae provoluti benedictionem tuam apostolicam pro nobis et gregibus 
nobis commissis enixe rogamus. 

Datum Dublini die 3 tio Octobris, 1867. 

Sanctitatis Tuae, 

Devotissimi et obsequentissirni famuli et filii. 
i^ Paulus Card. Cullen, Arch. Dublinen. J Michael, Archiep. Armacanus. 
>5f Patricias, Archiep. Casseliensis. jfc Joannes, Archiep. Tuamensis. 

tfc Edwardus VValshe, Ep. Ossoriensis. i|i Gulielmus Delany, Ep. Corcagen. 
tff Joannes Ep. Clonfertensis. ^4 Franciscus Kelly, Epis.|Derriensis. "'"- 

>i Gulielmus Keane, Ep. Cloynensis. ^ Patritius Durcan, Ep. Achadensis. 
tff David Moriarty, Epis. Kerriensis. ^ F. J. P. Leahy, O.P., Ep.fDromoren. 

tff Dominicus O'Brien, Epis. Waterf brd- >J< Jacobus Walshe, Epis. Kild. et 

ensis. Legh. 

tff Larentius Gillooly, Ep. Elphinensis. >J Daniel M'Gettigan, Epis.'Rapotensis. 
tf* Thomas Furloug, Epis. Ferneusis. ^ Joannes MacEvilly, Ep Galvien. etc. 

*fc Michael O'Hea, Epis. Rossensis. >f< P. Dorrian, Epis. Dunen. et]|Con. 

>5 Georgius Butler, Epis. Limericensis. (J Nicolaus Conaty, Ep. Kilmorensis. 
5< Thomas Nulty, Epis. Midensis. ^ N. Power, Goad. Epis. Laonerisis. 

1^4 Jacobus Donnelly, Ep. Clogherensis. Petrus Dawson,Vic. Cap.;Ardacaden. 

140 Documents 



Dilecto Filio Noster Paulo Presbytero Cardinali Cullen, Archi- 
episcopo Dublinensi, ac Venerabilibus Fratribus Michaeli^ 
A.rchiepiscopo Armacano, Patritio, Archiepiscopo Casseliensi, 
Joanni, Archiepiscopo Tuamensi, et Episcopis eorum Suffra- 
ganeis in Hibernia. 


Dilecte Fill Noster, ac Venerabiles Fratres, Salutem et Apostoli- 
cam Benedictionem. Maximis angustiis et acerbitatibus afflicti, ac 
prope obruti summam percepimus consolationem ex Litteris, quas die 
tertio hujus mensis ad Nos dedistis, dum in unum convenistis ad 
gravissimas istius Hibernensis Ecclesiae res concordissimis animis 
sedulo tractandas. In eisdern enim Litteris undique spirat, Dilecte 
Fili Noster, ac Venerabiles Fratres, exiniia vestra erga Nos, et hanc 
Petri Cathedram omnium Ecclesiarum Matrem et Magistram fides, 
pietas, amor et observantia, atque omni parte se prodit summus ves- 
ter dolor propter Nostras amaritudines a teterrimis Dei, bominumque 
hostibus excitatas, qui Nos, Catholicam Ecclesiam, hanc Sanctam 
Sedem, Episcopos, Sacrosque ministros in infelicissima praesertim 
Italia nefariis quibusque modis divexare, insectari, ac jura omnia 
divina, et humana proculcare non desinunt cum ingenti ipsius civilis 
societatis damno. Qui vestri sensus omni certe laude digni quam 
grati Nobis fuerint etiamsi nee novi, nee inexpectati extiterint, per 
Vos ipsi, Dilecte Fili Noster, ac Venerabiles Fratres, vel facile intel- 
ligere poteritis. Vehementer autem gratulamini, quod die 29 supe- 
rioris mensis Junii saecularia sollemnia immortalibus Beatissimi Petri 
Apostolorum Principis, et co-apostoli ejus Pauli Doctoris Gentium 
triumphis sacra a Nobis fuerint concelebrata, pluresque divinae 
nostrae religionis heroes Sanctorum ordini adscripti, adstantibus 
Venerabilibus Fratribus Catholici orbis Sacrorum Antistitibus cuin 
maxima omnium gentium sacerdotum, ac fidelium laicorum frequen- 
tia. Equidem commemorata sacra sollemnia vehementer lenierunt 
magnas Nostras molestias. Libentissime autem novimus, Vos singu- 
lar! laetitia affectos fuisse, ubi accepistis, Nos velle Oecumenicum 
Concilium cogere. Ea profecto spe nitimur fore, ut, Deo auxiliante, 
concilium idem habere possimus, et futurum confidimus, ut divina 
adspirante gratia, ex hujus modi Concilio magnae in Ecclesiam, et in 
civilem societatem redundent utilitates. Interim, Dilecte Fili Noster, 
ac Venerabiles Fratres, caelesti ope freti pergite pro episcopali vestro 
zelo luctuosissimis hisce temporibus opponere murum pro Domo 
Israel, et majore usque alacritate, vigilantia, studioque Ecclesiae 
causam, doctrinam, jura, libertatemque impavide propugnare, ves- 
trorum fidelium saluti consulere, ac tot nef'arias impiorum hominum 
insidias detegere, eorumque pestiferos, et perniciosissimos errores 
repellere, ac scelestissimos conatas reprimere. Ne desinatis vero una 
cum vestro clero, Populoque fideii Deum sine interrnissione orare et 

Documents. 141 

obsecrare, ut exurgat et judicet causam suam, omnesque Ecclesiae 
Sanctae suae hostes humiliet, disperdat, illosque de iniquitatis bara- 
thro ad rectum justitiae salutisque tramitem reducat. Vobis autem 
persuasissimum sit, precipuam esse, qua Vos in Domino complecti- 
mur, benevolentiam. Cujus quoque certissimum pignus accipite 
Apostolicam Benedictionem, qtiam effnso cordis affectu Vobis ipsis, 
Dilecte Fili Noster, ac Venerabiles Fratres, cunctisque Clericis Lai- 
cisque fidelibus cujusque vestrum vigilantiae concreditis peramanter 

Datum Romae apud S. Petrum die 21 Octobris anno 1867. 

Pontificatus Nostri anno Vicesimo secundo. 



OCTOBER, 1867. 

Venerabilibus Fratribus Patriarchis, Primatibus, Archiepiscopis, 

et Episcopis Universi Catholici orbis Gratiam et Communionem 

cum Apostolica sede Habentibus. 


Venerabiles Fratres, Salutem et Apostolicam Benedictionem. 
Levate, Venerabiles Fratres, in circuitu oculos vestros, et videbitis, 
ac'una Nobiscum vehementer dolebitis abominationes pessimas, qui- 
bus mine misera Italia praesertim funestatur. Nos quidem inscruta- 
bilia humillime adoramus iudicia Dei, cui placuit, Nos vitam agere 
hisce luctuosissimis temporibus, quibus nonnullorum hominum opera, 
et eorurn potissimum, qui in infelicissima Italia rein publicam regunt 
ac moderantur, veneranda Dei mandata, sanctaeque Ecclesiae leges 
plane despiciuntur, et impietas impune caput altius extollit, ac trium- 
phat. Ex quo omnes iniquitates, mala, et damna, quae cum sumnio 
animi Nostri moerore conspicimus. Hinc multiplices illae hominum 
phalanges, qui ambulantes in impietatibus, militant sub satanae 
vexillo, in cuius fronte est scriptum Mendacium, quique rebellionis 
nomine appellati, ac ponentes os suum in caelum, Deum blasphemant, 
sacra omnia polluunt, contemnunt, et quibusque iuribus divinis 
humanisque proculcatis, veluti rapaces lupi praedam anhelant, san- 
guinem effundunt, et animas perdunt suis gravissimis scandalis, et 
propriae malitiae lucrum iniustissime quaeruut, et aliena violenter 
rapiunt, ac pusillum ct pauperem contristant, rniserarum viduarum 
et pupillorum numerum augent, ac donis acceptis, veniam impiis tri- 
buunt, dum iusto iustitiam denegant, eumque spoliant, et corrupt! 
corde pravas quasque cupiditates turpiter explere contendunt cum 
maximo ipsius civilis societatis damno. 

Hoc perditorum hominum genere in presentia circumdati sumus, 
Venerabiles Fratres. Qui quidem homines diabolico prorsus spiritu 
animati mendacii vexillum collocare volunt in hac ipsa alma urbe 

142 Documents. 

Nostra, ad Petri Cathedram, Catholicae veritatis et unitatis centrum. 
Ac Subalpini Gubernii Moderatores, qui huiusmodi homines coercere 
deberent, illos omni studio fovere, eisque arma, resque omnes suppe- 
ditare, et ad bane urbem aditum munire non erubescunt. Sed omnes 
hi homines, licet in supremo civilis potestatis gradu et loco collocati, 
paveant ; quandoquidem hac improba sane agendi ratione se novis ob- 
stringunt laqueis ecclesiasticarum poenarum et censurarum. Etsi 
vero in humilitate cordis Nostri divitem in misericordia Deum enixe 
orare et obsecrare non desistirnus, ut hos omnes miserrimos homines 
ad salutarem poenitentiam, atque ad rectum iustitiae, religioriis, pie- 
tatis tramitem reducere dignetur ; tamen tacere non possumus gravis- 
sima pericula, quibus in hac hora tenebrarum expositi sumus. Animo 
plane tranquilio quoscumque rerum eventus, licet nefariis fraudibus, 
eulumniis, insidiis, mendaciis excitatos, expectamus, cum omnem 
Nostrum spem et liduciam collocemus in Deo salutari nostro, qui 
adiutor est Noster, et fortitudo in omnibus tribulationibus Nostris, 
quique in se sperantes confundi non patitur, et impioruni insidias 
subvertit, et peccatorum cervices confringit. Interim haud possu- 
mus, quin Vobis in primis, Venerabiles Fratres, et omnibus fidelibus 
curae vestrae commissis denuntiemus tristissimam conditionem et 
maxima, in quibus per Subalpini potissimum Gubernii operam nunc 
versamur, pericula* Quamvis enim fidissimi Nostri exercitus strenui- 
tate ac devotione defensi simus, qui, rebus praeclare gestis, prope 
heroicarn prae se tulit virtutem ; patet nihilominus, ipsurn diu resis- 
tere nequire numero longe maiori iniustissimorum aggressorum. Et 
licet non mediocri utamur consolatione ob filialem pietatem, qua Nos 
reliqui subditi Nostri a scelestis usurpatoribus ad paucos redacti, 
prosequuritur, vehementur tamen dolere cogimur, ipsos non posse non 
sentire gravissima pericula sibi ingruentia ab efferatis nefariorum 
hominum turmis, qui eos iugiter minis omnibus terrent, spoliant, et 
quoquo modo divexant. 

At vero alia nunquam satis lugenda mala deplorare cogimur, Vene- 
rabiles Fratres. Ex Nostra praesertim Consistoriali Allocutione die 
29 mensis Octobris superior! anno habita, ac deinde ex narratione 
documentis munita, et inlucem typis edita, optime cognovistis quantis 
calamitatibus Catholica Ecclesia eiusque filii in Russico Irnperio ac 
Poloniae Regno miserandum in modum vexentur ac lacerentur. 
Namque Catholici Sacrorum Antistites et ecclesiastici viri laicique 
fideles in exilium eiecti, in carcerem detrusi, ac modis omnibus divex- 
ati, propriisque bonis spoliati, ac severissimis poenis afflicti et op- 
pressi, et Ecclesiae canones ac leges omnino proculcatae. Atque his 
minime contentum Russicum Gubernium pergit ex avito proposito 
Ecclesiae disciplinam violare, et unionis et communicationis illorum 
lidelium cum Nobis, et hac Sancta Sede vincula frangere, ac omnia 
moliri et conari, ut in illis dominiis Catholicam religionern funditus 
evertere, et illos fideles a Catholicae Ecclesiae sinu avellere, et ad 
funestissimum schisma pertrahere possit. Cum incredibili animi 
Nostri moerore Vobis significamus, duo nuper dtcreta ab illo Guber- 
nio post ultimata commemoratam Nostram Allocutionem cdita fuisse. 
Ac decreto die 22 proximi mensis Maii vulgato, per horrendum ausum 

Documents. 143 

Podlachiensis Dioecesis in Poloniae Eegno una cum illo Canonicorum 
Collegio, Consistorio General!, ac Dioecesano Serninario penitus fuit 
extincta, et eiusdem Dioecesis Episcopus, a suo grege divulsus, 
coactus a Diocesis finibus continuo discedere. Quod decretum 
simile est illi die 3 lunii superiore item anno in lucem edito, 
de quo mentionem facere hand potuimus, cum illud ignorare- 
mus. Hoc igitur Decreto idem Gubernium non dubitavit pro- 
prio arbitrio et auctoritate Cnmeneciensem Dioecesim de medio 
tollere, et illud Canonicorum Collegium, Consistorium, ac Semina- 
rium disperdere, et proprium Antistitem ab ilia Dioecesi violenter 

Cum autem omnis via, atque ratio Nobis intercludatur, qua cum 
illis fidelibus communicare possimus, turn ne quisquam carceri, 
exilio, aliisque poenis exponeretur, coacti fuimus, in Nostras Ephe- 
merides inserere Actum, quo legitimae illarum amplarum Dioecesium 
iurisdictionis exercitio, ac spiritualibus fidelium necessitatibus con- 
sulendum censuimus, ut illuc per artis typographiae opem notitia 
perveniret suscepti a Nobis consilii. Quisque vel facile intelligit qua 
mente, et quo fine eiusmodi decreta a Russico Gubernio edantur, cum 
multorum Episcoporum absentiae Dioecesium quoque accedat sup- 

Quod autem Nostram cumulat amaritudinem, Venerabiles Fra- 
tres, est aliud decretum ab eodem Gubernio die 22 superioris mensis 
Maii promulgatum, quo Petropoli fuit constitution Collegium, voca- 
turn ecclesiasticum catholicum romanum, cui praesidit Mohilovi- 
ensis Archiepiscopus. Scilicet : omnes petitiones, ad fidei etiam et 
ad conscientiae negotia pertinentes, quae a Russici Imperii et Poloniae 
Regni, Episcopis, Clero, Populoque fideli ad Nos, et ad hanc Aposto- 
licam Sedem mittuntur ad hoc Collegium, primurn transmitter- 
dae sunt, casque Collegium idem examinare debet, ac decernere, 
utrum petitiones Episcoporum potestatem praetergrediantur, et hoc 
in casu illas ad Nos perferendas curare. Postquam autem illuc 
Nostra pervenerit decisio, praedicti Collegii Praeses ad internarum 
relationem Ministrum decidonem ipsam mitiere tenetur, qui expen- 
dat, num aliquid in ilia reperiatur legibus Status et supremi Prin- 
cipis iuribus contrarium ; et quoties hoc non existat, illam pro suo 
; rbitrio et voluntate exsequatur. 

Videtis profecto, Venerabiles Fratres, quam vehementer repro- 
bandum ac damnandum sit huiusmodi Decretum a laica et schisma- 
tica potestate latum, quo et divina catholicae Ecclesiae constitutio 
destruitur, et ecclesiastica disciplina subvertitur, et maxima supre- 
mae Nostrae Pontificiae, atque huis Sanctae Sedis et Episcoporum 
pofeestati auctoritatique iniuria infertur, et summi omnium fidelium 
Pastoris libertas impeditur, et fideles ad funestissimum impelluntur 
schisma ; ac vel ipsum naturale ius violatur et conculcatur quoad 
negotia, quae fidem et conscientiam respiciunt. 

Ad haec, catholica Varsaviensis Academia deleta est ; ac tristis 
Cnelmensi, et Bettiensi Dioecesi Ruthenorum impendet ruina. Atque 
illud maxirne dolendum, quod rcpertus sit quidam Presbyter Woi- 
cichi, qui suspectae fidei, omnibus ecclesiasticis poenis censurisque 

144 Documents. 

despectis, terribilique Dei iudicio posthabito, minim e exliorruit, eius- 
dem Dioecesis regimen et procurationem a civili ilia potestate acci- 
pere et varias, iam edere ordinationes, quae dum ecclesiasticae 
disciplinae adversantur, funestissimo schism ati favent. 

In tantis igitur Nostris et Ecclesiae calamitatibus et angustiis, cum 
non sit alius, qui puguet pro Nobis, nisi Dominus Deus noster, Vos 
etiam atque etiam vehementer obtestamur, Venerabiles Fratres, ut 
pro singular! vestro rei catholicae amore et studio, et egregia in Nos 
pietate velitis ferventissimas vestras cum Nostris coniungere preces, 
et una cum universe vestro Clero, Populoque fideli Deum sine inter- 
missions orare, et obsecrare, ut reminiscens miserationum suarum, 
quae a saeculo sunt, indignationem suam a Nobis avertat, et Eccle- 
siam suam sanctam, ac Nos a tantis rnalis eripiat, eiusdemque Eccle- 
siae filios, Nobis carissimos, in omnibus fere regionibus ac in Italia 
praesertim, et in Russico Imperio, ac Poloniae Regno tot insidiis 
obnoxios, tot aerumnis afflictos omnipotent sua virtute adiuvet, 
defendat, eosque catholicae fidei eiusque salutaris doctrinae profes- 
sione magis in dies stabiles servet, confirmet, roboret, et omaia impra 
inimicorum hominum consilia disperdat, illosque de iniquitatis bara- 
thro ad salutis viam revocet, et in semitam mandatorum suorurn 

Itaque volumus, ut in vestris Dioecesibns pubUcae pro vestro 
arbitrio preces per triduum intra sex menses, pro ultramarinis vero 
intra annum indicantur. Ut autem fideles ardentiore studio hisce 
publicis precibus adsint ac Deum exorent, omnibus et singulis utri- 
usque sextus Christi-fidelibus, qui praedictis tribus diebus devote 
eisdem precibus adstiterint, ac pro praesentibus Ecclesiae necessita- 
tibus ex Nostra mente Deurn oraverint, et Sacramentali Confessione 
expiati ao sacra Communione refecti fuerint, Plenariam omnium pec- 
catorum suorum Indulgentiam et rernissionem misericorditer in 
Domino concedimus. lis autem fidelibus, qui corde saltern contriti 
in quolibet ex commemoratis diebus reliqua praemissa opera pere- 
gerint, septem annos totidemque quadragenas de iniunctis eis, seu 
alias quomodolibet debitis poenitentiis in forma Ecclesiae consueta 
relaxamus. Quas omnes et singulas indulgentias, peccatorum remis- 
siones, ac poenitentiarum relaxationes etiam animabus Christi- 
fidelium, quae Deo in caritate coniunctae ab hac luce migraverint, 
per modem suffragii applicari posse etiam in Domino indulgemus. 
In contrarium facientibus non obsttmtibus quibuscumque. 

Denique uihil certe Nobis gratius, quam ut hac etiam occasione 
libentissime utamur, ut iterum testemur et confirmemus praecipuam, 
qua Vos in Domino complectimur, benevolentiam. Cuius quoque 
certissimum pignus accipite Apostolicam Benedictionem, quam effuso 
cordis affectu Vobis ipsts, Venerabiles Fratres, cunctisque Clericis, 
Laicisque fidelibus cuiusque Vestrum vigilantiae concreditis pera- 
manter impertimus. 

Datum Roniae apud S. Petrum die 17 Octobris Anno 1SG7. 

Pontificatus Nostri Anno Vicesiniosecundo. 






THE requisition presented to his Eminence the Cardinal Archbishop 
by a number of the inhabitants of the city and county of Dublin, 
and of the counties of Kildare and Wicklow, showed in a very 
remarkable way the eagerness of their desire to exhibit a deep, firm, 
and loving devotion to the Holy Father amidst the last bitter trial to 
which his Holiness has been subjected. In a few days, about 
ten thousand signatures were affixed to the document which re- 
quested his Eminence 4< to convene a public meeting to express 
sympathy with his Holiness Pope Pius the Ninth, abhorrence of the 
wicked invasion of the remaining portion of his dominions, and 
determination to use every influence to support him in his present 
difficulties". The thousands that answere 1 the call of his Eminence, 
and assembled in the Metropolitan Church on Friday, the 15th of 
November, gave, in their numbers, proof of the wide-spread sense of 
the gravity of the occasion. The utterances of the speakers were of 
sentiments deeply considered and fully formed ; the opinions of men 
sensible of the eventful character of the movements of which the 
Papal dominions were again the scene, and of their importance to all 
men, whether as Catholics convinced of the value of the Pope's 
temporal power, or as citizens interested in the maintenance of public 
law and the universal reign of civil justice. Thus, through the 
requisition, or at the meeting, rank, property, intelligence, spoke out 
their sense of the criminality of the outrage upon the Pontiff King, 
their sympathy with the sufferings of his violated sovereignty, their 
desire to do all that exertion, sacrifice, or influence could do in his 
sacred cause, their pride at the vindication of his beneficent rule. 
The Lord French ; the Viscount St. Laurence (himself a Protestant) ; 
the Lord Mayor of Dublin (a Protestant likewise) ; three, at least, of 
the privy council of this kingdom ; seven members of the imperial 
parliament (of whom two were Protestants) ; two baronets ; four high 
sheriffs of counties ; twelve gentlemen holding commissions as deputy- 
lieutenants ; between thirty and forty holding the commission of the 
peace ; the legal profession represented by one of the serjeants-at- 
law, seven of her Majesty's counsel, and a large number of barristers 
and solicitors ; numerous members of the medical profession ; many 
of the aldermen and other representatives of the municipalities of 
Dublin and the adjoining towns ; the adhesion of such men would, 
of itself, mark the character of the demonstration, and tell how 
thoroughly station and political influence added their weight to the 
enthusiasm of the people, and the affectionate loyalty of the clergy to 
the throne, spiritual and temporal, of the Sovereign Pontiff. Of the 
clergy, it may be said, that the enumeration of those who partici- 
VOL. IV. 10 

146 The Temporal Power of the Pope. 

pated in the movement would be to name all that the united dioceses 
contain. Proudly they saw the gathering of the thousands who 
sympathised with their spiritual father ; proudly they listened to the 
vindication of the Papacy from all the poor and flimsy statements 
which ignorance and prejudice, shallowness and narrow-mindedness, 
had spoken and penned by way of arguments against it ; and gladly, we 
doubt not, they would possess some memorial of that great assembly 
where speaker after speaker, using the light of history with the power 
of truth, treated of the temporal power, and demonstrated its utility 
in the past and its necessity in the future. 

Leaving for perusal in its integrity the lengthened and lucid 
exposition of the bearings of the question which the Lord Cardinal 
put before the meeting, and which must be already familiar to 
our readers, we select from the arguments of the other speakers, 
clerical and lay, those particular points, which, though not more 
striking or apposite than the other subjects discussed, must have a 
peculiar and an abiding interest in connection with recent move- 
ments against the temporal power of the Papacy. 

Origin and vicissitudes of the Temporal Sovereignty of the Popes. 
Tracing its foundation and its glory, the history was told how, during 
the fifth and following centuries, two classes of barbarians invaded 
Italy. Some, like Attila, Alaric, and Genseric, swept down upon the 
land, and after inflicting every calamity, retired to their native forests. 
Others settled in the i'air southern country, and established there 
cities and kingdoms. Thus, after the death of Augustulus, the last 
of the Roman emperors, Odoacer, king of the Heruli, fixed his 
capital at Ravenna, and established himself in Italy. This king was 
attacked and destroyed by Theodoric, the great Gothic king, and the 
kingdom of the Goths was established in the year 493, and lasted 
until 552, when they were destroyed by Narses. This great man, 
goaded by the ingratitude of the court at Constantinople, invited into 
Italy the Germanic tribes of the Longobardi or Lombards, who, under 
their king Alboin, in 558, took possession of nearly the whole of 
Italy, except Rome, the exarchate of Ravenna, and a few other cities. 
Italy was then divided into three parts. The greatest was held by 
the Lombards, whose king took the title of King of Italy. The 
exarch or governor of Ravenna held that city and province in the 
name of the emperor, whose seat was at Constantinople, and a little 
portion, viz. Rome remained in a kind of uncertainty, neither free 
nor subject at one time ruled by the king of the Lombards, at 
another by the exarch of Ravenna. Thus did Italy remain until 
the year 712 the theatre of continual warfare and bloodshed. The 
people were pressed and persecuted by the barbarous Longobardi, 
who not only robbed them of their liberties, but, with the rage 
which everywhere marked the Arian heretics, endeavoured to deprive 
them of their religion ; whilst, on the other side, the court of Con- 
stantinople, unable to help or protect them, plundered their churches, 
broke and destroyed the sacred images, and imprisoned and put to 
death the clergy ; for at that time the corrupt and effeminate Greek 

The Temporal Power of the Pope. 147 

emperors were attached to the heresy of the Iconoclasts. In the midst 
of all this misery and confusion, this constant jarring of physical 
and material force, there was one great moral power founded upon 
the principles of justice and charity, representing all the enlighten- 
ment and virtue of the age, unwavering in its assertion of law, great 
in its peaceful influence, and constant and self-sacrificing in its pro- 
tection of the people : that power was the Roman Pontiff, the ac- 
knowledged head and ruler of the Church, and the first representa- 
tive and exponent of the principles of Christianity. To him the 
people turned naturally, not only for guidance, but for protection. 
They found in him not only a father and a guide,, but a powerful 
shield against their enemies, one whose very presence stayed the bar- 
barians at their gates, whose words were heard with fear and obeyed 
as the commands of God, whose prayer was their protection both 
with the Almighty and with those who called themselves His scour- 
ges, whose boundless charity maintained and saved them in times of 
pestilence, famine, and desolation. They saw in the Roman Pontiff 
the only representative of order and the only embodiment of lawful 
and strongly constituted authority ; and what was more natural than 
that they should have called upon him to govern them, and that 
they should have made him their temporal as well as their spiritual 
ruler ? 

Accordingly we find that in the year 712 the people of Rome and 
of Ravenna, pressed on the one side by the fury of Luitprar d, the 
Lombard king, who sought to reduce them to slavery, and receiving 
no assistance, nor even government, from Constantinople, except the 
furious edicts of Leo the Isaurian, commanding the images to be 
broken in the churches, and the holy Pope Gregory the Second to be 
dragged in chains before him, called upon the Roman Pontiff to put 
himself at their head, and to take into his wise hands the temporal 
government of those who were like sheep without a shepherd. In vain 
did the Pope appeal to the forbearance of the Lombard king, and 
beseech him to spare the people. In vain did he turn for assistance 
to the degenerate emperors of Constantinople. In 749 Astolphus, 
the Lombard king, took forcible possession of Ravenna, and laid 
siege to Rome, and the then Pontiff was obliged to look elsewhere 
for help, and to call to his aid the great Pepin, the founder of the 
Carlovingian race of French kings. This great man saved Rome 
from the fury of the Lombards, and confirmed the Roman Pontiff in 
the possession of the temporal power with which the voice of the 
people had long before invested him. The son of Pepin, the 
immortal Charlemagne, consolidated this power, but neither conferred 
nor enlarged it, for as early as the year 754, twenty years before the 
first coming of Charlemagne into Italy, the Roman Pontiff was the 
acknowledged lord and temporal ruler of Rome, of the exarchate of 
Ravenna, of the provinces of Bologna, Ferrara, and Emilia, of the 
Duchy of Urbino, and of the territory lying along the shore of the 
Adriatic, known as the Marches of Ancona ; and all this he governed 
by the consent and at the desire of the people. Did the Roman 

148 The Temporal Power of the Pope. 

Pontiff gain this power at the expense of one drop of blood ? History 
answers No. If the people be the true source of power, then no 
ruler in the world has a more legitimate claim to his dominion than 
the Pope of Home, for he assumed the temporal sovereignty at the 
cry of an oppressed people. Did they use the power thus legitimately 
acquired in unjust aggressions upon their weaker neighbours, driven 
on by the lust of dominion so strong in the hearts of kings ? Count 
Joseph de Maistre, that profound thinker and learned historian, 
answers this question in his great work on the Pope. " It is", he 
says, " a very remarkable circumstance, and not sufficiently attended 
to, that the Popes have never taken advantage of the great power in 
their possession for the aggrandisement of their states. What 
could have been more natural, for instance, or more tempting to 
human nature, than to reserve a portion of the provinces conquered 
from the Saracens, and which they gave up to the first occupant ? 
But this, however, they never did, not even with regard to the 
adjacent countries, as in the instance of the Two Sicilies, to which 
they had inconfcestible rights, at least according to the ideas then 
prevailing, and over which they were, nevertheless, contented with 
an empty sovereignty, which ended in a slight and merely nominal 
tribute. . . . It is certain that they never sought to extend 
their dominions at the expense of justice, whilst all other govern- 
ments fell under that anathema, and at the present time there is not, 
perhaps, one of the European powers in a condition to justify all its 
possessions before God and reason". History attests that they used 
their power to diminish and repair the ravages of barbarism to 
save the remnants of ancient civilization, of science, and of the arts 
to enforce the observance of the laws to restrain the passions of 
kings to curb their destructive ambition, and to save the people 
from their lawless aggressions. 

Beneficent action of the Papacy. The power of the Popes was 
exercised during the eighth arid ninth centuries in converting and 
humanizing the hordes of the north, and so saving Europe from 
their incursions. During the anarchy and lawlessness of the tenth 
and succeeding centuries their power was exercised for the pro- 
tection of the weak and oppressed. Thus, in 1068, we find Alex- 
ander the Second enforcing under pain of excommunication "the 
truce of God". Urban the Second continues, enforces, and extends 
it in the Councils of Troja, in 1093, and Clermont in 1095 ; and 
as time went on, and the Church was able to speak in a louder 
voice, this civilizing law was extended by Calixtus the Second 
in two councils, and by Innocent the Third at the Council of Avig- 
non in 1209. The power of the Roman Pontiff, beneficially exerted, 
has preserved for us the foundation of modern civilization the 
palladium of society namely the sanctity of the marriage tie. " His- 
tory tells us", observes Balmez, " to whom it is owing that the law 
of marriage was not falsified, perverted, destroyed, amid the bar- 
barous ages, amid the most fearful corruption, violence, and ferocity, 
Avhich prevailed everywhere, as well as at the time when invading 

The Temporal Power of the Pope. 149 

nations passed pell-mell over Europe, as in that of feudality, and 
when the power of kings had already been predominant, History 
will tell what tutelary force prevented the torrent of sensuality from 
overflowing with all its violence, with all its caprices, from bring- 
ing about the most profound disorganization, from corrupting the 
character of European civilization, and precipitating it into that 
abyss in which the nations of Asia have been for so many centu- 

No consideration, no fear, has ever been able to silence the Sove- 
reign Pontiffs when they had occasion to remind all, and especially kings 
and potentates, of this great law of the sanctity of marriage. They 
risked all dangers and braved all consequences in enforcing it. Those 
barbarous kings, in whom the splendour of the purple hardly con- 
cealed the sons of the forest those proud barons, clothed in mail, 
fortified in their feudal castles, and surrounded by their timid and 
devoted vassals, had no check but the authority of the Supreme Pon- 
tiff. He was in the midst of them a king, enthroned in the interests of 
order, religion, and morality, wielding a power far greater than that 
of any one of themselves, ready to appeal to and exercise his rights 
as a temporal sovereign in restraining their lawlessness, and protect- 
ing the weak by the enforcement of an immutable law. They could 
load a bishop with vexations they could control or imprison him 
they might control the votes of a particular council they could pur- 
chase the adherence of a university ; but the power of the Pope, the 
shadow of the Vatican was like an alarming vision ; they were 
brought face to face with an authority which intrigue, nor force, nor 
entreaty could move from the enforcement of this highest law, and 
the protection of the family in the mother. Thus, when Philip 
Augustus, king of France, unjustly put away from him his lawful wife 
Ingelburga, daughter of the king of Denmark, and took to him adul- 
terously another, Pope Innocent the Third did not hesitate, when 
all other means were exhausted, to place the king and his kingdom 
under interdict, and so earn for himself the anger of that power- 
ful sovereign. Thus, when later on, a faithless adulterer wore 
England's crown, Pope Clement the Seventh, rather than permit the 
violation of the great law and sanction the degradation of Queen 
Catherine, the monarch's lawful wife, braved all the resentment of 
Henry, and suffered the separation of England from the Church. 

The popes exercised their power for the suppression of slavery. 
This degrading institution found a prominent place in the ancient 
pagan civilization of Greece and Home. It was a part of the mis- 
sion of Christianity to emancipate all men, and the history of the 
popes is the record of a patient, persevering, and wise application of 
their great power to the glorious work of emancipation. " Since the 
Creator of all things", says Pope St. Gregory the Great, "has vouch- 
safed to assume the flesh of man in order to restore us to our pristine 
liberty by breaking the bonds of servitude through means of His 
divine grace, it is a salutary deed to restore to men, by enfranchise- 
ment, their native liberty ; for in the beginning nature made 

150 The Temporal Power of the Pope- 

all free, and they have only been subjected to the yoke of servitude 
by the law of nations". The great principle here proclaimed was 
upheld and faithfully acted upon by each succeeding pontiff, and 
those fathers of the intellectual and moral world in which we live, 
laid the foundation of our modern civilization in the high and holy 
idea of personal and individual freedom. And when, a few years 
later on, and three centuries ago, that freedom was threatened with 
utter destruction when the Turk, the enemy of all civilization, was 
advancing upon Europe with fire and sword, what power withstood 
him in the cause of faith, of knowledge, of morality, and of freedom ? 
It was the Pope of Rome, the Pontiff King Pius the Fifth who 
saved the ungrateful nations of Europe from a slavery the most 
hideous that ever cursed the earth, 

Civilization saved from destruction by the temporal independence of the 
Popes. What are the lessons taught to the world by this retrospect ? 
If Rome, in the sixth century, had not had in Gregory the Great a 
pontiff of the true type, and a king in everything but in the name, 
where would be the civilization of the western world ? Let us get 
the answer from the bitterest enemy of the Holy See. " Like Thebes, 
or Babylon, or Carthage, the name of Rome might have been erased 
from the earth, if the city had not been animated by a vital principle 
which again restored her to honour and dominion". This " vital 
principle", to which Gibbon refers, was the pontifical authority 
wielded by Gregory ; and if that authority were not here, a sea of 
barbarism would have bound, perhaps for ever, the arts and sciences 
of the empire of the west. Again, when the Pontiff King, the sainted 
Pius the Fifth, threw himself between the haughty Moslems and their 
all but certain prey, he gave his commission and his blessing to the 
Colonnas ; the battle of Lepanto hunted back the Crescent in the 
ruins it had already made, and the power of Mahomed in Europe 
began from that hour its death agony. If it had been a Pontiff who, 
through those death struggles between barbarism and civilization 
the Cross and the Crescent had been the subject of a miserable 
Italian kingdom, the bishop of a " free church in a free state", 
as diplomatic hypocrisy terms it, the petted friend, or it may be the 
detested foe, of a Cavour or a Ratazzi where would be now the 
boasted enlightenment of Europe in the nineteenth century? The 
Turk possibly would be enthroned in Rome, or Vienna, or Paris. 
The darkness which has settled down on Constantinople for five 
centuries would probably have enveloped the rest of Europe in its 
gloom. Italy, from the Alps to the sea, instead of being a smiling 
garden, might be to-day a howling wilderness, and Victor Emmanuel, 
in place of being a bad king, might be an honest ploughman. 

But even in the present century has not the value of the temporal 
power been acknowledged, and the force that lies within it been 
manifested? In 1798, the French deposed the Holy Father, and 
proclaimed a republic in Rome. In the next year, 1799, it was 
restored by foreign intervention to the Holy See. In 1800 it was 
again retaken by the French, and in 1801, the Holy Father was again 

The Temporal Power of the Pope. 151 

replaced on his throne through foreign intervention, and the eventful 
life of Pius the Seventh, though he suffered banishment and imprison- 
ment, terminated happily in peace, restored to his dominions through 
the assistance of foreign powers, but not of Catholic nations or 
Catholic governments, but, on the contrary, he was aided and 
supported by governments and statesmen hostile to the Catholic 
religion, who found by practical experience, and believed, that the 
maintenance of the temporal power of the Pope and of his indepen- 
dence was necessary for the preservation of peace and social order in 

Such a meeting then, as ours, to tender to the Holy Father our 
sympathy and cordial support, found full justification by reference to 
these historical events ; and the interest evinced by foreign powers in 
the preservation of the temporal rights of the Holy See is the tribute 
rendered to the great and lasting benefits conferred on the world at 
large, by preserving its civilization and by the encouragement given 
to the cultivation of literature, of the fine arts, and of science, by 
successive occupants of the Holy See. 

All nations are interested in the maintenance of the temporal power. 
But how is the spirit which lives and works in the Papacy involved 
in the maintenance of the temporal power ? It may with truth be 
said, that there is not a people or a nation that professes the Catholic 
faith, not an individual be he king or subject, ruler or private 
citizen, not even the infant as yet unable to lisp the name of its 
Creator that is not deeply, vitally, and personally interested in 
the object which engaged the meeting. That object is not merely 
that the Head of the Church may be protected in his august person, 
and maintained in his temporal sovereignty, but that all the children 
of the Church, to the uttermost bounds of the earth, may eat of the 
bread of life unadulterated, and may have the means of securing 
eternal happiness. It is that the Church of God may be governed with- 
out the impediments which the passions of the rulers of this world are 
ever prepared to raise, and the control which she would be sure 
to exercise, were the successor of St. Peter subject to their power. 
That object is that the Church may be governed in a wise, a salu- 
tary, and effective manner. And what is the Church? It is a 
spiritual empire extending to the bounds of the earth, and contain- 
ing within its limits near two hundred millions of the human race, 
an empire divided into nearly one thousand provinces or dioceses, 
each of which is sub-divided into innumerable subordinate districts 
or parishes. Each of these provinces and each of these districts 
has its own legitimate head, the venerated prelates and clergy of 
the Church, all appointed either directly or indirectly by the 
Sovereign Pontiff, and all subject to his rule and control ; and 
should the succession of such subordinate rulers and pastors be 
interrupted, or any disorder amongst them occur, the people of G-od 
in such locality would be deprived to a greater or less extent of the 
means of salvation. What is required for the due administration of 
the government of an empire so vast, an empire over the souls of 

152 The Temporal Power of the Pope. 

men, the interests of which regard eternal beatitude or eternal 
misery ? Should not the universal ruler, in the first place, be free ? 
Should he not be independent ? Did the question regard a tem- 
poral sovereignty, a doubt expressed on the subject would excite 
laughter and ridicule ; but as the interests of the empire here 
spoken of regard an invisible world, the truth is somewhat clouded 
or shrouded in mystery, and hence to bring the truth home to the 
mind, some imagery may be allowed, such as was familiar to the 
Great Founder of the Christian religion. One of the images under 
which the great empire of the Church is most usually represented 
is that of a ship, the bark of Peter; and it is exceedingly appro- 
priate in order to exemplify the necessity of perfect freedom and 
independence in the Church's ruler. Every person who has the 
least idea of nautical affairs must know that, when the ocean is 
convulsed by the storm, and the vessel is tossed by the raging 
elements, her safety depends on the skill and vknlance of the 
intrepid pilot. Should his wakeful eye observe duly the coming 
wave, and his steady hand direct the prow to meet it, the vessel 
securely cleaves the liquid mountain that threatened to overwhelm 
her, and proudly rides above the surging tide of the ocean, bearing 
triumphantly her crew and precious cargo. But what would be the 
case were some individual more powerful than himself to seize and 
confine the arms of the steersman ? The unsparing surge would 
strike the vessel on her side, she would reel and be upset, and 
with crew and costly merchandise be buried in the deep. The 
steersman of the barque of Peter is his successor, Christ's Vicar on 
earth ! 

It must be remembered too, that periods from time to time are 
marked in the history of the world, in which, through the machina- 
tions of the powers of darkness and the perversion of the human 
mind, so dense a cloud of error settles on the moral and religious 
horizon that truth becomes for a time obscured or eclipsed. This is 
never more certain to occur than when the power of human reason 
is most arrogantly proclaimed and boastfully exaggerated, for human 
reason has been debilitated and obscured by sin, and unless guided 
by a ray from heaven can lead but to moral falsehood and error. 
When, then, the time comes for the heavenly-constituted teacher to 
raise his voice, a decree or enclycical emanates from the successor 
of Peter ; it comes as the flash of the forked lightning ; it is as the 
bolt of heaven ; the clouds of error are ruptured or dispersed ; the 
moral and religious atmosphere is cleared ; and truth from that foun- 
tain established by God, like the pure light of heaven from the 
fountain of the sun, sheds its effulgence on the intellectual world. 
But such a teacher, must he not be free ? Such emanations from 
the fountain of truth are often inconvient and offensive to the rulers 
of the world, and they would prevent them if it were in their power. 
The universal teacher of truth must then be untrammelled, and can 
have no earthly superior. Yes, he must be free, but that is not 
sufficient. He must be surrounded by a staff suited to the govern- 

The Temporal Power of the Pope. 153 

ment of an empire of a thousand provinces. The light of truth, as 
the material light of the sun, can be but one, and can emanate from 
one fountain alone. It must be commensurate too with the material 
light, and beam from- pole to pole, from the rising to the setting sun. 
From the inhospitable shores of Iceland on the north, to the farthest 
point of Tasmania at the south ; from the utmost limits of Japan or 
China on the east, to the golden mountains of California on the west, 
there is not a Christian child to whom the universal pastor must not 
break the bread of life, unadulterated and free from the poison of 
error. Thus must the Catholic view the question, which is no new 
one ; it will be found in Professor Ranke's History of the Popes, that it 
was so treated at the Council of Basle four centuries ago. If the 
modern aspects of the question be considered for a moment, the result 
would be such a spectacle as the Pope circumscribed in the Vatican, 
and king Victor Emmanuel sitting enthroned upon the Quirinal 
within cannon shot and rifle range of him. There would be but a 
choice between two alternatives he would be a prisoner or a slave. 

But another view may be presented wherein the religious aspects 
may be treated almost as closed, and regard be paid to temporal 
relations merely. Thus considered, it will be seen that the temporal 
sovereignty of the Holy See is not only an admirable arrangement 
of Divine Providence, necessary for the free exercise of the sacred 
mission entrusted by God to the successors of St. Peter, but it may 
be further said that it is an institution valuable not only to Catholics, 
but to all governments over the world, whether Catholics or Pro- 
testants. No man can seriously believe thsrt, if the temporal power 
of the Pope was destroyed to-morrow, that it would in the least 
weaken or destroy the Catholic religion. On the contrary, the 
abolition of the temporal power would, doubtless, intensify Catho- 
licity, and then, instead of seeing the Sovereign Pontiff surrounded 
by the ambassadors of European powers, he himself exercising 
temporal sovereignty, and knowing well its difficulties and dangers, 
the difficulties in the exercise of all power, and always ready to aid 
by his influence the promotion of order and loyalty to every 
sovereign, whether Catholic or Protestant ; instead of that, if the 
Pope were to-morrow deprived of his throne at Rome, no man can 
believe that there would be any other Pope than one existing 
perhaps in some remote, retired convent, not elected for his 
experience in political affairs, not elected perhaps for his learning, but 
selected simply and purely for his religious enthusiasm, and that man, 
though no longer surrounded by an enlightened prelacy, would never- 
theless from hss seclusion and retirement continue to exercise an 
immense and increasing power in every Catholic country in Europe. 
In all probability, if the temporal power of the Pope was destroyed, 
Protestants would suffer more in their temporal relations than 
Catholics would suffer in respect of their religion. 

It may then be regretted deeply that some Protestants, from 
their prejudices against Catholics, should justify and encourage that 
deftnon of revolution against the Pope, which, when once raised, is 

154 The Temporal Power of the Pope. 

not easily subdued. Far wiser would it be to recognize the wisdom 
of the opinion expressed by the late Marquis of Lansdowne, when in 
his place as leader of the House of Lords, under Lord Russell's 
Government, he said that "there was no country with Catholic 
subjects and Catholic possessions which had not a deep interest in 
the Pope being so placed as to be able to exercise his authority 
unfettered and unshackled by civil authority". 

There is, therefore, no rank or creed in society which has not the 
deepest interest in this most important question. If royalty be not 
sacred in the person of the Pontiff, where will it be entitled to 
veneration or obedience ? If revolution assails the oldest and most 
beneficent Catholic dynasty, will it stop with reverence at the 
foot of a Protestant throne ? If the throne which rests on a founda- 
tion more than a thousand years old be struck down, who will 
answer for thrones which, in comparison, are but of yesterday ? 
If the rights of the Pontiff may be trifled with because he is weak, 
who can rest secure that his own hard earned independence will go 
down to his children ? The mad fanatic who applauds the assailants 
of the Pope, and rejoices at their partial triumph, may delude himself 
with the notion that he is advancing human freedom ; but he will 
find, if God in His wrath permits the freebooter to succeed, that 
with the Papal Throne there disappeared from Europe the only 
effectual barrier which could drive back the swelling floods of 
impiety, tyranny, plunder, and carnage. 

Impolicy of aiding revolutionary societies abroad. The wonder, 
then, is that men should witness the open support given by many 
of the leaders of public opinion to the revolutionary societies of 
Italy. Here opens a view which makes the question of the deepest 
and widest importance and of the most universal interest, and 
makes the subject one which touches both the conscience and 
the interest of every loyal citizen, whatever be his creed, in the 
United Kingdom. There is no loyal citizen, no Christian of any 
persuasion, whose dearest interests are not menaced by the coun- 
tenance given in the United Kingdom to those secret societies whose 
banner of anarchy has lately been raised in the Papal States. The 
facts are undisputed and indisputable. What is the end for which 
these secret societies are banded together ? Here are the words of 
one of their founders, written more than half a century ago : " Our 
object is the same as that of Voltaire and the French Revolution, to 
subvert Catholicism and even Christianity. We must un-Catho- 
licise the world. A revolution in the Church will be a permanent 
revolution. It will be the enforced overthrow of thrones and 
dynasties". The object for which they are banded together is to 
overthrow the Christian religion and civil society. From the hour 
those words were written to the present moment, the efforts to give 
effect to them under various names have been persistent. The head 
of the secret societies is Mazzini, and their arm General Garibaldi. 
All have read their proclamations, and recollect Garibaldi's too 
celebrated words, " Take the paving stones to crush the priests ; we 

The Temporal Power of the Pope. 155 

must exterminate the Papal cancer, the sacerdotal vampire". There 
is no disguise. God forbid that we should be cold or indifferent to 
the force of liberty. God forbid that we should judge too harshly 
those who, even with mistaken zeal, sacrifice themselves ; but the 
end of these men is license, not liberty. 1 hey wage war not on any 
particular form of Christianity, but against the Cross of Christ. 
Like Islamism, their weapons are not arguments, not philosophy, 
but the sword. One of those upheavings of society, of so many of 
which Macaulay has recorded the rise and the fall, is going on 
we are face to face with the enemies of Christian society they 
strike directly, not against any limb, but at the heart. They know 
well that if they can cut through the trunk, the branches will soon 
wither away ; for, as Edmund Burke said, it is foolish to think that 
if Catholicity were extinguished, Christianity would survive. 

Let it then be plainly understood, it is not poor king Victor 
Emmanuel, feeble puppet that he is, that stands face to face with 
Pius the Ninth ; it is the deadly enemy of Pope and King alike of 
all kings all purity all religion. It is that dark and awful power 
which is called the revolution the luring alibea of priest and king, 
of law and gospel whose members are leagued together in a 
fanatical hatred of Christianity, and a determination to destroy 
every vestige of it upon earth. That sect which dates from the 
great French Revolution, and since then has nurtured its designs in 
a thousand secret conclaves which bear their fruit in bloodshed 
and convulsion, and the rocking to and fro of kingdoms. It is this 
power formless, immeasurable, and deadly which recalls Milton's 
description of sin and death : 

If shape it could be called, that shape had none, 
Distinguishable in feature, joint, or limb ; 
Or substance might be called, that shadow seemed, 
For each seemed either ; black it stood as night, 
Fierce as ten furies, terrible as hell. 

It is this power, which, desiring to abolish all religion, has always 
aimed its first and deadliest blow against the Sovereign Pontiff as 
the foremost representative of that religion. 

Some special features of the present Pontiff's reign. It is now 
more than one-and -twenty years since his Holiness Pope Pius 
the Ninth ascended the Pontifical throne. He was then in the 
vigour of middle age ; now he is sunk deep in the vale of years. 
And from that time to the present, though calumny and hatred have 
done their worst upon him, who can point to one spot or blemish in 
that saintly and stainless career ? He assumed the triple crown amid 
the jubilation of mankind. He flung open the prison doors, and 
clasped his enemies to his heart, believing that their rancour would 
be melted and subdued by the fire of his love. It was his one 
weakness to trust too much to the goodness of human nature, to think 
that other men were cast in the same mould and aspired to the same 
virtues as himself. He was fatally betrayed, and this glorious 
weakness he has atoned for by a life which has been almost one long 

156 The Temporal Power of the Pope. 

agony. Yielding everything to his people, granting them that 
constitution which they demanded, he called to his councils one who 
had earned a foremost name among liberal statesmen, the Count 
de Rossi. To him he entrusted the working of his administration, 
but there was seen the spirit of those who, at his accession, had 
made the air ring with their hypocritical vivas. The diabolical 
faction who in their secret conventions had vowed the destruction of 
the Pope and, through him, of the Christian religion, were resolved 
not to suffer the experiment of the free and peaceful government of 
Eome under its lawful sovereign, and they had recourse to their 
avowed weapon, the dagger. They murdered De Rossi, stabbed 
him to death upon the very steps of the assembly which he was 
about to open, and assailed the Pope in his own palace, slew one of 
his most trusted prelates, and held the Pontiff himself a virtual 
prisoner until he was forced to fly in the disguise of a menial, and 
eat for years the bread of an exile. They then set up that fantastic 
republic which arrogated the great name of the senate and people of 
Rome. Restored at length, restored by the arms of France, vindi- 
cating her name of eldest daughter of the Church, he had a few years 
of respite. But the day of the triumph of his enemies came once 
more. The Austrians, from the peace of 1815 up to 1859, had 
possessed the fairest portions of Northern Italy, and it can scarcely 
be denied that the feeling of the Italians against the possession of 
the Italian soil by a foreign power was just and natural. But when 
Austria was beaten by the combined armies of France and Sardinia 
at Solferino, and was forced to retire beyond the Adige, there arose 
the problem of the settlement of the whole Italian peninsula. The 
Emperor of the French proposed a confederation of all the Italian 
states, beaded by the Pope, who should still remain sovereign of his 
dominions, but this was rejected by Piedmont, which cherished far 
more daring and ambitious designs. Early in 1860 they let loose 
their Captain of Filibusters, the fanatical infidel and republican 
Garibaldi, upon the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, which he conquered, 
thanks mainly to the unexampled treachery of the Neapolitan officers, 
and, flushed with his victory, he advanced against the Roman 
states. The Pope had then a little army hastily called together, and 
among them volunteers from Ireland, a little army with but scanty 
time for training or discipline, but headed by a gallant and famous 
French soldier. If that army had been left to deal with Garibaldi 
and his troops, who can doubt but that 1860 would have anticipated 
the glorious tale of 1867, and that the little army of the cross would 
have scattered and flung back the invaders. But this is what the 
Piedmontese government saw and leared. With that government 
the Pope was then at profound peace. He had not given the 
slightest colour for a quarrel ; but where was predetermined rapine 
ever stayed for want of a pretext ? King Victor Emmanuel marched 
down his troops in masses upon the Papal territory, and the Pope 
was despoiled of the largest, the fairest, and richest portions of his 
territory. Only a remnant was left to him, yet that remnan the 

The Temporal Power of the Pope. 157 

continued to govern justly and mildly, keeping faith with the public 
creditor, though he had been robbed of the revenues on the faith of 
which the debt was contracted. 

Recent attacks on the Papal territory.-*- Just three years ago an- 
other page in this eventful history was opened. The Emperor 
of the French, who had continued to garrison the city of Rome, 
entered into a convention with the King of Italy, by which on 
the one hand it was agreed that the French garrison should be 
gradually withdrawn, and on the other, the Italian government 
solemnly stipulated to guard and guarantee the Papal frontier 
from every invasion, regular or irregular. Hardly had the views of 
this convention transpired, when it was received with a paean of 
exultation by all the enemies of the Pope over the earth. They 
hardly even pretended to believe that the Italian government would 
act with good faith, and the loophole for evasion which they discovered 
was this. While guaranteeing the Pope's territory from invasion, 
regular or irregular, from without, no mention was made in the treaty 
of insurrection from within. And their expectation and outlook was 
that the members of the revolutionary societies with which all Italy 
ferments should secretly and stealthily glide into the towns in the 
Pope's dominions, and, above all into Rome that they should then, 
when in sufficient numbers, raise the red flag of insurrection in the 
name of the Roman people, and that while they are fighting to over- 
throw the Pope, the Italian government would congregate its troops 
upon the frontier, under the pretence of carrying out the September 
Convention, but in reality and substance to afford every aid and 
encouragement to the enemies of the Pope, and permit their skilled 
officers and soldiers to desert in crowds to swell the ranks of the 

This was the game that was to have been played out in the very 
days that have passed over our heads ; and if it has failed, no doubt 
one of the causes of its failure was the impulsive and intemperate 
character of the great revolutionary leader. Having attended what 
was farcically called a peace conference at Geneva, and there delivered 
an address whose principles would plunge Europe from end to end in- 
deadly wars an address, the irreligious and blasphemous character 
of which ought to have opened the eyes of all admirers of him who 
still term themselves Christians he fled from this congress of peace 
to don the red shirt of war, and carry fire and sword into the 
dominions of the Pope. He openly avowed his object the extinc- 
tion of the Papacy. Then followed scenes, the narration of which 
must bring a blush into the cheek of every Italian alive to the honour 
of his country. The Italian minister, the secret accomplice through- 
out of Garibaldi, went through the farce of a sham capture, to be 
followed by a connived escape, while, in the meantime, Garibaldi's 
son, Menotti, was sent on to head the filibusters, and to seek by every 
means to rouse the Roman population into insurrection. Under the 
very eyes of the Italian government, by the ordinary railway trains, 
these bands of irregular invaders poured into the Pope's territory, 

158 The Temporal Power of the Pope. 

while the Italian government made some feint pretences, indeed, to 
check them, but in reality stood by with folded arms and unequi- 
vocal sympathy, in the very teeth of the convention of September. 
The attempt to excite an insurrection proved a total and ignomi- 
nious failure. The Roman people refused to rise against their sove- 
reign, and thus it was left the naked case of a band of pirates 
invading a peaceful state. But the Pope had now an aimy, small 
indeed in numbers, but strong in gallantry and skill as any, and in 
devotion to their cause an army in which many a Catholic youth 
of high family and position was proud to serve as a private. These 
troops of the Pope overthrew the invaders wherever they encountered 
them, so that Garibaldi himself making his counter escape, had to 
come down to lead them ; and now most assuredly there would have 
been enacted over again the same iniquitous drama as in 1860, but 
on a more sweeping scale. 

Under the pretence of danger accruing to the Italian kingdom 
from disturbances in the Pope's dominions, the Italian army would 
have occupied the Papal territories in the hopes that they would 
have overpowered by numbers the army of the Pope, as they did 
some years before, and would have taken formal possession of the 
city of Rome and of the Roman states, and make him prisoner or 
drive him out into exile. That would have been an accomplished 
fact at this hour, but for the prompt intervention of the Emperor of 
the French. The Catholic feeling of France is deep. She feels her- 
self in the proud position of the protectress of religion in the east 
and west ; but it was far from a question of religious policy alone. 
It was common to Catholic and anti- Catholic. It was a question of 
the honour of France, and it would have been an eternal stain upon 
her escutchen if she had permitted a treaty which bore her signa- 
ture a treaty not three years old to be torn in pieces by an iniqui- 
tous force, and the fragments flung in her face. Napoleon obeyed 
his own true impulse, perhaps, but I am also convinced he obeyed 
the impulse of his people, and if he had not done so his throne 
and dynasty would have been in deadly peril. He sent down his 
fleet and troops at once, he sent a peremptory message to the Italian 
government, who had already commenced their invasion, not to dare 
to advance further, but to withdraw behind the frontier ; and thus 
the Pope and Garibaldi were left face to face. The Pontifical forces, 
with a small detachment of imperial troops, met the revolutionises at 
Mentana, and won that signal victory which cleared the states of the 
invaders a victory which will be ever memorable in European 
annals a day of wailing and gnashing of teeth to every enemy of 
religion and order. What, in the meantime, was the conduct of the 
Pope himself? His army had taken many prisoners. No man was 
put to death. No man was sent to the shambles or to servitude, and 
a correspondent of one of the London journals narrates how the Pope 
himself went down amongst the wounded Garibaldians went with that 
benign countenance which no one could ever look upon but to revere, 
with that voice whose every tone carries benediction, went as priest, 

The Temporal Power of the Pope. 159 

as father, and as Pontiff, to bear comfort and consolation to those 
who had aimed the deadliest blow against his security and life. 
For so far the curtain has fallen upon this momentous drama, and 
of it may be said, human annals do not show a more complete nar- 
rative of perfidy, rapacity, and unprovoked violence on the one hand, 
of justice and outraged innocence on the other. 

The Papal throne guaranteed by every principle of justice and "by the 
devoted loyalty of its subjects. Reviewing the salient features which 
this narrative presents for consideration, the first point in import- 
ance is the entire absence of any semblance of justification for such 
acts as have been detailed. It was one of the valuable results of the 
meeting that it elicited the opinion on this point of a lawyer of the 
greatest eminence, occupying in Ireland, through the favour of the 
crown, and sanctioned by the voice of his professional brethren, one 
of the highest positions short of the judicial bench. 

" It is not", declared Mr. Serjeant Barry, M.P., " it is not, I am 
sure, necessary for me to state before this assembly that, apart from 
the sacred functions of the Pope, and regarding his sovereignty 
merely in a worldly point of view, the acts of aggression upon 
that sovereignty have no justification or excuse in any principle of 
international morality or law in fact, they are without precedent in 
the history of mankind since first a community of civilized nations, 
recognizing mutual rights and reciprocal obligations, has had existence 
in the world. If antiquity of origin and length of possession can 
confer a title, the title of the Pontiff to his dominions surpasses that 
of any dynasty upon earth. As has been said by a Protestant writer, 
the proudest royal houses are but of yesterday, when compared with 
the line of the Supreme Pontiff. If there be faith in treaties if 
there be efficacy in the solemn acts and deliberate sanctions of 
rulers and peoples if regard is to be paid to the laws, the inter- 
national traditions, and diplomacy of all the kingdoms of Europe 
the title of the Pope to his dominions is the most perfect in the 
world. And how has that title been respected? In 1859, without 
a pretext for war, without even a formal declaration of war, Victor 
Emmanuel crossed the Pontifical frontier, seized the Papal territory, 
and slaughtered the few troops whom the aged Pontiff, in his emer- 
gency, could oppose to the countless hordes of Sardinia. The history 
of the civilized world furnishes no parallel for that violation of inter- 
national law and justice. But flagrant as was that act of spoliation, 
it is surpassed by the unequalled iniquity of the recent transac- 

What was the conduct of the subjects of the Papal throne in this 
emergency ? Did they show a desire to throw of their allegiance to 
their sovereign, or to aid the designs of his enemies ? It has been 
asserted that the Papal government is so abominable, that the 
Roman people wanted to throw off its sway. The opportunity arose, 
armed bands invaded the country. Did the subjects of the Pope 
join these bands ? Did the inhabitants of Viterbo, or of Tivoli, or 
of Rome, flock to their standard ? The Romans have attested their 

160 The Temporal Power of the Pope. 

love for their ruler. They have unmistakably proved to the world 
that the revolution in the Papal States must be the work of miscreants 
from over the border, and not of the Roman people ; and if the late 
troubles did no other good, they have at least effected this that no 
man, be he journalist or other, can again impute disaffection to the 
Pope's subjects without knowing and feeling that he is a conscious 
and deliberate liar. The events of the past week had proved that 
his own people were true to the Pontiff that none of his own 
subjects, who were falsely represented to be in open revolt, joined 
in this revolutionary attempt to subvert his throne, and that the 
small band of heroic men which went forth in his name to meet the 
invaders, had with them the sympathy of the Roman people, and 
that, after having driven the invaders back, though they numbered 
three to one of their force, they retired to Rome to receive the thanks 
of their sovereign and a triumphal reception from t~ie people of the 
Eternal City. The authentic records tell that fifteen thousand of 
those invaders assembled with the secret support of the Italian king 
and the Italian government not openly given them, it is true, but 
given by sending an Italian army to stand behind them as a sustain- 
ing line, thus giving a moral support which became practically a 
military support. Three thousand five hundred Pontifical troops, 
with less than half that number of French soldiers, met those fifteen 
thousand Garibaldian filibustered, and because they fought on 
behalf of a sovereign who loved his people and was ready to lay 
down his life if necessary for his people, they were animated with 
the courage of lions, and drove their opponents back to disaster and 

Between the conduct and the characters of the assailants of the 
Sovereign Pontiff and of his defenders, what a striking contrast 
presents itself, and how surrounded it is with considerations of 
peculiar significance ! The enrolment of volunteers under the eye of 
the Italian government the invasion of the Papal States the utter 
failure of the invaders to enlist on their side the sympathies of the 
Roman population these are facts in the recollection of everyone. 
Foreign revolutionists levied contributions from the peaceful inhabi- 
tants of the Papal towns into which they entered ; assassinations 
took place within the walls of Rome and in some of the towns 
at Bagnorea, for instance., taken by the insurgents, there were dese- 
crations of holy things which one shrinks from further alluding to. 
The Italian government, in the face of solemn treaties, connived at 
the invasion, and by allowing General Garibaldi to call together and 
address a public meeting at Florence, and to proceed to the Roman 
frontier in a special train, made themselves responsible for his acts. 
These facts are undisputed and indisputable, and yet upon the 
perpetrators of these crimes there have not been wanting those who 
heaped encouragement who urged the Italian government to violate 
the treaties it had uuide, an J to march to Rome, and many who thus 
urged on the Italian government to revolution, were the loudest in their 
denunciation of the American government for its supineness in putting 

The Temporal Power of the Pope. 161 

down men preparing to invade Canada. Many of those who most 
ardently supported the Italian revolutionists were the same who most 
loudly called for the severest punishment upon the heads of those 
who in Dublin, with morn sympathy unfortunately from the popula- 
tion, or in Manchester, were guilty of precisely the same crimes. 

" Is, however, the analogy complete ? If there is any difference", 
asked the Right Hon. Colonel Monsell, M.P., urging these views on 
the meeting, " were not the Italian revolutionists the more guilty ? My 
Lord Cardinal, injustice may be borne when it is the lot of all. 
Bad government may be tolerated when all are subject to it alike ; 
but these double weights and measures this canonization of acts in 
Italy which are treated as the gravest crimes at home this is hard 
to bear indeed Hie cntceni ceteris prctium hie diadema is not a 
Christian motto. This systematic injustice saps the very foundation 
of justice and of social order. It generates the belief that interest 
and prejudice are to govern actions, and not the voice of conscience. 
It substitutes as a governing principle the idea of might for the 
idea of right ; it leaves no restraint on crime, except the fear of 
punishment ; it paralyses the efforts of the one who preaches the 
Christian duty of obedience to the civil power. Am I too sanguine 
then in believing that the lovers of law and order, whatever form 
of faith they may profess, will join with us in condemning revolu- 
tionists abroad, just in the same degree that we condemn them at 
home. But, my loid, there is another grievous wrong we have 
to complain of: not only have crimes, condemned justly here, been 
extolled as virtues when committed abroad, but insult and contumely 
have been heaped on the heads of that gallant chivalry of France, 
who rushed forward, leaving houses and homes, and wives and 
children, to defend the Father of the Faithful against the full force 
of revolution. These men, some of them of the highest blood and 
most ancient lineage in Europe, have been stigmatized as mercenaries. 
Good God, my lord, was the Due de Chevreux, who left his affianced 
bride to rush to arms, was he a revolutionist ? was the Baron de 
Charette, who drew again the sword his father had so nobly wielded 
in La Vendee was he for so noble an act to be held up to odium ? 
was the Due de Luynes, whose gray hairs had not prevented him 
from laying not only his great fortune but his person at the Pope's 
feet, was he worthy, for such devotion to a holy cause, of honour 
or of dishonour ? No, my lord, we at least will pay honour where 
honour is so signally due". 

Such is the story, full of glorious, if, too, full of painful incidents. 
The revolution that advanced upon Rome has recoiled in shame and 
terror and amazement, leaving the Romans tranquil and joyous, and 
the Holy Father triumphant, yet sorrowing in his triumph over 
those who have fallen in his defence, but lamenting with a far 
deeper sorrow over the misguided ones who were his enemies. We 
sympathize with him in his sorrow and we rejoice in his triumph ; 
we recognize in his temporal sovereignty the keystone of the arch 
of our civilization, and we feel that there is yet one cause left for 
YOL. IV, 11 

162 The Temporal Power of the Pope. 

which a man of principle may find it worth his while to speak, to 
act, to die. 

Groundless pretensions of the Revolutionists to the possession of Rome. 
But we must not fancy that his enemies, baffled for a time, have aban- 
doned their purpose. Their designs are as deadly as ever as reckless 
as ever is their determination to destroy. What is it they demand ? 
Upon what ground is that demand made and what is the spirit by 
which it is enforced ? They assert the kingdom of Italy has a right 
to the possession cf Rome. It might just as well be said that the Ameri- 
can government have a right to Quebec or Montreal or to London 
itself. If ever there was a spot upon the face of the globe which 
belonged to its sovereign, it is the City of Rome to the Popes. Why, 
it is very certain that Rome would, ages ago, have been a heap of 
mouldering ruins would have been as Nineveh or Palmyra, the 
haunt of owls and foxes and unclean things, but that God in His 
Providence had chosen it to be the capital of the Spiritual Monarchy 
of. the world, as its rulers had once been of the temporal. The attrac- 
tion of the place to the millions of Catholics throughout the globe, 
the munificence of a long series of Pontiffs, their patronage of every- 
thing that was exalted in art, and, above all, the glorious alliance 
between art and religion these things have made Rome, and made 
it even more than of old Rome the wonderful. But wonderful, 
how ? No features are there of a great temporal capital. It is no 
mart of commerce, no house of luxury. It is the Holy City, where 
every sight and every sound, churches and catacombs, and tombs of 
martyrs, and relics of saints, bring home to you that it is not a city 
of earthly power, but, in the expressive words of Byron, the City of 
the Soul. This marvel of the earth the Italians have the glory of 
possessing amongst them, and this solitary and inconceivable glory 
they are infatuated enough to seek to destroy, and to convert the 
capital of Christendom into what ? Into a sixth-rate Paris or a 
tenth-rate London a dismal Paris an impoverished London. Who 
can, without the temptation to laughter as well as tears, think of 
a people of the intelligence and real greatness of the Italians indul- 
ging in that vision which seems to have possessed them from the 
days of Machiavelli down to the mediaeval ravings of Mazzini, that 
the possession of Rome would make them the inheritors of the great- 
ness of the Roman Empire ? 

True, in the city of Rome, the old Roman Empire does meet 
your eyes, but how ? In dead limbs and fragments, from which, as 
from the bones of some mammoth or megatherion, you can infer the 
gigantic stature and articulation of the vast creature to which they 
belonged. But all is cold and dead speaks of a world of twenty 
centuries ago, that never, never can be revived again. But with 
the Christian aspects of that capital it is far otherwise. There 
everything is life and strength, an organization animated and 
potent the Colosseum is of bygone butcheries the Pantheon of for- 
gotten gods while from the great temple of the Vatican an old man 
stretches forth his hand to give his blessing to two hundred millions 

The Temporal Power of the Pope. 163 

of the human race, his spiritual subjects. He, the Holy Father, 
Pontiff, and King, is yet beset with difficulties and dangers, his 
sacred throne threatened by anarchy and revolution, his tem- 
poral power assailed by enemies, many and mighty ; but we may 
hope that the divine hand which established the temporal sove- 
reignty of Peter, and has protected it for a thousand years, 
will still uphold it. Empires, and states, and dynasties have arisen 
and disappeared around it ; temples have mouldered into ruins, 
and the gorgeous palaces of kings have crumbled over the heads 
of those who enjoyed within their walls a temporary splendour; 
diadems have been struck from the brows of fallen monarchs, sceptres 
have been broken, and wide extended ruin has devastated the uni- 
verse, but the sovereignty of Peter has withstood both the ravages of 
time and the malice of its enemies. The storms of a thousand years 
have raged around its head and discharge 1 their fury on its sides the 
generations of men have been swept from around it, as the light 
sand is borne by the wind of the desert from the base of an Egyptian 
pile ; but yet it has stood, often shaken, but yet erect, as if con- 
solidated by time and made firm by duration. And so may it 
endure until the Church Militant shall cease from its combats, and 
exchange its perils and trials for eternal repose and never fading 

Ne quisque tyrannus ab alma 

Vi prava valeat Papam depellere Roma. 

Such were the opinions given expression to by those who spoke, and 
enthusiastically received by those who assisted at this great meeting. 

Conclusion. " You will", said the Lord Cardinal at the close of the 
proceedings, " treasure up the sentiments which you have heard here 
to-day, and they will serve to encourage you to persevere in 
your historical attachment to the Holy See". 


At a public meeting of the inhabitants of the city of Dublin, and 
counties of Dublin, Kildare, and Wicldow, convened upon requisi- 
tion, to express sympathy with his Holiness Pope Pius the Ninth, 
abhorrence at the wicked invasion of the remaining portions of his 
dominions, and determination to use every influence to support him. 
in his present difficulties, and held in the Metropolitan Church of 
the Immaculate Conception, Malborough Street, Dublin, on Friday, 
the 15th 'November, 18G7 : 

It was moved by O'N^il Segrave, D.L., and seconded by the Right 
Rev. the Lord Bishop of Kildare and Leighlin, and carried by accla- 
mation, that 

do take the Chair. 

It was moved by Win. R. Byrne, Esq., J.P., ; seconded by the 
Very Rev. John P. Canon Farrell, P.P., and carried : 

1G4 Ihe Temporal Power of the Pope. 

That Richard J. Devitr, Esq., T.C., Mark S. O'Shaughnessy, Esq., 
barrister-at-law, and Richard Paul Carton, Esq., barrister-at-iaw, be 
requested to act as secretaries to the meeting. 

Letters of apology were read from the Very Rev. Charles W. 
Russell, D.D., May moth ; the Right Hon. W. H. F. Cogan, M.P. ; 
Chr. O'Connell Fitzsimon, Esq., D.L., etc. 

It was proposed by the Right Hon. William Lane Joynt, D.L., 
Lord Mayor of Dublin ; seconded by John O'rlagan, Esq., Q.C., and 
resolved : 

1. That we heartily sympathize with the reigning Pontiff, Pius the 
Ninth, in his present trials; and hereby proclaim our abhorrence of 
the unjust and wicked attacks which have, of late years, been made 
on his temporal sovereignty. 

Proposed by David Sherlock, Esq., Q,C. ; seconded by the Rev. 
T. N. Burke, O.P., and resolved : 

2. That the temporal sovereignty of the Holy See, legitimate in 
its origin, beneficent in its action, endeared to its own subjects, vener- 
able in its historic associations, and the fruitful source of science and 
civilization, is entitled to the respect and gratitude of all true friends 
of justice and social progress. 

Proposed by Right Hon. Richard More O'Ferrall, D.L., J.P. ; 
seconded by Very Rev. Monsignor MacCabe, V.G., P.P., and 
resolved : 

3. That in the temporal sovereignty of the Holy See we recognize 
an admirable arrangement of Divine Providence, necessary for the 
free exercise of the sacred mission entrusted by God to the succes- 
sors of St. Peter. 

Proposed by Charles Langdale, Esq., J.P. ; seconded by Mr. 
Serjeant Barry, M.P., and resolved : 

4. That in the name of religious freedom, the birthright of our 
holy faith, we protest against the sacrilegious attempts of the govern- 
ment of Victor Emmanuel to usurp the States of the Church, and to 
reduce the Sovereign Pontiff to the condition of a subject in an 
Italian kingdom ; and accordingly we invite the Catholics of every 
nation to rally around the throne of the Vicar of Christ, to assert his 
rights, and to aid him by every means at their command to defend 
his state the common inheritance of the whole Christian world. 

Proposed by the Right Hon. Colonel Monsell, M.P., D.L. ; 
seconded by the Hon. Judge Little, and resolved : 

5. That in the name of justice and social order, we record our 
solemn protest against the calumnious attacks to which the govern- 
ment of the Holy See is day by day subjected by the anti-Catholic 
press and various associations of the United Kingdom, and against 
the open support given by them to the revolutionary societies of 

The Temporal Power oj the Pope. 165 

Proposed by Sir James Power, Bart., M.P., D.L. ; seconded by the 
Very Rev. John Curtis, S.J., and resolved : 

6. That whilst we congratulate the Catholics of the whole world 
on their loyal attachment to the Holy Father, and on the many noble 
proofs they have given him of their sympathy and filial affection, we 
view with grief the apathy with which the governments of Europe 
have permitted his Holiness to be assailed in his rights and stripped 
of his territories. 

Proposed by the Rev. Monsignor Forde, D.D., V.G., P.P.; 
seconded by Wm. Carroll, Esq., M.D., Lord Mayor Elect, and 
resolved : 

7. That as Catholic France has assumed to herself the proud 
position of protectress of the Holy See, we call on the Emperor, 
by whose act other powers were prevented from intervening in the 
affairs of Rome, to take such decided and energetic measures as 
may insure the realization of the hopes of the Catholic world, and the 
restitution of all the territories of which his Holiness has been so 
unjustly despoiled. 

Proposed by Sir John Gray, Knt., M.P., J.P. ; seconded by Pro- 
fessor Wm. K. Sullivan, Ph.D. (Catholic University), and resolved: 

8. That we hereby convey to the officers and soldiers of the Papal 
army the expression of our gratitude and admiration for the courage 
and devotedness displayed by them in the defence of the Patrimony 
of St. Peter, and for the heroism with which they have discomfited 
its irreligious and revolutionary assailants. 

Proposed by Very Rev. Monsignor O'Connell, D.D., P.P., Dean 
of Dublin ; seconded by Sir John Bradstreet, Bart., J.P., and re- 
solved : 

9. That the following address, embodying the sentiments to which 
we, as Catholics and Irishmen, bound to the successor of St. Peter by 
every tie of duty, affection, and gratitude, have given utterance, be 
adopted by this meeting, and that his Eminence the Cardinal Arch- 
bishop be respectfully requested to forward it to his Holiness. 


" We, the Clergy and people, your devoted children of the diocese 
of Dublin, humbly approach your throne to tender the expression of 
our undying attachment to your sacred Derson, and to record our 
solemn protest against the many assaults which, during the past 
years, have been made on your temporal sovereignty, and which still 
menace your inviolable rights. 

" The devoted attachment of this kingdom in past ages to the See 
of St. Peter is known to the whole world : it is a prized inheritance 
dear to each one of us. But we beg to assure your Holiness that 
we yield not to our fathers in devotedness to that holy cause, and 
that at no period was Ireland more closely united to your sacred throne 
than at the present moment. 

" To you, as Vicar of Christ on earth, duty, affection, and gratitude 

166 The Temporal Power of the Pope. 

unite us in the bonds of spiritual allegiance, and these same motives 
impel us to venerate you as a temporal ruler, whose sovereignty, the 
most ancient and beneficent of Chiistendom, is the guarantee of your 
free action as Head of the Church, and whose government, based on 
the principles of justice, is the source of so many blessings to society. 
And hence it is, Most Holy Father, that we indignantly repudiate the 
sentiments of those who vainly imagine they may assail with impunity 
your temporal rights, whilst they profess allegiance to your spiritual 
rule. No ; your temporal independence is necessary for the exercise 
of your spiritual sovereignty, and, united with the faithful of the 
whole Christian world, we are resolved to use every legitimate means 
in our power to aid and assist you in its defence. 

" Often indeed, Most Holy Father, have the glorious achievements 
of your pontificate been a source of consolation and joy to us. We 
rejoiced in the many fruits of your apostolic ministry, erecting new 
hierarchies, and gathering in new nations to the fold of Christ : 
we rejoiced when you returned from exile, triumphing over those 
who would once again overwhelm Europe with revolution and 
barbarism : we rejoiced when, in the name of the Catholic world, 
you presented a diadem of peerless glory to the Queen of Heaven : 
we rejoiced in the exalted wisdom displayed in the administration of 
your temporal dominions a wisdom which elicited the admiration 
even of your enemies, and commended your rule to the affection and 
esteem of your own subjects : we rejoiced each time new names were 
added by you to the calendar of our patrons and of the models of 
Christian life : we rejoiced in the great moral and social truths which 
you solemnly promulgated : we rejoiced in the last great Centenary 
Feast, the common festival of all Catholics, and the echoes of our 
rejoicings have scarcely yet ceased to be heard amongst us. 

"But at the same time, as loving children, we had more than once 
to share your sorrows and afflictions, Most Holy Father. Each 
insult offered to you, each attack upon your territory, each violation 
of your rights, each calumny uttered against your wise and provident 
administration, each betrayal by false friends, occasioned new sorrow, 
and excited our indignation against those who would wound the 
whole Church in its Head, and renew in his successor the chains and 
martyrdom of the Prince of the Apostles. 

" And yet, Most Holy Father, it was to be expected that such trials 
and persecution would be your lot the powers of darkness, by 
their impotent rage, should avenge their repeated discomfiture, and 
the storms of Genesareth should continue to gather around the 
mystic bark of St. Peter. But we know from the words of infal- 
lible truth these storms shall ever rage in vain around the Church of 
Christ, and though the deluge of human passions may submerge all 
things else, the Ark of God will ever ride triumphant on its waters. 
In His own good time, He whom the the winds and waves obay will 
hush the storm, and calm and sunshine will once more smile upon 
His holy Church. 

" It was only a few days ago that threatening clouds again foreboded 
danger to the Holy City, and the din of arms resounding through 

Correspondence. 167 

the sanctuaries of Rome, excited in every breast anxiety and alarm 
lest these sanctuaries should be denied, and lest your liberty should 
be imperilled ; but your faithful troops, fired with the spirit of the 
Maccabees of old, rolled back the revolutionary tide, and humbled to 
the dust the pride and boasting of the enemies of the Cross. All 
praise to those champions of Christ ; their heroism and devotedness 
will reflect lustre on their names till time shall be no more. And espe- 
cially dear to us will ever be those martyrs of zeal and faith who 
sacrificed their lives in this noble cause ; their memory will be em- 
balmed in our hearts, and their names, imperishably inscribed on the 
monuments of the Church, will remain as models of Christian hero- 
ism and faithful defenders of our holy faith. 

" In conclusion, Most Holy Father, we again and again protest 
against the sacrilegious usurpation that would deprive you of any 
portion of the states of the Church, and thus endanger the free exer- 
cise of your spiritual power, and we invite the Catholics of all Ireland 
and of the whole Christian world to unite in this solemn protest. 

" And now, praying that the seed sown in sorrow may bring forth a 
rich harvest of consolation to your Holiness, and that your sufferings 
for justice sake may be the harbinger of many joyous years of 
triumph, we, prostrate before your throne, implore your Apostolic 

On the motion of Alderman John Campbell, J.P., the Cardinal 
Archbishop left the chair which was taken by the LORD MAYOR. 

It was moved by Alderman Campbell ; seconded by Hugh 
M'Ternan, Esq., J.P., and carried by acclamation : 

That the respectful and hearty thanks of the diocese, and of this 
meeting in particular, are eminently due to the Cardinal Archbishop 
for his dignified conduct in the chair. 


[We have received the following communication from a vene- 
rated correspondent, on a matter of practical interest to many of 
our readers. We beg most respectfully to thank the writer, and 
to add that we shall always feel honoured by such proofs of the 
interest he takes in our periodical :] 

To the Editors of the Irish Ecclesiastical Record. 


I '^Whilst you have, with your usual accuracy, stated in your 

November number, that incense is not allowed at a Missa cantata t 

168 Correspondence. 


allow me to mention that the Holy See has granted it, as a 

favour, in the vicariate of Guinea, in the dioceses of Northamp- 
ton and South wark, and probably in other places. The faithful 
have sometimes been anxious that the favour should be obtained 
lest our chief mass should, through the absence of incense, resem- 
ble in any way the Anglican service. G. 



JANUARY, 1868. 

NO. VI. 

THE existence of Fossil Remains is, then, a fact. Go where 
jou will through the civilized world, and every chief town has 
its Museum, into which they have been gathered by the zeal 
and industry of man ; descend where you can into the Crust of 
the Earth, the quarry, the mine, the railway cutting, and 
there, notwithstanding the plunder which has been going on 
for two centuries and more, you will find that the inexhaustible 
cabinets of Nature are still teeming with these remains of ancient 

When we are brought, for the first time, face to face with 
these countless relics oT a former world, we are impressed with a 
sense of wonder and bewilderment. That the skeletons before 
us, though now dry and withered, wore once animated with the 
breath of life; that the trees now lying shattered and prostrate, 
and shorn of their branches, once flourished on the earth, we 
cannot for a moment hesitate to believe. But beyond this one 
fact, all is darkness and mystery. These gaunt skeletons, these 
uncouth monsters, these petrified forests, are silent, lifeless, as the 
rocks within whose stony bosoms they have lain so long em- 
balmed. Had they speech and memory, they could tell us much, 
no , doubt, of that ancient world in which they bore a part, of 
its continents, and seas, and rivers, and mountains; of the 
various tribes of animals and plants by which it was peopled, 
and of their habits and domestic economy ; and how they lived, 
and how they died, and how they were buried in those graves 

VQL. IV. 12 

170 Geology and Revelation. 

from which, after the lapse of we know not how many ages, 
they now come forth into the light of day. As it is, however, 
we can but gaze and wonder. We have nothing here but the 
relics of death and destruction : there is no feeling, no memory, 
no voice, in these dry bones ; no living tenant in these hollow 
skulls, to recount to us the history of former times. 

So thinks and reasons the ordinary observer. But far different 
is the language of the Geologist. These dry and withered 
bones, he tells us, are gifted with memory and speech; and, 
though their voice is not indeed like the common voice of men, 
their language is not, on that account, beyond our comprehen- 
sion. Like the birds, and reptiles, and fish, and other symbols, 
inscribed on the obelisks of ancient Egypt, these bones and 
shells stored up in the Crust of the Earth, have a hidden mean- 
ing which it is the business of Science to search out and explain. 
They are Nature's hieroglyphics, which she has impressed upon 
her works to carry down to remote ages the memory of the revo- 
lutions through which our Globe has passed ; and when we come 
to understand them aright, they do unfold to us the story of that 
ancient world to which they belonged. 

We are now about to consider in what way Geologists attempt 
to fulfil this magnificent promise. It may be observed, at 
starting, that this branch of Geology is called Palceontology, 
which means, as the word denotes -rraXauov ovrwv \6jog the 
science which is concerned about the organic remains of ancient 
life. The honour of having been the first to place this science 
on a solid basis, in fact we may say the honour of having brought 
it into existence, is justly accorded to the distinguished Cuvier, 
whose name shed a lustre upon France during the early years 
of the present century. It is therefore still in its infancy ; but 
it is alleged to have already rewarded the zeal of its students 
by many wonderful and unexpected revelations. We propose 
in the first place to examine the principles on which it is 
founded, and then to consider the conclusions to which it has led. 

We shall begin with those more obvious principles which may 
be gathered from such a general survev of Fossil Remains as 
we attempted to sketch out in a former paper. For, though 
they escape the notice of most men, yet, lying as they do on the 
very surface of the facts, they can be understood without much 
show of argument. Moreover, what is very much to our present 
purpose, they confirm in a striking manner the Geological 
theory of Stratified Rocks, which we have been engaged in 
defending. These rocks, as the reader will remember, are said 
to have been slowly spread out, one above another, during the 
lapse of many ages, by the operation of natural causes ; and we 

Reasoning of Geologists. 171 

have seen how this doctrine is supported by arguments founded 
on an examination of the rocks themselves, of the materials 
that compose them, and of the way in which these materials are 
piled together. Now let us observe how clearly the testimony 
of Fossil Remains seems to point in the same direction. 

First, the bones and shells which we now find in such pro- 
fusion, deep in the Crust of the Earth, must have belonged to 
animals which, when living, flourished on what was then the 
surface. Yet now they are buried in the bosom of the hard 
rock, and covered over with beds of solid limestone, and sand- 
stone, and conglomerate, hundreds and thousands of feet in 
thickness. How can we explain this fact, unless we suppose 
that these animals, when they perished, were imbedded in some 
soft materials, which afterwards became consolidated, and above 
which, in the course of ages, more and more matter was depo- 
sited, until at length that lofty pile of strata was produced, 
beneath which the remains are now found buried ? 

Again, it is part of our theory that the formation of Stratified 
Rocks took place, for the most part, under water. The Organic 
Remains, therefore, which we should naturally expect to find 
preserved in the strata of the earth, would be those of aquatic 
animals ; or, if the remains of land animals were to be looked for, 
it should be of those chiefly which live near the banks of rivers 
and estuaries, and which, after death, might have been carried 
down by the current and buried in the silt and mud with which 
almost all rivers are charged at certain seasons of the year. We 
know as a fact that such animals are buried at the present 
day in the Deltas of the Ganges and the Mississippi ; and it 
would be reasonable to suppose that the same should have 
occurred in former ages. Now here again the evidence of Fossil 
Remains exactly falls in with our theory. For the vast bulk of 
them are manifestly the remains of animals that lived in water ; 
and the terrestrial animals, comparatively few, whose bones are 
preserved in the Crust of the Earth, are such as frequent the 
banks of great rivers or the marshy swamps of estuaries. 

Thus much we may learn even from a cursory glance at 
Fossil Remains. But these curious monuments of ancient times 
have a deeper meaning, which cannot be unfolded without a 
more minute and laborious investigation. Our readers are aware 
that all the animals at present existing on the face of the .Earth 
have been scientifically grouped together, according to certain 
well-marked characteristics, into various kingdoms, classes, ge- 
nera, and species. Thus, for example, every one knows that the 
horse and the dbg are two different species, belonging to the 
same class of mammalia; the eagle and the sparrow are two dif- 

12. B 

172 Geology and Revelation. 

ferent species of the same class called birds. Then again the class 
of mammalia and the class of birds both belong to the one com- 
mon kingdom of vertebrata ; because, though different in many 
other respects, they agree in this, that all the members of both 
classes have a vertebral or spinal column, to which the other 
parts of the internal skeleton are attached. 

Now when Cuvier began to examine closely the Organic 
Remains of former times, to which his attention was called by 
the bones dug up in the gypsum quarries of Montmartre, near 
Paris, about the close of the last century, he brought with him 
to the task a very large acquaintance with the various forms of 
life that, in the present age, prevail throughout the world: anci 
he was greatly struck with the marked difference between the 
living animals with which he had been long familiar, and those 
with which he now became acquainted for the first time. The 
more he extended his researches, the more manifest did this dif- 
ference appear ; until at last it became quite clear that the great 
"bulk of the animals whose remains are preserved in the Crust of 
the Earth, have no representatives now living on its surface. 
Nevertheless, he observed that, though the species no longer ex- 
ists, it often happens that we have still other species of the same 
genus; or if the genus, too, be extinct, we have other genera of 
the same class. Here, then, is the first great truth at which 
Cuvier arrived, and which has been since confirmed by exten- 
sive observations: that the animals which formerly inhabited 
this earth of ours, were, for the most part, widely different from 
those by which it is now inhabited : and yet that there is a well- 
defined likeness between them ; that both have been created on a 
plan so strictly uniform, that the one and the other naturally find 
their place in the same system of classification. 

As the science of Palaeontology progressed, and new facts were 
day by day accumulated, another truth, not less important, was 
gradually but certainly developed. Jn the distribution of Fossil 
Remains through the various strata of the earth, there is a certain 
order observed, a certain regular law of succession, which cannot 
have been the mere result of chance, and which it is the business 
of science to unravel and explain. The facts are these. If we 
follow a particular set of strata in a horizontal direction, we find 
that the same fossils continue to prevail over hundreds of square 
miles, nay, often over a space as large as Europe, though beyond 
certain limits this uniformity of Fossil Remains will gradually be 
observed to disappear. On the other hand, when we penetrate 
in a vertical direction through the strata, we meet with the very 
opposite result. After a few hundred yards at the most, we find 
ourselves in the midst of a group of fossils, 'although different 
from those which we have passed in the bed above : and so on, 

Reasoning of Geologists. 173 

as we move downward, each particular set of strata is found to 
have an assemblage of fossils peculiar to itself. 1 

We can have no reasonable doubt as to the truth, of these 
facts. They have been established and confirmed by the obser- 
vations of a whole host of geologists, whose researches have ex- 
tended to all parts of the globe. Moreover we should observe 
that the negative evidence on the subject is not less convincing 
than the positive. Nothing is more easy than to refute a uni- 
versal proposition if it is false. If it is not a fact that each group 
of strata,*as we proceed downward, exhibits a collection of Fossils 
peculiar to itself, the assertion may be at once disproved by 
pointing out two or three different groups with the same Fossils. 
There are thousands of practical geologists at work all over the 
world, eager for fame ; and any one of them would make his name 
illustrious if he could overturn a theory so generally received. 
Now, when a statement of facts can be easily disproved if untrue ; 
and when, at the same time, there is a large number of men whose 
interest it would be to disprove the statement if possible ; and when 
it is nevertheless not disproved ; this circumstance, we contend, is a 
convincing argument that the facts are true. And such precisely 
is the case before us. We therefore think it unreasonable not 
to accept the facts. 

Let us next examine what is their significance. Each group 
of strata, be it remembered, represents to us the animal life that 
flourished on the earth during the period in which that particular 
group was in progress of formation. It is, as it were, a cabinet 
in which are preserved for our instruction certain relics or me- 
morials of that age in the world's history. Of course it is not a 
perfect collection; but only a collection of those remains that 
chanced to escape destruction, and by some natural embalming 
process to be saved from dissolution. When we learn, then, 
that there is a marked uniformity in the assemblage of Fossils 
that are spread out over a large horizontal area, in any group of 
strata, we conclude that, when that group was in course of for- 
mation, there was a certain uniformity in the animal life that ex- 
tended over the corresponding area of the globe ; just as, at the 
present day, the same species of animals are found to flourish 
over a great part of Europe, or of America. And if this uni- 
formity of Fossil Remains does not extend horizontally to an in- 
definite distance, this is precisely what we should have expected 
from the analogy of existing creation : for when we examine the 
present distribution of animal life over the earth, we find a 
similar diversity to exist between countries that are far removed 
from one another, as, for instance, between Europe and Australia. 

1 See Lyell, Elements of Geology, pp. 94-9H ; Prmcipls of Geology, p. 116; 
Jukes, Manual of Geology, pp. 410, -111. 

174 Geology and Revelation. 

In the next place, we are told that, as we proceed downwards 
into the Crust of the Earth, each successive group of strata has 
an assemblage of Fossils clearly distinct in character from those 
of the group above and of the group below. The conclusion to 
which this fact points is obvious enough. If, in the former case, 
we inferred that the animal life of any one period, considered in 
itself, was the same over extensive areas, in this case we must 
infer that the animal life of each successive period was peculiar 
to that particular age; being altogether distinct in its character 
from the animal life of the period that went before and of that 
which followed. It would appear, therefore, as Sir Charles 
Lyell p:its it, " that from the remotest period there has been 
ever a coming in of new organic forms, and an extinction of 
those* which pre-existed on the earth ; some species having en- 
dured for a longer, others for a shorter time ; while none have 
ever reappeared after once dying out". 1 

Now, from these principles, Geologists have been gradually 
led to build up a system of Geological Chronology; in other 
words, to determine the order of time in which the numerous 
groups of strata that make up the Crust of the Earth have been 
formed, and thus to fix the age of each group in reference to all 
the rest. This Chronology is not reckoned by the common 
measures of time which are used in history, but rather by the 
successive periods during which each group of rocks was in its 
turn slowly deposited on the existing surface of the globe. For 
example, the Coal-measures that so abound in the North of 
England are very much older than the blueish clay on which 
London is built. But if we ask what is the difference between 
the age of the one and the other, we are answered not by days 
and years and centuries, but by the number of different forma- 
tions that intervened between the two : we are told that the Coal- 
measures belong to the Carboniferous Formation; that this 
Formation was followed by the Permian, and that again in 
succession by the Triassic, the Jurassic, and the Cretaceous; and 
that, upon this last was spread out the Eocene, to which the 
London Clay belongs. Indeed, as regards the precise length of 
any given period, Geologists can offer nothing but the wildest 
conjectures. Some form their estimates in thousands of years, 
others in millions ; and the wisest amongst them fairly confess 
they have no sufficient data to make an accurate computation. 
Nevertheless, they are all agreed in this, that the times of which 
we have record in history, that is to say, about the last six 
thousand years, are but a fraction of a single period ; in fact, 
they are but as one day when compared to the long chronicle 
1 Elements of Gcoluyy, p 05, 

Reasoning of Geologists. 175 

that is laid up in the Crust of the Earth. Our readers will be 
glad to learn something of the way in which this startling system 
of Geological Chronology is developed by its advocates. 

At first sight, perhaps, it might be imagined that the order of 
time in which the various strata were deposited, can be easily 
learned from the relative position in which they lie. Since each 
stratum, when first produced, was spread out on the existing 
surface of the globe, it is clear that the one which lies uppermost 
in the series must be the newest, then that which lies next below, 
and so on till we reach the lowest of 'the pile, which must be the 
earliest of all. Nothing could be more satisfactory than this 
reasoning, if each stratum was spread out over the whole Earth, 
and if, after having been once deposited, it was never afterwards 
removed. "We might then regard each stratum as a volume in 
the Natural History of the Globe, which, when it was finished, 
was laid down upon that in which the chronicles of the preceding 
age are kept preserved ; and thus the position of every stratum 
would be in itself a sufficient evidence of the age to which 
it belongs. 

But such is not the case. Nowhere does the Crust of the 
Earth exhibit a complete series of the Stratified Rocks laid out 
one above another. In any given section we can find but a few 
only of the long series of groups that are familiar to Geologists. 
And if we follow them on, in a horizontal direction, we shall in- 
variably find that some of the strata will thin out and disappear, 
while new strata will gradually be developed between two 
groups that were before in immediate contact. Let it be 
observed, in passing, that this fact fits in most perfectly with the 
theory we have been all along defending. The Stratified Rocks 
were deposited under water; therefore, the strata of any given 
period were not spread out over the whole Globe, but at most over 
those parts only which, for the time, were submerged. With the 
next period came a change in the boundaries of land and water ; 
and the formation of strata ceased in some localities and began 
in others : and so on from epoch to epoch. Thus the areas over 
which the process has been going on, have been, in every age, of 
limited extent, and have been ever shifting from place to place 
over the surface of the earth. Moreover, there is the opposite 
process of Denudation. Many of the strata deposited in the depths 
of the ocean must have been afterwards swept away by the 
breakers, as they slowly emerged from the waters, or at a later 
time, reduced to their original elements, and carried back to the 
sea by the action of rivers, rain, and frost. Hence it should 
seem, as well from the fact which is obvious to any one who 
will examine it, as from our theory, which harmonizes so com- 
pletely with the fact, that the strata which we meet with in any 

176 Geology and Revelation. 

particular part of the Earth's surface present to us but a very 
broken and imperfect series of monuments. They are, as it were, 
but odd volumes of a long series, and, though they lie in juxta* 
position, they may belong, nevertheless, to Geological epochs 
widely removed from each other. 

Here, then, is the problem that remains to be solved: to 
compare together the various groups of strata that we find 
spread out in different districts over an extensive area ; to deter- 
mine which of these groups belong to the same Geological 
periods, and which of them do not ; and lastly, to arrange them 
all in one chronological series. Now it is chiefly by the aid of 
Fossil Remains that Geologists attempt to work out this im- 
portant and difficult problem. We have already shown that the 
Fossil Remains which are found imbedded in each group of 
strata, represent the animal life of the period during which that 
group of strata was deposited. Moreover, we have seen that each 
period was marked by the existence of an animal creation speci- 
fically distinct in its character from all that went before and from 
all that followed. It is clear, therefore, that if, in two different 
districts, we meet with the same Fossils, the beds in which they 
are found must belong to the same Geological period : whereas, 
on the other hand, if two groups of rocks within certain limits, 
have,- each of them a collection of Fossils, totally different from 
the other, it is a proof that these groups do not belong to the 
same period. Let us see now in what manner the practical Geo- 
logist proceeds to apply these general principles. 

He takes first some one country, say England, and in that 
country he selects some one particular district. Here he ex- 
amines a number of different sections, and makes himself familiar 
with all the strata of the neighbourhood, as well as with the 
order in which they lie. Let us suppose that he finds there 
different groups spread out one above the other, and let us call 
these groups A, B, and C. A being the lowest, B immediately 
above, and C above B. The chronological order of these strata 
will be, therefore, A, B, C. He will study the Fossil Remains 
which he finds imbedded in each group. For convenience we 
may designate the Fossils of A by the letter a, those of B by b, 
and those of C by c. Now, according to the principles we have 
already explained, these three collections of Fossils will be 
specifically distinct from one another, each collection being 
characteristic of one particular set of strata. Our Geologist next 
goes into a neighbouring district, and there examines a number 
of sections as before. Let us suppose that he encounters again 
the groups A and B. He may, perhaps, have been able to trace 
the beds from one district to the other, by observations made 
upon his line of route: or it may be that the nature of the 

Reasoning of Geologists. 177 

country renders these observations impossible; or that the 
observations were so imperfect that from them he could arrive 
at no certain conclusion regarding the identity of the strata. 
But at all events, if the new district yield an abundant supply 
of Fossils, he cannot long be at a loss. He will recognize the 
group A by the Fossils a, and the group B by the Fossils b. 
An important fact, however, soon attracts his attention. Group 
C has entirely disappeared, and is not to be found in this dis- 
trict ; while between A and B there is a new group of rocks 
that he has not seen before, with a collection of Fossils different 
from a, b, and c. We will call this new group X, and its 
Fossils x. It is clear that the formation of X must have inter- 
vened between the formation of A and B ; and the chronological 
order now stands A, X, B, C. In like manner another district 
may disclose a fourth group of strata, say Y, intervening between 
B and C. The chronological order will then stand A, X, B, 
Y, C. And thus the Geologist pursues his explorations until 
he has gone through the whole country, and arranged the prin- 
cipal groups of strata according to the order of time in which 
they were deposited. 

In this way the whole of England has been minutely explored 
during the last half century. The task was first undertaken by 
William Smith, who is justly called the " Father of English 
Geology". After multiplied researches extending over a space 
of many years, during which he travelled over the whole country 
on foot, this eminent man published in 1815 his "Geological 
Map of England and Wales with part of Scotland" ; a work 
which is described by Sir Charles Lyell as u a lasting monument 
of original talent and extraordinary perseverance". 1 Hundreds 
followed in the same course, exploring every day new districts, 
and, by the new facts which they brought to light, supplying 
what was wanting in the work of Smith, correcting what was 
faulty, and confirming what was true ; until at length, in our 
day, it may be said that the Stratified Rocks of England are 
almost as well known and as completely mapped out as are its 
counties and its towns, its rivers, lakss, and mountains. 

Meanwhile, the Geologists of the continent were not idle. 
Germany, France, and Italy have been extensively explored 
according to the principles we have explained ; and, by a com- 
parison of the results arrived at with the observations of English 
Geologists, the succession of strata over a great part of Europe 
has been pretty fairly ascertained. The following table, now 
generally adopted, represents in an abridged form the principal 
European formations, numbered according to the order of time 
in which they are supposed to have been produced: 

1 Principles of Geology, p. 85. 

178 Geology and Revelation. 













The reader will perceive that the series of Stratified Rocks is 
here divided into three larger groups, which represent the great 
Epochs of Geological time ; and these again are subdivided into 
many smaller groups or Formations, which correspond to the 
successive Periods of each Epoch. Each Formation comprises 
in itself many different varieties of rocks laid out in successive 
strata, and each stratum is made up of many beds of varying 
thickness ; even in the beds themselves we can often distinguish 
an almost infinite number of laminae or thin plates, scarcely 
thicker than a sheet of paper, which correspond to the periodical 
depositions of matter by which the rock was originally formed. 
For our purpose, however, it will be enough to advert to the 
leading divisions set forth in the above table. The larger groups 
are called Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary; that is to say, 
First, Second, and Third in the order of formation. The other 
names, derived from the Greek, which are sometimes employed, 
have reference to Fossil Remains, which are imbedded in the 
rocks of each great Epoch. The Primary strata are called 
Palaeozoic, TraXaiov, ancient, and wov, an organic being, 
because they contain the oldest forms of organic life : for a like 
reason the Secondary strata, which contain the middle or 
intermediate forms of organic life, are called Mesozoic, from 
JUECTOV, middle, and wov ; while the Tertiary are called Caino- 
zoic, Katvov, new, and <oov, inasmuch as they contain the 
newest or most modern forms of organic life. 

Thus the names of the three great Geological Epochs are 
really descriptive names; that is, the obvious meaning of the 
words corresponds to the character of the strata which they are 
used to designate. But it is quite otherwise with the names of 
the several Formations ; and this is a point which it is of the 
highest importance the Student of Geology should ever keep in 
mind. These names are purely arbitrary, and must be under- 
stood simply as names employed to designate the strata that were 

Reasoning of Geologists. 

formed in each successive Geological period, and not to describe 
their character. They generally had their origin in some acci- 
dental circumstance, or were derived from some particular 
locality ; and afterwards, being perpetuated, gradually came to 
receive a much more extended application than that which the 
words themselves would seem to suggest. Thus, for instance, 
the Cretaceous Formation is so called from the remarkable 
stratum of white chalk (creta) which was deposited during that 
period over a great part of Europe ; but it would be a mistake 
to suppose that the whole Formation is made up of chalk. On 
the contrary, in different localities it is composed of very different 
materials ; near Dresden, for example, it is a gray quartzose sand- 
stone, and in many parts of the Alps it is a hard compact lime- 
stone. 1 Again, the Devonian Formation derives its name from 
the County of Devon, where the rocks of the Devonian period 
were first minutely examined ; but we must not therefore infer 
that this Formation is peculiar to Devonshire ; it is to be found 
in many other parts of England, also in Ireland, and on the con- 
tinent of Europe. So, too, another Formation has received the 
name of Carboniferous, which literally means Coal-bearing 
(carbo-fcro), because of the beds of Coal which are sometimes 
associated with its strata ; and yet this Formation is often found 
quite destitute of Coal over a very extensive area. 

With this sketch of Geological Chronology before us, we can 
now more fully realize to our minds the story we are told 
about the formation of the Earth's Crust. In the earliest age to 
which Geologists can trace back the history of the Aqueous 
Rocks and they do not profess to trace it back to the begin- 
ning this globe of ours was, as it is now, partly covered with 
water, and partly dry land ; and the formation of stratified rocks 
went on in that age, as it is still going on, chiefly over those areas 
that were under water not indeed throughout the entire extent 
of such areas, but over those portions of them to which mineral 
matter happened to be carried by the action of natural causes ; 
and the Earth was peopled then as now, though with animals 
and plants very different from those by which we are surrounded 
at the present day ; and some of these happened to escape des- 
truction, and to be imbedded in the deposits of that far distant 
age, and have thus been preserved even to our time ; and these 
strata with their Fossils are the same which we now group 
together under the title of the Laurentian Formation, and being 
the oldest we can recognize in the depths of the Earth's Crust, 
occupy the lowest position in our table of Chronology. Ages 
rolled on ; and the Crust of the Earth was moved from within by 
1 Lvull, Principles of Geology, p. 115, 

180 Geology and Revelation. 

some giant force, and the bed of tlie ocean was lifted up in one 
place, and islands and continents were submerged in another, and 
so the outlines of land and water were changed ; and with this 
change the old forms of life passed away and a new creation 
came in, and the Laurentian period gave place to the Cambrian. 
But the order of nature was still the same as before. The depo- 
sition of stratified rocks still continued, though the areas of depo- 
sition were, in many cases, shifted from one locality to another; 
and the organic life that flourished in the Cambrian times left its 
memorials behind it buried in the Cambrian rocks ; and then that 
age, too, came to an end, and gave place in its turn to the Silu- 
rian; and this was, again, followed by the Devonian. Thus one 
period succeeded to another in the order set forth in our table, and 
every part of the globe was, in the course of ages, more than 
once submerged, and covered with the deposits of more than one 
age, and preserves the Organic Remains of more than one crea- 

As we advance upwards in the series of Formations we soon 
perceive that the Fossil Remains, which in the earlier groups 
were scanty enough, become profusely abundant, until even the 
unpractised eye cannot fail to mark the peculiar character of 
each successive period; the exuberant vegetation of the Car- 
boniferous age, with its luxuriant herbage and its tangled forests, 
its huge pines, its tall tree-ferns, and its stately araucarias ; then 
again, the enormous creeping monsters of the Jurassic, the 
ichthyosaurs, and the megalosaurs, and the iguanodons, which 
filled its seas or crowded its plains or haunted its rivers ; and 
higher up in the scale, the colossal quadrupeds of the Miocene 
and the Pliocene, the mammoths, and the mastodons, and the 
megatheriums, which begin to approximate more closely to the 
organic types of our own age. But amidst all these various forms 
of life, the eye looks in vain for any relic of human kind. No 
bone of man, no trace of human intelligence, is to be found in 
any bed of rock that belongs to the Primary, Secondary, or Ter- 
tiary Formations. It is only when we have passed all these, 
and come to the latest Formation of the whole series, nay, it is 
only in the uppermost beds of this Formation, that we meet, for 
the first time, with human bones, and the works of human art. 

Thus it appears pretty plain, even from the testimony of 
Geology, that man was the last work of the creation ; and that, if 
the world is old, the human race is comparatively young. These 
broken and imperfect records, which have been so curiously 
preserved in the Crust of the Earth, carry us back to an anti- 
quity which may not be measured by years and centuries, and 
then set before us, as in a palpable form, how the tender herbage 
appeared, and the fruit tree yielding fruit according to its kind ; 

Reasoning of Geologists. 181 

and how the Earth was afterwards peopled with great creeping 
things, and winged fowl, and the cattle, and the beasts of the field; 
and then, at length, they disclose to us how, last of all, man 
appeared, to whom all these things seemed to tend, and who was 
to have dominion over the fish of the sea, and the fowl of the air, 
and every living thing that moveth upon the earth. We do not 
mean just now to dwell upon the world's history which Geology 
presents to view : but we shall return to it in the sequel of these 
papers, when we come to consider how admirably the genuine 
teachings of Geology fit in with the inspired narrative of Moses ; 
and how this science, although, like so many other, in the way- 
wardness of its early youth, it assumed an attitude hostile to Re- 
ligion, is now, like them, too, coming forward in its maturity to 
pay the tribute of its homage to the great cause of Revealed 

It may here, very naturally, be asked, if these Geological re- 
cords give us any information as to the manner in which each 
period of animal and vegetable life was brought to an end? 
Did the old organic forms gradually die out, and the new 
gradually come in to take their places ? or were the one suddenly 
extinguished, and the others as suddenly produced ? This ques- 
tion has been a subject of controversy among Geologists" them- 
selves ; and therefore it is somewhat outside our scope, since we 
propose to exhibit only that more general outline of Geological 
theory which is accepted by all. Nevertheless, as it is a question 
that must needs occur to the mind of every reader, it seems to call 
for a few words of explanation as we pass along. In the infancy 
of Geology, it was commonly held that each great period was 
brought to an end by a sudden and violent convulsion of Nature. 
The Crust of the Earth was burst open in many places all at once ; 
the bottom of the ocean was upheaved with a tremendous shock ; 
the waters, driven from their accustomed bed, rushed with 
furious impetuosity over islands and continents; and the whole 
existing creation perished in a universal deluge. Then succeeded 
an interval of chaotic confusion, and when at length the waters 
subsided, and dry land again appeared, a new age in the history 
of the Globe was ushered in, and the Earth was again peopled 
by a new creation. 

But this old theory has gradually given way as the Stratified 
Rocks have been more and more fully examined, and at the 
present day it is almost universally abandoned. Geologists 
have observed that the same species of Fossil Remains which 
prevail in the upper beds of one Formation, are met with also in 
the lower beds of the next, though in less numbers and mixed 
up with new species ; and that, as we ascend higher and higher 

182 Geology and Revelation. 

into the later Formation, the old species gradually become more 
and more scarce, while the new are gradually becoming more 
and more numerous ; until at length the characteristic forms of one 
age have disappeared altogether, and those of the succeeding age 
have attained their full development. For this important fact, 
which was brought to light within the last half century, we are 
mainly indebted to the unwearied researches and great ability of 
Sir Charles Lyell. Speaking of the Formations of the Tertiary 
Epoch, to which, as is well known, he has principally devoted 
himself, this distinguished writer sums up the result of his long 
investigation : " In thus passing from the older to the newer 
members of the Tertiary system we meet with many chasms, but 
none \vhich separate entirely, by a broad line of demarcation, one 
state of the organic world from another. There are no signs of 
an abrupt termination of one fauna and flora, and the starting 
into life of new and wholly distinct forms. Although we are 
far from being able to demonstrate geologically an insensible 
transition from the Eocene to the Miocene, or even from the 
latter to the recent fauna, yet the more we enlarge and perfect 
our general survey, the more nearly do we approximate to such 
a continuous series, and the more gradually are we conducted 
from times when many of the genera and nearly all the species 
were extinct, to those in which scarcely a single species flourished 
which we do not know to exist at present". 1 Hence, he con- 
cludes, and his conclusion is now the common doctrine of Geo- 
logists, " that the extinction and creation of species has been 
.... the result of a slow and gradual change in the organic 
world". 2 

It was long argued against this view, that we often meet, es- 
pecially in the Primary and Secondary Formations, two groups 
of strata in immediate contact, one lying on the other, in which 
there is a perfectly sudden transition from one set of Fossil 
Remains to another altogether different. We find in each group 
a countless variety of species, and yet not a single species com- 
mon to the two. Does it not appear that in such a case the 
organic life of one period was suddenly destroyed, and that of 
the next as suddenly introduced? Not so; there is one link 
wanting in the argument. It must be shown that these two 
strata which are now in immediate contact were originally de- 
posited in immediate succession. But this it is impossible to 
prove : nay, it must needs be very often false. We have before 
observed that the areas of deposition were limited in every age, 
and were ever shifting from one locality to another. Therefore 
it must have been a frequent occurrence that, after one bed of 
rock was formed, the process of deposition ceased altogether in 

1 Principles of Geology, p. 312; tenth edition. 2 Ib. 313. 

Reasoning of Geologists. 183 

that locality and did not begin again for many ages. Thus a long 
lapse of time often intervened between the deposition of two 
strata, which were laid out one immediately above the other. 
Moreover we have also seen that whole groups of strata may be 
swept away by Denudation ; and then the rocks which are next 
deposited in that locality, will be in immediate contact with 
strata indefinitely more ancient than themselves, From these 
two considerations it is clear that the strata we find in any given 
spot of the Earth's surface present to us of necessity a very 
broken and imperfect series of records ; and that it is only by ex- 
ploring an unlimited number of different localities that we 
could hope to find a sample of the strata of every age We may 
say, however, that in proportion as Geologists have hitherto ex- 
tended their researches, and brought to light new strata, so have 
they been able to fill up the apparent gaps or chasms in the 
succession of organic life. It is, therefore, not unreasonable to 
suppose that, as our knowledge of the Earth's Crust becomes 
more and more minute, the sudden breaks in the continuity of 
the scale will be still further diminished and the successive stages 
of gradual transition more closely apparent. 

This subject has been very happily illustrated by Sir Charles 
Lyell : *' To make still more clear the supposed working of this 
machinery, [for the deposition of Stratified Rocks and the preser- 
vation of Organic Remains,] I shall compare it to a somewhat 
analogous case that might be imagined to occur in the history of 
human affairs. Let the mortality of the population of a large 
country represent the successive extinction of species, and the 
birth of new individuals the introduction of new species. While 
these fluctuations are gradually taking place everywhere, suppose 
commissioners to be appointed to visit each province ol'the country 
in succession, taking an exact account of the number, names, 
and individual peculiarities of all the inhabitants, and leaving in 
each district a register containing a record of this information. 
If, after the completion of one census, another is immediately 
made on the same plan, and then another, there will, at least, be 
a series of statistical documents in each province. When these 
belonging to any one province are arranged in chronological 
order, the contents of such as stand next to each other will differ 
according to the length of time between the taking of each cen- 
sus. If, for example, there are sixty provinces, and all the 
registers are made in a single year, and renewed annually, the 
number of births and deaths will be so small in proportion to the 
whole of the inhabitants, during the interval between the com- 
piling of two consecutive documents, that the individuals de- 
scribed in such document? will be nearly identical; M'hereas, if 
the suivey of each of the sixty provinces occupies all tin,' com- 

184 Geology and Revelation. 

missioners for a whole year, so that they are unable to revisit the 
same place until the expiration of sixty years, there will then be 
an almost entire discordance between the persons enumerated in 
two consecutive registers in the same province. . . . 

" But I must remind the reader, that the case above proposed 
has no pretensions to be regarded as an exact parallel to the 
Geological phenomena which I desire to illustrate ; for the com- 
missioners are supposed to visit the different provinces in rota- 
tion; whereas the commemorating processes by which organic 
remains become fossilised, although they are always shifting from 
one area to the other, are yet very irregular in their movements. 
They may abandon and revisit many spaces again and again, 
before they once approach another district; and besides this 
source of irregularity, it may often happen that, while the 
depositing process is suspended, denudation may take place, 
which may be compared to the occasional destruction by fire or 
other causes of some of the statistical documents before men- 
tioned. It is evident that, where such accidents occur, the want 
of continuity in the series may become indefinitely great, and 
that the monuments which follow next in succession will by no 
means be equi-distant from each other in point of time. 

" If this train of reasoning be admitted, the occasional distinct- 
ness of the fossil remains, in formations immediately in contact, 
would be a necessary consequence of the existing laws of sedi- 
mentary deposition and subterranean movement, accompanied 
by a constant mortality and renovation of species". 1 

There is another and a very striking fact in the succession of 
ancient organic life, which claims from us a moment's notice. 
As we proceed upwards through the series of Stratified Rocks, 
from the oldest to the newest, we find a gradual advance in the 
types of animal organization therein preserved, from the humbler 
and more simple forms of structure to those of a higher and 
more perfect character. That form of organization is regarded 
among Zoologists as the more perfect in which there is "a 
greater number of organs specially devoted to particular func- 
tions". Now all the forms of animal life with which we are 
acquainted may be reduced to two great divisions, the Vertebrate 
and the Invertebrate, the former having a vertebral or spinal 
column, the latter having none : and it is agreed in conformity 
with the notion set forth above, that the vertebrate animals as a 
class exhibit a more perfect organization than the invertebrate. 
Again among the vertebrate themselves there is a gradation ; the 
reptiles are ranked higher than the fish, the birds higher than the 
reptiles, and the mammalia higher again than the birds. 
1 Principles of Geology, pp. 321, 322. 


Reasoning of Geologists. 185 

All tins we learn from Zoologists, who have pursued their inves- 
tigations without any reference whatever to the science of Geology. 
It is, therefore, not a little remarkable when we discover this 
very order and gradation of animal life in the successive groups, 
of Stratified Hocks. All the Remains of the earliest Geological 
Formations belong to invertebrate animals while the vertebrate, 
which are discovered for the first time in the Devonian Period, 
are, from that age on, more and more fully developed down to 
the present day, and now constitute, if not the most numerous, 
at least the most important part of the animal creation More- 
over, it is to be observed, the vertebrate animals do not all make 
their appearance at once, but come in successively according to 
the same scale of organic perfection, the fih appearing first, 
then the reptiles, then the hir</s. and lastly the mammalia. Even 
among the mammalia a well defined order of progressive succes- 
sion has been observed, which finally culminates in the appear- 
ance of man, the last created and the most perfect of animals. 

And so Geologists go on ever searching out new phenomena, 
and grouping them together in two classes, until from particular 
facts they lead us to general truths ; and then starting with these 
general truths as the groundwork of their science, they proceed 
to sketch out the .Natural History of our Globe from the remotest 
ages of the past down to the present time They study the 
stratified deposits of each succeeding age, and they analyze the 
Fossil Remains imbedded therein, and then they make their in- 
ferences, and then compile their history. They describe the 
forms, and the character, and the habits, of the organic life that 
flourished of old in this world of ours, and they tell us where 
the deep sea rolled its waves in each succeeding age, and where 
the dry land appeared ; and they point out the Deltas of its 
ancient rivers, and measure the breadth of its Estuaries, and 
trace the course of its Glaciers, and mark the outlines of its 
Mountain chains. But with these and such like speculations we 
are not concerned. Many of them are open to controversy, and 
not a few are at this moment warmly disputed among Geologists 
themselves: besides, whether true o/ false, they do not in any- 
way affect the relations between Geology and .Revealed Reli- 
gion. We shall be quite content, ana it is all that our present 
scope demands, if we have made intelligible the general theory 
of Geological Chronology, and the kind of evidence on which it 

Before taking leave of the subject, however, we will venture 
to offer what seems to us a very interesting illustration of tke 
principles we have been explaining in this paper, one that will 
help to confirm the conclusions for which we have been contend- 

VOL. IV. 13 

18(5 Qeology and Revelation. 

ing, and that will also bring home to many minds the practical 
advantage to be derived from a thorough knowledge and just 
application of Geological science. Perhaps, too, it may help to 
revive the flagging attention of our readers; for the subject of 
our illustration is Coal and the way to find it. In this age of 
manufactories and steam engines, when the atmosphere of great 
towns is heavy with smoke, and the quiet solitude of the country 
is so rudely disturbed by the shrieking of the railway whistle and 
the snorting of the sooty locomotive, this black dirty mineral 
has acquired a value and an importance, which can succeed in 
rousing even the practical money-making man to pay some heed 
to the lessons of science. 

Coal might have been formed in any Geological Period; and 
in point of fact, beds of Coal have been discovered in many 
different Formations. But in England and in Western Europe 
generally, it has been found by long experience, that the Coal 
beds of the Carboniferous age are more abundant and of better 
quality than those of any other. Indeed the beds of Coal that 
occur in other Formations are so thin, and of such inferior 
quality, that they cannot be worked with profit. It is therefore 
of the highest importance in the search for coal, before going to 
the enormous expense of sinking deep shafts to discover whether 
or no the rocks in which the search is to be made, belong to the 
Carboniferous Period. In this matter the mere practical man 
is often seriously at fault. Coal-bearing strata generally consist 
pretty largely of dark-coloured clay, and black shales, and simi- 
lar deposit. 1 This is a fact that strikes the eye and with which 
the coal-miner is familiar. Hence when he meets with strata of 
this kind, he is apt at once to infer that Coal is near at hand. 
The Geologist, on the contrary, knows well that such strata are 
not peculiar to the Carboniferous rocks, but are often found in 
other Formations in which there is no Coal at all, or at least no 
Coal that will repay the expense of working ; and therefore he 
will pronounce it most rash to undertake heavy works on the 
strength of these appearances. He has learned, however, that 
there are certain species of animals and plants which are found 
in the Carboniferous rocks and in them alone; he will search for 
these in the strata which it is proposed to explore; and by the 
result of his investigations he will know for certain whether 
these strata belong to the Carboniferous Formation or not. 

Again it will often happen that, in the middle of a country 
well known to abound in Coal, the rocks which appear at the 
surface in a particular locality, are not onlv wholly devoid of 
Coal, but exhibit no resemblance either in mineral character or 
in Fossil Remains to the coal- bearing strata. A question here 
1 JkM, M**ual of Gsology, p. 423. 

Reasoning of Geologists. 187 

arises of the highest practical importance. May it be that the 
coal-bearing strata are spread out beneath this uppermost bed of 
rocks? and is it worth the expense to sink a shaft through the 
one in order to reach the other? The practical miner has no 
very clear or certain principles to help him in the solution of 
this problem : and thus it has often happened that thousands and 
thousands of pounds have been expended in sinking shafts to 
look for Coal, where, as it afterwards proved, there was not 
the slightest chance of finding it. 1 Now, though Geology cannot 
tell if we shall succeed in finding Coal beneath these rocks, it 
can tell if there is a good chance of succeeding. It can tell 
whether there is a reasonable hope by penetrating into the Crust 
of the Earth at this particular spot, of reaching the Carbonife- 
rous Formation; and if we can reach the Carboniferous Forma- 
tion in the m'dst of a Coal district, it is very likely we shall 
meet with beds of Coal. His first object will be to ascertain 
what is the Formation to which the superficial rocks belong. If 
it be a Formation earlier in date than the Carboniferous, the 
Silurian, for instance, or the Devonian, he knows that it would 
be simply waste of money to look for Coal beneath them ; be- 
cause the Carboniferous rocks cannot possibly be found under- 
ne ith the rocks of an earlier age. And so the Geologist can tell 
beforehand what the mere practical man would only find out 
when he had spent his money. If, on the other hand, the rocks 
which appear at the surface belong to a period later than the 
Carboniferous, the Geologist will not alwavs conclu'le that it is 
expedient to sink a sha't in search of Coal. For though the 
Carboniferous rocks may, in this case, be underneath, they may 
be so far down in the Crust of the Earth that we should have 
no chance of ever reaching them. Suppose, for example, that 
the strata which appear at the surface belong to the Cretaceous 
Formation. Referring to our Chronological table, we find that 
the Carboniferous age is separated from the Cretaceous by three 
intermediate Periods, the Permian, the Triassic, the Jurassic. 
Therefore, when we find the Cretaceous rocks at the surface in 
any locality, it is quite possible, though of course not certain, that 
before we could reach the Carboniferous Formation, we should 
have to bore through thousands of feet of Jurassic, Triassic, and 
Permian rocks. And even then we cannot be sure of meeting 
with the coal-bearing strata ; for perhaps they were never de- 
posited over this area of the earth's surface, or, if deposited, per- 
haps they were subsequently swept away by Denudation. Hence 
we should reasonably conclude, that the expense of the search 
would probably be so enormous, and the chance of success so 
slight , that it would be much wiser not to make the attempt. 
1 Jukes, Manual of Geology, p, 423. 

13 B 


THE appearance of the Papal Zouaves in modern European 
Society is like the flush of returning health on the face of one 
wasted by illness. It is a sign that the worst is passed and that 
there is hope for the future. The wounds that fester worst in 
the heart ( f Europe are infidelity, pusillanimity, and self-indul- 
gence, and it is precisely to these that the Zouaves oppose their 
spirit of faith, their energy, their self-sacrifice. The loss of faith, 
Which is the logical result of Protestantism, has led men to 
blaspheme whatever claims to be supernatural Hence the 
attacks on the Papacy, the struggle to get hold of the education 
of the young, the marvellous abu-es which have made the press 
a curse instead of a blessing to society. And this diabolical 
activicy has too often paralysed the energies even of the well- 
disposed. The children of this world were wiser than the 
children of light ; and the latter, who love to possess their souls 
in peace, shrank, too timidly, from confionting the unscrupulous 
audacity and wickedness of the enemies of society. And thus 
a few men without conscience and without principle the heads 
of secret societies have come to exercise a terrible sovereignty 
over the masses and even over those who rule the masses. 
Such men have found their most powerful auxiliary in that love 
of pleasure and self-indulgence which is so marked a feature 
of our age, which it is part of their own plan to foster, nd 
which has leit the manhood of Europe enervated in will and 
intolerant of all salutary control. 

Every man among the Papal Zouaves furnishes at once a pro- 
test against this state of things and a salutary lesson of virtue to 
fill. From what we have been able to collect concerning some 
few among them, the reader will be able to learn what manner 
of men they are who have renewed in the nineteenth century 
the Christian chivalry of the ages of faith. 

The virtues of the Irish and English Zouaves have been of 
late so fully brought before our readers that we need not des- 
cribe them here. We confine ourselves, therefore, to a few 
from among the Zouaves of France and Holland. 

Bernard de Quatrebarbes, as we learn from a notice of his life 
compiled 1 by one who was his class fellow and cousin, was born 
at Nantes, 14th February, 1840, and wns the e.dest son of the 
Marquis Louis de Quatrebarbes. He studied at the school of 
St. Francis Xavier at Vanhes, and afterwards at that of Ste. 
Genevieve. He had just completed his studies when, in i860, 
the defeat ol the Papal cause at Oasteliidaido brought sorrow 

1 See Etud*s,etc., December, 1867. 

The Papal Zouaves. 189 

to so many Christian hearts. After mature and careful deli- 
beration he presented himself to General Larnoriciere to serve in 
the Pontifical army as a volunteer. On his arrival in Rome he 
chose the Zouaves, among whom there were already many of his 
relatives and acquaintances, hut it was represented to him that 
he would be of more use in the artillery. He at once made the 
sacrifice of his own will, and entering the Foreign Battery under 
command of Captain Dandier, he served as a simple private for 
seven years, discharging in silence and humility the rude and 
mean offices of a soldier's life. If voluntary exile from his coun- 
try, if separation from a family by him most tenderly loved, if 
poor fare and a hard life deliberately chosen, instead of the com- 
forts and elegance of a lordly home, and all this from a motive 
of religion, are proofs of a noble nature and of ripe virtue, the 
seven years service of Bernard de Quatrebarbes is more glorious 
than many a brilliant victory won on the battle field, 

His disinterestedness was heroic: his superior officers, moved 
by his abilities and admirable conduct, had resolved to raise him 
to the rank of officer. Bernard, however, learned that this could 
not be done without prejudice to the claims of one of his co n- 
rades, an Italian and like himself a volunteer, who had no other 
means of support. Without saying a word to any one, he at once 
took all necessary steps to have the command conferred on his 
companion. This generous act obliged him to remain in the 
ranks for many lonsj months. Later on the Foreign Battery 
was incorporated with the native artillery, the volunteers 
who had composed it passing, if they so wished, into the ranks 
of the Zouaves. Bernard, in his devotion to the cause, still chose 
to remain at the post he had been assured was the one in which 
he could be most useful. Admired by all, he was at length made 
an officer, and became the idol of his men. 

When the agitations of last September commenced, Lieutenant 
de Quatrebarbes was about to retire for a few months to his 
home. But in view of the threatening danger he remained at 
his post He was sent to Monte-Rotondo with a detachment of 
artillery. A column acting under command of M. de Charette, 
had received orders to dislodge the Garibaldians from the posi- 
tions they were occupying on the frontiers. Nerola was the 
enemy's head-quarters, and against it the attack was to be 
directed. It was soon found that without cannon the place could 
not be taken, except at a tremendous sacrifice of life. M. de 
Quatrebarbes undertook to bring up his field pieces, and by 
wonderful efforts, succeeded in keeping his word. His guns 
soon opened a .breach in the tower, and it was this that forced 
the Ganbaldians to surrender their position. He himself thus 
writes ot this his first engagement : "At last I have heard the 

190 The Papal Zouaves. 

balls whistle; I am now content. I had long desired to be 
under (ire. I had no fear. No doubt, I thought that death 
might overtake me every minute; but this thought did not affect 
my will. I i:ave all my attention to what I had to do, so that I had 
no mind for anything else. Thank God for me. I was able to 
go to confession and communion on the eve of my departure". 

On Friday, 25th October, the battle of Monte Rotondo com- 
menced. Four thousand Gaiibaldians surrounded the place 
defended only by two companies of the legion and one of Swiss 
Carabineers. They soon succeeded in gaintnj possession of some 
houses situated near the Porte Roinana, and tuat from the'.r fine 
vantage ground told with fatal effect upon the besieged. Cap- 
tain Coata, who commanded, perceived that if possible they 
should be at once dislodged, and asked Lieutenant de Quatre- 
barbes if he could biino one of his guns to bear on the houses to 
demolish them. The lieutenant replied that his men would be 
terribly exposed, but that he would venture. " We sallied out", 
he himself writes, " with our piece ready charge 1 ; there was 
nothing to be done but to fire. At first I alone went outside 
the gate to find out the exact spot to place the battery, so as to 
protect my men. There was none of the enemy's infantry near 
enough to charge us with the bayonet, and even if they did, the 
legion who were on guard at the gate, were ready to sally out 
to our aid. But such was the natuie of the ground that our own 
infantry fire could be little use. The Garibaldians, seeing our 
manoeuvre, fled from the houses, and took up a position on 
the right, out of range from the town, and commenced a 
te rible fire upon us". 

A perfect shower of bullets fell upon the place where the brave 
soldier stood directing his piece. Hardly had he given the word 
to fire, when two bullets struck him. One broke his left arm in 
three places, the other shattered to pieces his right hand. 

" At that moment", he wrote afterwards to his mother with his 
mutilated hand, " I felt all of a sudden a violent pain in the left 
elbow, and a still more painful numbness between the arm and the 
hand. I confess that I lost myself for a moment. Self-love would 
have made me brave; it was not power. ul enough to rrake 
me overcome nature and check my groans. Not that I uttered 
any cry ; but still a few words such as, My God, what pain! 
may have looked like poor courage to the soldiers who were 
with me. Thus wounded, I retired within the gates, for I was 
fainting; then, supported by a legionary and an artillery soldier, 
I went slowly towards the hospital, where I was attended by the 
surgeon of the village and by the military surgeon". 

When Monte-Rotondo was delivered from the Garibaldians, 
Quatrebarbes, who was well treated by his captors, had the happi- 

The Papal Zouaves. 191 

ness of embracing once more not only his gallant comrades, but 
also his father, who had hurried to Rome at the first news of his 
son's wound. He was carried to Rome on one of the river steamers, 
but no care could check the inflammation produced by his wounds. 
Amputation was proposed, but the proposal gave him great 
affliction. It was only at his father's wish that he consented to 
the painful operations which took place on 16th November. The 
Marquis de Quatrebarbes knelt by the pillow of his son, and 
in that position he was told by a priest who had just come from 
the Vatican that the Holy Father, hearing that the operation was 
about to begin, had burst into tears, and had knelt down to 
pray for the devoted sufferer. 

The agony after the operation was extreme. Bernard, aware 
of his danger, asked for his mother. But his mother was herself 
seriously ill at home in France. His sister and aunt were soon 
by his side to comfort him. He welcomed her with indescribable 
joy. " Tell me about my mother", he cried over and over again, 
" tell me about my mother, my sisters, my brothers". It was a 
bitter affliction to him that if he survived he would never be 
able to do anything. He said to the Sister of Charity who 
attended him, " My sister, the good God has given me much 
suffering ; but I don't complain ; all He does is well done". 

The end was now drawing near. Bernard asked the chaplain 
to be allowed to receive the Holy Communion as Viaticum 
oftener than once a week. He turned to his sister saying, " Pray 
you for me, to-morrow I am to receive my God, and I am not 
able to pray to prepare myself". He then requested them to 
recite the Rosary out loud, he himself taking care to say it in a 
low tone. Towards evening he made them read for him the 
Imitation of Christ on entire submission to the will of God in 
trials and afflictions. 4 * That is beautiful", he said, ** read on". 
And soon after he again interrupted the reader, saying, " How 
God has visited me ! I who never desired anything but to enjoy 
a tranquil life with my family, and who yet have always been 
away trom home ! How God visits me ! I have no wish to 
murmur, for I know that He is infinitely good, that He loves us 
exceedingly, and that He does all for our greater good. Even 
the things we don't understand, and which may sometimes seem 
to us a little harsh, all are for our good. I know it, and therefore 
I wish what He wishes, and I offer myself entirely to Him. Oh ! 
if I could but refrain from feeling sorrow. . . . But it gives me con- 
solation to think that God once said, ' Let this chalice pass from 
me' ". 

The next morning he received the Viaticum with the most 
lively sentiments of faith. His strength was now fast ebbing; 
an interior tire consumed him and caused him exquisite pain. 

192 The Papal Zouaves. 

He was calm, and from time to time repeated the words, u My 
God !" as if offering to his Creator the sufferings that were 
purifying his soul. 

On 22nd November, in the evening, he received the Ex- 
treme Unction He could no longer speak; but his sister pro- 
nounced slowly for him the names -Jesus and Mary, and some 
acts of resignation to God's will, and the dying man, unable to 
express in words that he joined in the piayer, expressed it by 
gentle sighs. He was conscious to the last, and towards mid- 
night quietly breathed his last without agony and without fear. 
'1 hus lived and thus died one of the noblest of Frenchmen, 
who was proud to be one of the soldiers of the Pope. Let us 
now turn to heroes whose rank in life was more humble than his, 
but whose merits before God and man were equally splendid. 

Peter Jong, the Dutch Zouave, who is now the popular hero of 
his native country, was a young villager of twenty three years of 
age, the sole support of his widowed mother, whose farm he culti- 
vated with his own hands. One day towards the end ol 18(55 his 
mother was reading from the newspaper that some of the young 
men of Holland were leaving home to take service in the P< pe's 
army. " What brave fellows they are", cried she in admiration. 
" Mother ', suddenly replied her son, " if you give me leave, I 
will do the same: it would be such a happiness to die for the 
faith". The mother understood that God called for her child, 
and without hesitation replied : " 1 give you leave, you may go". 
In a few days l j eter went to say goodbye to the burgomaster of 
Lutjebroek, his native vilbge. " My friend", said the great 
man, "what are you doing? why should you go to a foreign 
country to fight for a foreign king?" " 1 beg your pardon, sir; 
I am not going to fight for a foreign king in a foreign country. 
The country where i am going is the country of all Catholics, of 
which the Pope is king; and it is lor this king that I am ready 
to sacrifice all, even my liie". When he was on the point of 
starting one of his companions who had come to say farewell said 
to him: " You will give it to them, won't you, if they attack the 
Pope". " r lhat 1 will: I 11 hit them so hard that you '11 hear 
talk of it here". He was as good as his word. 

The Dutch newspapers which iurnish these details give also 
gome of Jong's letters, full of vigour and simplicity. On Febru- 
ary 21, 186(5., he wrote, after coming home from St. Peter's, to 
his mother: " When the Protestants tell you that St. Peter's 
chair is worm-eaten, say that it's false ; tell them that Peter Jong, 
and his cousin, William, have seen it, and add that it is so solid 
that no devil will be able to overthrow it, nor Victor Emmanuel 
nor all his clique". Another letter is dated 10th January, 1867. 
" You tell me it is reported that I am a corporal. Better report 

The Papal Zouaves. 193 

that than that I was locked up. But neither would be true: I 
am not a corporal. You know that it was not for that I came 
here. I wish to be a Zouave, and I am content to do what my 
officer tells me to do so. Besides this 1 am ready, if necessary, 
to sacrifice my life for the Catholic faith. If God does not want 
this sacrifice, I will go home again to take up my work". And 
in another letter of 22nd September, three weeks before his 
death : " You would be delighted to see me go home, my dearest 
mother, in my Zouave uniform. But the time is not come. We 
are likely to have something to do here soon. . . . On 
holidays we carry three standards: the first is red, and signifies 
that blood will flow when they attack us; the second is yellow 
and white, blessed by the Holy Father, and it signifies that 
there is joy in the army, and that all are full of courage; the 
black one indicates that we will never give up fighting as long 
as a single Zouave remains alive". 

It need not be repeated here how at Monte Libretti, Peter 
Jong, after having killed in unequal fight fourteen of the Gari- 
ba'dians, knelt down that he might meet his death like a 
Christian. 1 His mother on hearing of his death cried out: 
<k Then I shall never see my Peter again in this world ; but I 
shall find him in heaven. And now I have not the consolation 
of having a son in the Pope's army". Some one here interrupted 
her, asking: " What! if you had another son would you really 
let him go?" " If I had many sons 1 would let every one of 
them go". In a few days in the subscription list for the Papal 
army in the Tyd newspaper, there was this: ' Mrs. Jong, for the 
wounded at Monte Libretti, where my beloved Peter gave his life 
for the cause of God, of the Church, and of the Pope, twelve 
forins". Some of the newspapers related that on hearing of her 
son's death she wept: " That is not true", she observed, "they 
are calumniating me''. 

Another mother had given permission to her son also to join 
the Pope's army. On the eve of their departure it was late when 
they retired to rest. When the mother thought her son was 
asleep, she stole into his room and knelt down at the foot of his 
bed. The young man was sleeping ; but waking suddenly he 
perceived his mother, and implored of her to take her rest, that 
her fretting would make her ill. k ' And what would you do, 
my son, if your going away would make me ill and cause my 
death i ) " The young man hesitated for a moment, and then said: 
" 1 would go". The heroic mother stood up proud and happy 
and embraced her son: " Go, my child, you are worthy to shed 
your blood for the cause of God". 

tJ&S?J v hiS c mmdcs W1 'oto home to the parish priest who had loved them 
fou need not pray for Jong; he lived Jike a saint, he died like a hero". 

194 The Papal Zouaves. 

On the same day and in the same engagement in which Jong 
lost his life, John Stephen Crone of Groningue was also slain. 
From his childhood this angelical young man burned with the 
desire of shedding his blood for the faith. When he heard of the 
troubles in Rome, he rejoiced that at length the long-wished for 
opportunity had arrived. " If you were to offer me the full of 
that table of gold", said he to one of his brothers who was a gold- 
smith, " I would not take it to give up my intention''. He wrote 
from Rome to his mother: " What happiness for the man who 
will shed his blood even to the last drop ; the martyrs of all ages 
will come to meet him to bring him to heaven". 

Louis Mogel, belonging to a very respectable family at Lim- 
bourg, wrote after the affair at Bagnorea. He could not refrain 
from tears at the sight of the profanations perpetrated by the 
Garibaldians in the church and convent of that place. He wished 
to atone with his life for these horrible sacrileges, and repair 
thereby the insults offered to the honour of God. " Farewell", 
he wrote to his parents, *" farewell ! if you hear of my death, do 
not weep ; but rather intone the A lleluia". 

Peter Willems of Telbourg, who was present at Bagnorea, 
wrote home between one battle and another: " You cannot 
believe what a glorious campaign is this of ours, to fight the 
enemies of the Church ! While charging the Garibaldians at the 
point of the bayonet, over heaps o! their slain, I thought I saw 
the heavens open. Farewell, my beloved parents ; farewell, my 
brothers and sisters; a thousand times farewell! I tear myself 
away from all that is dear to me. 1 hope to hear to-morrow again 
the word of command, Charge for Pius the Ninth! Fire! I will 
write after each engagement, if they don't kill me ; if I fall, some 
one else will give you the news". 

After the battle he thus wrote of the Ganbaldian prisoners: 
" Most of the liberators of Italy have never spent their time so 
well as since they were taken prisoners. Our beloved Pope- 
King looks on these unfortunate fellows as poor weak men who 
have allowed themselves to be corrupted, but whose heart is still 
capable of good. Let us hope that they may be converted here. 
Although the Netherlands are far away, you can help this good 
work by praying for these poor fellows. Beg of the Sacred 
Heart of Jesus to bestow upon them the treasures of His graces. 
Their conversion will be truly a consolation for that Divine 
Heart, especially now when so many souls are being lost". 

And again : " What battles are before us ! Happily, we have no 
need to ask like Pilate, What is truth? We believe that Our 
Saviour is represented by His Vicar Pius the Ninth. If, therefore, 
it be required, we will give the last drop of our blood for the peace 
of the Church .... We know that God has no need of us to give 

Authenticity of tJie Text of the three Fleavenly Witness. 195 

peace to His Church ; but in what school does He form His elect, 
except in that of sacrifice ? H elp us a little ; the evil is great, and 
demands powerful remedies. Such is the unity of the Church, that 
it is easy to know in the present circumstances who is Catholic and 
who is not. The Head is suffering; all good Catholics ought to 
suffer with him. This is the true sign of love". 

Another who escaped unhurt appears to make an apology for his 
safety: "1 have been present at all the engagements, except at 
Bagnorea. I could not be everywhere, but I took a share of all. 
I have been seven times under fire. To day I mount guard at St. 
Peter's always for the Holy Father 1 '. 


(Concluded from our 

IF in the fifth century, the text of St. John was in use through- 
out the entire African Church, it is -not surprising that Vigilius 
Tapsensis, and, soon after, Fulgentius, and the author of the 
work against Pintas, fearlessly adduced it as of unquestionable 
authority in the disputes with the Arians. < Unitum nomen 
divinitatis clause est declaratum, dicente Joanne evangelista in 
epistola sua : Tres sunt qui testimonium dant in coelo, Pater, 
et Verbum, et Spiritus, et in Christo Jesu unum sunt. . . . Vides 
quia in deitate et in substantia plenitudmis per omnia una sunt, 
et in nominibus personarum tres sunt". 1 In the same way St. 
Fulgentius appeals to the text in the book of the replies to the 
objections of the Arians (obj. 10th), anl in that De Trinitate 
(c 4) also, the author of the book against Pintas n. 8. 2. 2 But in 
the first place, Fulgentius joins to his quotation the other ono 
already used by St. Cyprian in the third century. " In Patre 
ergo et Filio et Spiritu Sancto unitatem substantiae accipimus, 
personas coufundere non audemus. Beatus enim Joannes Apos- 
tolus testatur, dicens: Tres sunt qui testimonium perhibent in 
coelo, Pater, Verbum et Spiritus; et tres unum sunt. Qtiod 
etiam beatissimus martyr Cyprianns in epistola de unitate Eccle- 
siae confitetur . . . Atque Tiaec confestim testimonia de Scripiuris 
inseruit (Cypricanus): Dicit Dominus : E^o et Pater vnum sumus 
Et iterum: De Patre et Filio et Spiritu Sancto scripturn est: 
Et tres unum sunt". Therefore, neither Fulgentius nor the 

1 Vigil, Tapsens, De Trinitate, lib. 1. Biblioth. Max. PP. torn. viii. page 775 ; 
lib. x. page 793. 
Opp. S. Eulgentii, ed. Paris, 1864, pag. 68, 331, 540, 

196 On the Authenticity of the Text 

other African bishops exiled in Sardinia had any doubt about 
the use of the verse in the churches of Africa in the third cen- 
tury, or about its being quoted by St. Cyprian. 

However, critics nave d^ne what they could to create doubts 
about the fact of its having been cited by St. Cyprian; and this 
in order to strengthen the opinion advanced by Scholz and others, 
that Vilnius Tapsensis the first to appeal to this passage, 
and that it should be rejected not only from the body of the 
text, but even from the margin. They urge, that in the place 
where, according to Fulgentius, 1 St. Cyprian appeals to the three 
heavenly witnesses, the appeal is not made to the seventh verse, 
but to the three witnesses, the spirit, water, and blood, of the 
eighth verse, which three things, according to the mystic inter- 
pretation by St. Augustine, 2 were supposed to signify the three 
Divine Persons. But we reply, 1 this interpretation was quite 
unheard of before St. Augustine's time; 3 '2 St. Augustine had 
recourse to this mystic signification solely to support his too wide 
assertion, that in Scripture the word unum was not applied to 
more things than one, unless they were consubstantial. Nor did 
he advance this mystic intei pretation as certain, or necessary, but 
merely by way oi conjecture to meet objections brought against 
hermeneutical canon Hence he would never have adduced his 
the eighth verse as a clear proof of unity and trinity. 4 And this 
interpretation, unknown before Augustine's time, was not adopted 
after his day by any save a few 5 influenced uy his authority, and 

1 De Unitate Ecchsiae, ed. Bal p. 196. 

* Confr. Alaximin. Arian, let. 1. cap xxii. n. 3. 

3 F. Mathaei asserts in his edition of the New Testament, that Athanasius, torn. 
2, pas. ISO, explains v. 8 of the Divine Persons. But this is false. We have con- 
sulted three different editions of Athanasius, and we have found nothing of the 
kind at the place quoted, or elsewhere. In the dispute against Arius, attributed 
to Athanasius. torn. 2, p 22y, n. 44. the words hi tres unum sunt, are certainly 
taken from the seventh, not from the eighth verse. 

4 St. Augustine's words are: Ne Jorte nic>is spiritum et aquam et sanguinem 
dlversa* tsse substantias et tame.n dictum esse, TKKS UNUM SUNT; propter hoc 
admonni ne fa/lans. Haec enim sacrumnritv f,unt, in qnibus non quid sint sed quid 

ostendant, .sem/>er atlenditur Tiia Hague novinus de corpore Domini 

exisse, cum pendrret in tic/no.. si vero ea quae significata sunt vetvnus 

inquirere,non absurde occurrit ipsa Trinitas, qui nttnc solus, vtrus, sumtitu* est Deus 

Pater et Fiiius et Spintus Sonr.tus ut nomine spintus signiftcationem 

accipitimus Den in Patrem nomine autem sanyuinis Filiutn et nomine 

aquae <Spiritum Sanctum Si quo autem alio modo tanti sacrament! 

ista prot'unditas, quae in epistola Joannis legitur, exponi et intelligi potest 
secundum catholicam fidem nulla ratione respuendum esse, etc. 

6 Besides Facundus Herminianensis this Eucherius of Lyons mentions this 
mystic interpretation De quaext'undbus N. Test., BihL Max. PP., torn, vi., p. 853. 

Primum nrones Christi auctoiitntem divinam in Codicibus emendatis iugi exer- 

citatione meditr.ntur ne vitia librarioruin inipolitis mentibus inolescant. Quam- 

vis omnis Scriptura divina supernd luce resplendeat in Psalterio tainen et Pro- 

phetis et. epistolis Apostolorum studium maximum laboris impendi quos ego 

cunctos nooem Codices au<-toritatis dtvinae, ut senex potui, sub colhitione priscorum 
Codicum, atmcis ante me leyentil/us sedula lectione transivi (OASSlODOR., Pratf* 

of the three Heavenly Witnesses. 197 

in itself is too far fetched and improbable. 1 When, therefore 
St. Cyprian and other fathers, before Augustine and after him, 
those who were not influenced by Augustine, e.g. Pseudo 
Athanasius in Dispnt. contra Arian., n. 44, employ as a proof of 
the Trinity the words De Paire et Fillo et Spiritu Sancto Scrip- 
turn est, tres unum sunt, they must be understood as alluding to 
the seventh and not to the eighth verso of St. John. 

Facundus Herminianensis, who addressed to the Emperor 
Justinian, at Constantinople, his books on the three chap- 
ters, refers 2 St. Cyprian's citations to the eighth verse. But, first 
of all, it seems that Facundus Confounded the Greek codices, in 
which the seventh verse is wanting, with the Latin codices, in 
which, as we have shown, it was certainly found in the time of 
Facundus in the African churches. This confusion is made 
apparent by the way in which the quotation is made; for, on 
the one hand, the writer implies that he was entirely unac- 
quainted with the seventh verse, whilst, on the other hand, he 
retains from the Latin codices the words in terra: Tres sunt qui 
testimonium dant in terra; now the phrase in terra implies the cor- 
responding testimony of the witnesses in coelo. All Greek codices 
which omit verse 7, omit from verse 8 the words in terra. Now, 
Facundus, writing among the Greeks to a Greek emperor, 
neglected the seventh v< rse on account of the common Greek 
reading, and then, as an African, being well versed in the argu- 
ment against the Arians drawn by the African bishops from the 
I. John, in order not to deprive his cause of the argument from 
the tres unum sunt, preferred to copy St. Augustine's mystic 
interpretation of the eighth verse. When once he adopted this 
method, it was but natural for him to refer St. Cyprian's trans- 
lation to the same eighth verse. But the words themselves, and 
the history of the mystical interpretation, do not lend themselves 

ad Instil, div. l'M\ And elsewhere: Qtioniam Pater Aiigii$tinus (Doct. Christ. ,- 
lib. ii, cap xv) common*t ita dictns : Latini Codices idest veteris novique 'lestas 

minti, si necest-e fuerit, Graecuruni auctonluttt, cirriyendi sunt ideoque, nobi- 

(monachis Vivuriensibus) et Graeciun Pnnd'Cten reliqui co/npre/teiisuin in libris sep 
tuaginta quinque, etc.. (ib., cap. xiv). 

" Non putasse se quemquam theologiae tironem ignorare, Patres latinos excepto 
Hieronyrno graece neseientes uti non potuisse Codicibus graecis (1 c., sect. iii). 

Michaelis, who was one of the fhst to assail this verse 7, being asked by one of 
thoee who maintained it to be genuine, how he knew that the Latin Fathers who 
quoted the verse were possessed of no Greek MSS , gravely replied : " Non putasse 
se quemquam theologiae tiron -m io-norare, Patres Latinos, excepto Hieronymo, 
Graece ncccientes uti non potuisse Codicibus Graecis" (I. c., sect. iii). Did not the 
learned scholar know that many Latin Fathers who quote the verse, were well 
acquainted with Greek, as, for example Tertullian, Cyprian, Vigilius, Fulgentius, 
Cassiodorus? And whoever says that other Fathers, as Hilarius, Ambrose, etc., 
did not know Greek, shows that he has never compared their writings with those 
of the Gieek Fathers, Orison, Ba.-il, etc. 

1 De Kubeis Dissert, dt t rib us in cuelo tentibus. cap. vii. 

2 Lib. i., p. 7. 

198 On the Authenticity of the Text 

to that view; and besides, the authority of St. Fulgentius is 
greater than that of Facundus. 

It is certain, therefore, that the seventh verse was commonly 
read in the African Church in the third century, as well as in 
the fifth and following centuries. This being so, it was un- 
doubtedly read in Africa even in Tertullian's time, and an un- 
prejudiced reader of the twenty-fifth chapter of the book con'ra 
Praxeam must admit that it is quoted there. In the preceding 
chapter Tertullian has proved the consubstantiality of the Father 
and the Son, alleging, among other texts, the words of Christ 
(John,) x. 1): Ego et Pater unum sumus. Caeci qui non i-ideaut, 
primo Ego et Pater duorum esse signification em, dehinc in no- 
vissimo, sumus, non ex unius esse persona quod pluraliter dictum 
est, turn quod; Unum sumus, non uims sumus (cap. 2). He 
then proceeds (cap. 25) to prove the Trinity, that is to say, to 
show that, as the Father and Son have one and the same sub- 
stance, so the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost have but one sub- 
stance. He proves it thus: Ita connexus Patris in Filio, et 
filio in Paraclito tres efficif cohersntes, alter um ex altero, qui 
ties unum sunt non unus, quomodo dictum est E^'O et Pater 
unum sumus, ad snbstantiae uniiatem, non ad numeri singulari- 
tatem (ib , cap. 25). The phrase, Ego et Pater unum sumus, 
which in the previous chapter is used to prove the consubstanti- 
ality of two persons, is here quoted merely to illustrate the pa- 
rallel meaning of the other phrase, Tres unum tutit, which is 
quoted to prove the consubstantiality of the three persons. Now 
this proof would have no value if the phrase itself were not part 
of Scripture ; and if so, and if addressed as a proof of the Tri- 
nity, they cannot be other than the words of the seventh verse. 
The two quotations, that of the master and that of the disciple, 
are therefore parallel. St. Cyprian says: De Patre et Filio et 
fipiritu Suncto scriptnm est: et tres unum gunt. Tertullian says: 
Connexus Patris in Filio, et Filii in Paraclito, qui tres unum 

And this places us in a position to conclude that the seventh 
verse was read in the ancient Latin veision which was in use in 
the first a^es, prirnis fidei temp ribus (August, in De Doctr. 
Christiana), and which in the early part of the third century 
was already established in Africa: in, usum exierat. 1 

Mill asserts the contrary ; but his conjecture, that Tertullian 
and Cyprian quoted from the Greek codices, and not from the 
Latin version, rest? on no grounds of probability. 

The statement that the seventh verse existed in the ancient 
veision is confirmed by the Speculum of St. Augustine, edited 

1 Tertull. Me Monogam, cap. xL; Contr. Marc., lib. ii. cap. ix. ; Contr, Prax., 
cap. v. 

of the three Heavenly Witnesses. 199 

by Cardinal Mali; 1 and by the Pseudo-Athanasian Enarratio in 
Symbolum, edited by G. Bianchini (pag. 40). Bianchini is of 
opinion thnt this Enarratio was written in Latin in Africa 
before the Pelagian heresy. In his preface (1. c.) Cardinal Mail 
relates the reasons which led Card. Besuzio and himself to attri- 
bute to St. Augustine the Speculum of the Basilica Sessoriana 
rather than the one edited by the Maurini. It is certain, however, 
that both one and the other make use of the ancient, Latin version 
as it stood prior to the translation of the Old Testament and the 
labours undertaken on the New by St. Jerome. Now the text of 
the three heavenly witnesses is expressly quoted twice in the 
Speculum and once in the Enarratio. Towards the end of the 
second chapter of the Speculum where it treats of the distinction 
between the three divine persons: Item illic : Quot>iam trtssunt 
qui textirnonium dicunt. in terra, spiritus, aqua et sanguis, et hi 
ires unum sunt in Chrixto Jesu; et tres sunt qui testimonium 
dicunt in coelo, Pater, Verbum, et Spiritus, et hi tres unurn sunt. 
And again at the end of the third chapter, the same is repeated, 
with the omission of the earthly testimony. The words of the 
Enarratio Symboli are very much to the point, (pag. 40) Res- 
pondeat nobis pro cunctis Joannes, yui in picture Domini nostri 
familiariter recubans totiut doctrinae potnit arcana cognosces, 
etc. . . . Tres sunt qui testimonium perhibent in coelo Pater, 
Verbum, et Spiritus, et hi tres unum sunt. Nonne post haec 
nobis hujnsmodi fidrm et morsest, perdere, et salus est custodtre. 

As far as St. Augustine is concerned, some may doubt whether 
he was the author of the Speculum, but no one can doubt 
that the verse was well known to him. Whoever would assert 
that in 430 (when St. Augustine died) a text ot such importance 
was unknown in Africa, although in 484, when the profession 
of faith above quoted was compiled, it was commonly received 
in the African churches, must be unacquainted with ;he princi- 
ples of church government and ignorant of the reverent solici- 
tude with which, at all times, the deposit of the Sacred Scrip- 
tures was guarded. How could so serious a change have been 
accomplished, and that insensibly, within the space of fifty years, 
in that very Africa where, for a new translation of a text much 
less important, the people rose against the bishop and forced 
him to return to the ancient version to which they were accus- 
tomed ? " Volens", says St. Augustine (ep. 71, n. 5), '* post 
magnum periculum, non remanere sine plebe ?" Seeing, however, 
that in his day the verse was already wanting in many Greek 
codices, and even in some places in Latin ones, by way of a 
more correct reading, the holy doctor was led to ignore it in his 
polemical writings, especially against Maximinus, according to 
1 Nova Bibliot. Patrum, torn. i. part ii. pag. 6-10. 

200 On the Authenticity of the Text 

his own general principle, that controverted arguments non tanta 
Jirmitate proferuntur adversus contradictor es. Openly, at least, 
he never cites the verse in the works which we have of him; 
but the manifest allusions made to it may be seen in De Rubeis 
(Dissert. Crit , cap vi.), Bengel (Apparat. Crit., in h. 1. n. 20), 
and Cardinal Ma (Pref. ad Speculum A itg. pag. viii ). 

From the reading in use in the African churches we are at 
liberty to conclude to that of the other western churches, even if 
we had no direct testimony to appeal to. But such testimony is 
not wanting. Spain furnishes as her evidence the Collectio testi- 
moniorum Scriplurae et Patrum, which Zaccarias believes to be 
older than St. Isidore, to whom it is ascribed by Maffei and 
Arevalo, 1 the famous Codex Toletanus of the Bible, which is not 
later than the eighth century; 2 Etherius and Beatus Contra Eli- 
pandum; and before those, Idacius, or whoever is the ; uthor of 
the Diaputatio contra Varimadum? In these documents the 
seventh verse and the eighth are quoted expressly as the genuine 
text of St. John's Epistle. 4 

In France, in the fourth century, Phebadius (otherwise 
Sebadius) of Agren cited the verse almost in the same way as 
Tertullian and Cyprian (lib. cont. Arianos in fine Bibl. Max. 
PP. torn. 4, p. 305), before the half of the fifth century. St. 
Eucherius of Lyons transcribed both verses clearly in the 
Formularum Spiritualium (cap. xi.), where he treats of the 
numbers quos mysrica extmplorum ratio inter sacros celebriores 
facit (ib. n. 3, Bibl. Max., torn. vi. p. 838): Ad Trinitatem 
(referuntur) in Joannis epistola : tres sunt qui testimonium dant 
in coelo Pater, Verbum, et Spiritus Sanctus; et tres sunt qui tes- 
timoniitm dant in terra gpiritus, aqua, et sanauis. 

In Italy, towards the middle of the sixth century, Cassiodorus 
not only collected MSS. of the Scripture, both Latin and Greek, 
or the Greek Pandect, as he styles them, but used every diligence 
to secure accurate readings, collating them carefully one with the 
other. He quotes in hi< Complexiones both seventh and eighth 
verses (Ed. Maffei, p. 145). Upon which passage Maffei thus 
writes: " Ducimus modo ex auctore nostro, Romanes quoque 
melioris notae ac vetustiores libros ita loquutos fuisse; cum enim 
tanto studio monachis suis in inst. div. lect. praeceperit, ut prae- 
stantlssimis et Graeci etiam textu* colla'ione repurgatis codicibus 
uterentur, ufque in ambiguis locis duorum vel trium prixcorum 
emendatorumque codicum auctoritas inquireretur, ipsum in prirnis 

1 Opp. S. Isidore, ed. Arevalo, torn. 2, p. 27 seqq ; Isidorian, cap. 83. 
1 P. Vercellone, Apparat Bibl., torn. 1. Sect. Variant. Vulgat., p. 84. 

3 Ruinart. Commenhir. in Histor. Persec. Vnnd., cap. iv. n. 7, p 442. 

4 Opv. S. TsfWori, torn. 7, p:-p;. 201 ; Lect'wnes var. ex (^od. Tol. in vindiciis 
Vulg. Blanching pag.; cciii. Cont. Elipand., tih. 1, n. 2H, Ga/land, torn. 13, p. 
29o ; Contra Varimad. 13ibliothec. Max. Patrtim, torn, v, pag. 72y, 

of the three Heavenly Witnesses. 201 

idem praettitisse quis ambigat 9 n We may also cite the Codex 
delta Cava, referred by Cardinal Mali to the seventh or eighth 
century, and Ambrosias Ansbertus, towards the half of the 
eighth century (In Apoc., lib. 1, Bibl. Max., torn. 13, p. 415), 
both of which authorities have the seventh verse. 

We have thus traced by aid of positive documents the history 
of this verse as a <renuine part of Scripture from the earliest ages 
of the western church, and established the fact of its presence 
in the ancient Latin version as it stood both before and after St. 
Jerome, and, much more, before and after the recension of 
Alcuin. 1 

If we examine the context of St. John's letter, it will be seen 
at once that if the seventh verse be omitted, the context becomes 
disordered and broken ; but if it be inserted, the context becomes 
so clear and coherent, as to make us feel glad when we find it in 
trustworthy documents. This made even the Protestant Bengel 
exclaim : " Adamantina versiculorum cohaerentiacmnem Codicum 

penuriam compe> sat Certius agnosci hoc Dictum 

(v. 7) potest, quam pars fold ex lihro aliquo amissa, passim qitae- 
sita, alicubi reperta et in tola striatura parti non amissae con' 
gruens" (1. c. n. 28). And in truth, if you omit the seventh 
verse, how are you to explain the use of the masculine gender 

in v. 8: quoniam tres sunt et hi tres unum sunt? 

(Greg. Naz. orat. 31 al 37, n. 19). Now the presence of the 
seventh verse removes all the difficulty. Again, the ninth verse 

1 Since God was pleased to place in the Latin Church the visible head of the 
whole Church, he wished in and by this Church to preserve the integrity of the 
faith, as also of the written word. This clearly results from the history of the 
Deutero-canonical books, the authenticity of which, amid all the hesitation of the 
Orientals, was rescued from doubt, and clearly established by the constant tradi- 
tion, usage, vigilance, and definitions of the Latin Church. Hence, bv a wonder- 
ful disposition of the lloiy Spirit, the use in the Latin Church of the Vulgate was 
kept in view by the Fathers at Trent as their guide in making the two decrees 
concerning the canonical books, and the authenticity of the Vulgate. On the con- 
trary, in the East where there was much oscillation about the Deutero-canonical 
books, there was also much obscurity about the text from St. John. The positive 
documents in favour ot v. 7 may be reduced to the following. In the dispute 
against Arius, attributed to Athanasius (Opp. Athanas., t. 2, p. 229, n. 44, the 
wordi, hi tres unum sunt are quoted to prove the unity of nature in the Three 
Persons. The entire verse is quoted, and exists in Latin and Greek in the Acts of 
the fourth Council of Lateran, at which some Greek bishops were present (Hard., 
t vil, p. 18); it is quoted by the Greek Emmanuel Ca'ceas, who in the fourteenth 
century, wrote for Greeks (Combefis., A uctuar. ii , p. ii., p 219)^ also by Joseph 
Briennius, a Greek monk, in the early part of the fifteenth century (Griesb., Diss. 
cit., pag. 11), At present it is found in the reading used in churches by the Greeks 
and Russians, and in the new Greek version (Bengel, 1. c., n. 22) That it 
existed in ancient codices, is proved directly from the Prologus to the Catholic 
epistle attributed to St. Jerome, and indirectly from Cassiodorus. Among the 
Greek MSS' still existing, there are three which have the v. 7: that of Dublin (of 
Montfort); the Ottobonian (in the Vatican), and that of Naples of the eleventh 
century. The ed. Cotnplutensis, the third of Erasmus, and all other editions down 
to the Rationalistic ones of the Protestants, admit the v. 7. 

TOI, IT. 14 

202 On the Authenticity of ihe Text 

speak? of the testimonium Dei quoniam tettificatu* est de Filio 
suo; and these words make the seventh verse absolutely neces- 
sary. Otherwise there is nothing to which they are to be 

We shall not stay here to ask if all these proofs would be 
sufficient in case of a book which had been left to the care of 
private individuals. But it the hook were the code of a nation's 
laws, and confided to the care of public authoiity, beyond all 
doubt, a public use which should go b;tck to tiie earliest times 
of the state, would be argument enough to prove the authen- 
ticity of the laws themselves; and if a dispute arose, the compe- 
tent tribunal would certainly declare them authentic. Now, in 
our case, there is question of the Holy Scripture in one of its 
most important passages. That Scripture is the code of the 
faith, entrusted not to private judgment, but to the authentic 
guardianship of the Church, assisted by the Holy Spiiit. Hence, 
the public and constant use of a do_nnati^ text by the Church is 
sufficient proof that such text was legitimately received as part 
of the Scripture; for, it would never have been so received iiad 
it not been written by the Apostle John. The bare fact of its 
use by the Church is enough to prove it to be genuine, even if 
we leave out of sight the decrees of the Council of Trent. The 
Church, too, had scientific reasons enough to show the authen- 
ticity of the text. The way in which it has come down to 
us was, therefore, the following: Tne verse passed certainly 
from the Greek originals into tne version wnich was established 
in the early ages ot faith and received by the Latin Church, 
and! through this versiou it was ever kept in public use. Nor 
for this was it necessary that its use should have been equally 
universal in all times and in all places; for after the omission had 
become general (perhaps about the fourth century) in most 
Greek codices, it was to be expected that some Latin ones also 
should omit it, as we find it omitted, for example, in some 
which were written at a time when, beyond all doubt, the seventh 
verse was used in the Latin Church. When this difference of 
reading had been introduced by the Orientals, and when, in con- 
sequence, a certain hesitation about the verse arose in the west, 
as had happened before with regard to entire Deutero-canonicai 
books, it is not surprising that seme. Latin fathers chose, at 
least in controversy, to abstain from quoting the verse. 

Protestants do not possess the true Church of Christ; but, in 
addition to this, their own principles render it impossible for 
them to have even a visible religious society properly so called 
and kept together by authority. The Protestant is an isolated 
individual, whose sole guide is his own private judgment. Hence 
it comes that the Bible is not a record, the authentic meaning of 

of the three Heavenly Witnesses. 203 

which is to be interpreted by any public authority, but a book 
handed over to each man, to be examined and discussed by him 
as he may think fit. Hence, as they do not admit any -authentic 
interpretation of the true meaning of the Scripture, so likewise, 
according to their theory, they must refuse any authentic defini- 
tion of the genuineness of an entire book or of single texts. 
Such authenticity must be established by each individual for 
himself by an historical and critical investigation. The result of 
thus making human learning the basis upon which faith and 
religion rest, is, that the authority of the Holy Scripture can 
never be clearly established, at least in the case of the great bulk 
of 'mankind ; and that even the learn 3d, who are constituted judges 
in religious matters, may reject, consistently enough with the Pro- 
testant principle, some of the sacred books as being spurious, and 
may reject a greater or less number of them, or even them all, 
according to their different fancies, or the imperfect state of 
science, or, to speak more truly, according to what happens to 
the interests of the of religion. 

We do not, therefore, here maintain that in case of the verse 
in question there exists such a store of historical and critical 
arguments, as of themselves, and according to the Protestant 
principle of dealing with the Bible as with a profane and private 
book, would prove beyond all doubt the authenticity of St. 
John's text. But we do maintain that whereas according to our 
Catholic principles we are able to prove it to be authentic, the 
Protestant, in accordance with his own principles, and with all 
his critical helps, can never prove it to have been interpolated. 
And the reasons are these. 

We admit that this verse was wanting in many of the Greek 
co lices in the fourth century, and, f erhaps, in some places, even 
in the third, and this omission may have been caused either by 
the hurry of copying, in consequence of the same words occur- 
ing in both verses, a mistake which has frequently occurred in 
like circumstances elsewhere; or it may have been designedly 
done in compliance with the disciplina arcani, as Bengel believes 
(1. c. n. 25); or the omission may have been spread by Kusebius, 
to whom Constantine had confided the task of preparing many 
codices for the Church of Constantinople, 1 as M. Lehir has lutely 
suggested; 2 or the omission may have been brought about in 
some manner unknown to us. Now, when we have admitted all 
this, and that the verse is wanting in some Latin codices, which 
copy the Greek ones, our adversaries have no other critical 
argument to bring into the field against us. But this omission 
does not prove that the dogmatic text, which, as we have shown ? 

1 Euseb., Vita Constant , lib. iv. cap. 3G. 
Introduction, rol. f , p. 588. 

14 B 

204 On the Authenticity of the Text 

was read in the Latin Church from th-j earliest antiquity, did not 
form part of the original text of St. John's Epistle. Therefore, 
our adversaries have no critical proofs whereby to establish that 
verse to be an interpolation. 

The arguments usually alleged against UP, and not without 

geat show of learning, are derived from the manuscripts of the 
oly Scripture, from the works of the Fathers, and from the 
ancient versions. 

The Greek MSS. belonging to the fifth or fourth century are 
very rare, and are the Vatican B, the Alexandrine A, and the 
Sinaitic, which closely resembles the Vatican; one MS. in the 
Angelica Library, formerly belonging to Cardinal Pai-sionei, is 
ascribed to the ninth or tenth century; all the others which are 
quoted by Griesbach, Scholz, etc., are of a la er period, namely, 
from the tenth to the fifteenth century. With the exception, 
therefore, of three Greek MSS. which contain the Catholic 
epistles, we possess none older than that of Charlemagne's time, 
and all these were written when the text I. John, v. 7, was 
already common in the Latin Church. Tnese MSS. are certainly 
derived from others of an earlier date; and the very abundance 
of MSS. without the verse after the tenth century, is proof 
enough that the verse was omitted before that date. Now let us 
contrast this double seiies of documents. On the one hand, we 
find the verse from the ninth century to the fifteenth, in public 
and universal use in the Latin Church ; on the other, we have 
during the same period of time, Greek MSS. issuing generally 
from private sources, in which it is ordinarily wanting. Now we 
ask: what skill can deduce from this inspection of documents an 
argument to prove that the true reading is to be found in these 
private Greek copies, and that a new text has been introduced 
into the public use of the entire western Church without contra- 
diction, in a matter of such importance, and in such a way as that 
even the Greek schismatics themselves should accept the inter- 
polation in spite of the vaunted authority of the Greek MSS.? 

No doubt, the scarcity of ancient MSS might be compensated 
by the writings of the Fathers, provided the context showed 
beyond a doubt that they did not use the verse in question. But 
for this purpose it is not enough, 1 that the Fathers neglect to 
employ this verse when they are proving from Scripture the 
(divinity of the Word and the consubstantiality of the Father 
with the Son, or when they set themselves to prove the divinity 
of the Holy Spirit. This is plain from what we have said above 
about the method employed by these Fathers in quoting this 
passage. Tertullian against Praxeas, the African bishops in the 
confession of faith addressed to Hunnericus, St. Fulgentius in the 
book to Thrasatnundus, and in that against Fastidiosug 

of the three Heavenly Witnesses. 205 

(compared with the book on the Trinity addressed to Felix the 
Notary), the same Fuljentius, or whoever else is the author of 
the book against Pintas the Arian, have collected many texts 
wherowith to prove those very points of doctrine, and yet they 
omit from among them this seventh verse; it is only when they 
treat of the entire Trinity that they cite the text from I. John, 
v. 7. 2 It dot's not follow that the seventh verse was wanting 
because some Fathers write the eighth verse immediately after the 
sixth. Fur this occurs in Idatius (or other who wrote) against 
Varimadus, in Cassiodorus, in the Speculum of St. Augustine, in 
the Libellus Testiiuoniorum (among St. Isidore's works), in Ethe- 
rius and Beatus, in the Codex Toletanus, in that of La Cava, and 
in several others; all of which place the eighth verse after the 
sixth and then insert the seventh. Finally, 3 it is not enough 
that the Fathers quote the eighth verse without the seventh 
when their object is to prove, not the Trinity, but some other 
doctrine, for the proof of which the eighth verse is more suitable 
than the seventh. Keeping in view these remarks about the 
silence of the Fathers, it can never be proved that the seventh 
verse was unknown to the Fathers of the third century. Mill, in 
his notes, has carefully collected all the passages from the 
Fathers, and although he was of opinion that the seventh verse 
was unknown to them, he sincerely defends its authenticity It 
was from Mill that Wetstein, Griesbach, Scholz, and others, 
copied these passages, thus attempting to prove the interpolation 
from what Ahli had proposed to himself merely as a difficulty 
capable of solution. Griesbach writes thus about the Fathers of 
the third century: " Comma "septimum non legerunt Irenaeus, 
Clemens Alexandrinus nee in Adumbrationibns Latine versis, 
neque in ceteris operibus, Hippolytus contra Noetum, Dionysius 
Alexandrinus in epistola ad Pauium Samosatenum". And again: 
" A Patribus Latinis non citatur, ubi vel maxime ad rem perti- 
neret atque omnino txpectari posset; hue pertinent auctor de 
baptismo hereticorum apud Cyprianum, et Novatianus". Let us 
examine the authorities he quotes. Mill assigns as the place 
where Irenaeus ought to have quoted the seventh verse, lib. 3, 
c. 18, in ed. Massuet. c. 16. Now in that chapter Irenaeus is 
treating of the Incarnation, and is showing that Jesus Christ is 
one person only, and not (as the Gnostics held) one person as Jesus 
and another as Christ; wherefore he does not even quote the text 
from Matth. xxviii. 19 : Baptizantes eos in nomine Patris et Filii 
et Spiritus Sattcti, nor John, x. 30: Ego et Pater unum sumus; 
nor would the seventh verse of I. John, c. v., be more suited to 
his purpose than these. And what is more, Irenaeus never 
once quotes in those works of his that remain to us, the verse, 
Ego et Pater unum sumus, and only once quotes St. 

206 On the Authenticity of the Text 

xxviii. 19, " to prove that the Holy Ghost, which was given to 
the faithful, was the same which descended upon Jesus Christ 
at His baptism. Why then should he quote the passage from St. 
John's Epistle more than from his Gospel? Perhaps the Gospel 
text was wanting also? Clement of . lexandria in his un- 
doubted works never quotes either the text from St Matthew's 
or the one from St. John's Gospel : why then should he quote 
the text from the Epistle? In the Excerpta of Theodotus in the 
appendix to Potter's edition of Clement's works, the verse from 
St. John's Gospel is quoted to prove the divinity of the Person 
who became incarnate ; but in this there is no mention of the 
Trinity. Were the Catholic theologians to produce with 
similar confidence against these fastidious scholars, the Latin 
Aditmbrationes which appear under the name of Clement, and, 
perhaps, even the book of llippolytus against Noetus, and the 
letter of Dionysius, they would at once raise a cry against such 
doubtful authorities. However, these Adumbration es l will never 
tell us what reading the author or translator followed in St. 
John's epistles, for they consist of only a few sentences extracted 
from that letter. Nor does Hippolytus treat of the Trinity of 
Persons, but of the distinction of the Father and the Son, and of 
the Incarnation of the Word. He has only an incidental allu- 
sion to the Trinity (n. 10), but brings no other proof than the 
formula of baptism. Our adversaries urge also: "Dionysius 
saepe versum octavum citat, non item septimum, quamvis de 
divinitate Christi ac de Trinitate per totarn fere agat epistolam". 
We reply: it is not accuiate to say that he quotes the verse 
often, for he does so only in the fourth question, where he 
declares that we have been redeemed by the blood of Christ, 
and regenerated by water and the rioly Ghost, and then 
quotes twice in the same context the words of the eighth 
verse: Et hi ires in unum sunt aqua et sanguis et spiritus. 3 
Now in this there is no question of the Trinity, but of 
a totally different subject, to which, whilst the seventh veise had 
nothing in common with it, the eighth verse was quite applicable. 
Besides, in this entire epistle, and even in the other works which 
bear the name of Dionysius of Alexandra, we never once find 
either the verse of Matthew or that of St John's Gospel. There 
yet remain to be examined the two Latin writers of the third 
century. The author o* the book De Baptismo Hereticorum 
unites, it is said, the sixth with the eighth verse, and omits the 
seventh. Now, if we said in reply, that in the copy of the Bible 
used by this writer, the eighth verse immediately followed the 
sixth, and was in turn followed by the seventh, as was the case 

1 Lib. 3, c. 19 al 17 ' Bibl. Mar. Patrum, torn. 3, p. 233. 

1 Opp. ed. De Magistris, pag. 230-1. 

of the three Heavenly Witnesses. 207 

with many other writers, who could gainsay "S? This colloca- 
tion of verses 6 and 8, prove* n< -thin*; therefore ; nor does the con- 
text; for the writer does not speak of the Trinity, but of a totally 
different matter. He distinguishes three kinds of baptism: the 
baptism of the spirit, quod plerumque cum baptismo aquae con- 
junctum est, the baotism of water, and the baptism of blood. If 
it be asked, how then is baptism one, utique manifcstum est, he 
replies, ilia ratione gma diversae sunt species unius ac ejusdem 
baptismatis ex uno viilncre proftuentis in aquam et sany'dnem. 

Et quoniam videmur omne bap'isma spirituals 

trifariam diuisisse, vern'fimus etiam ad pro'>atioiwm ?iarrationis 
propositae Ait enim Joannes in epistota sua de Domino nostro 
nos d<,cens: His est qui venit per aquam et sanguinem, etc. 
(v. b'). Quia tres testimonium pcrhibent spiritus et aqua et 
sanL'uis et isti trcs in unmn sunt (v. 8). Ut ex illis colligamus 
et aquam praestare upvriturn solitutn, et ipswn quoque spiriturn 
(desiderium cum chari ate} praextare piritum solitum l Now, we 
ask, what had the seventh verse to do with t'lis distribution of 
baptisms, especially when the author had verses 6 and 8 here 
united together in his copy as we may reasonably suppose? 
Especially since, as we have shown above, v. 7 was certainly 
read in the third centuiy in Africa, where our author wrote. 

The other Latin writer who is alleged against Ur* is Novatian, 
" qui liber de Trinitate cum pluribus Scripturae testimoniis pro- 
bet, Christum ut et Spiritum Sanctnm esse Deum, hunc certe 
locum in primis opportunum praeterit". We reply as in the last 
case. Novatian treats at length of the divinity of Christ, of the 
distinction between the Father and the Son, and slightly (cap. 
29) also of the Holy Ghost; but he does not set himself to prove 
from the Scriptures the Trinity of Persons; and hence although 
(cap. 12) he introduces the words of Christ, ecce ego vobiscum 
usque ad consummation em seculi (Matt., xxviii. 20), he never 
once makes use of the text: Baptiza ites in n mine Patris et Filii 
et Spiritus Sancti (-b. 19), which expresses all the Persons at 
once. What wonder then that he should omit the text of St. 
John's Epistle? 

Among the Fathers of the fourth and fifth century, there are 
certainly some, for example St. Cyril of Alexandria, 2 whose con- 
text shows that either they did not find the verse in their copies 
of the Bible, or that they designedly omitted it as having been 
omitted in others. But such contexts are very rare; so that the 
long list of names borrowed by Griesbach from Mill, and from 
Griesbach copied (with the addition of various errors) by Scholz, 
is reduced to but few Fathers. It is certainly inaccurate to quote 
as witnesses of the omission of the v. Y, Alexander of Alexandria 

1 Opp. Cypr. ed. Baluz., pag. 364. 8 Thtsaur., torn. 5, par. i., pag. 363, 

208 On the Authenticity of the Text 

in his epistle to Alexander of Constantinople, the Council of 
Sardis in its synodical epistle to all the churches, 1 and the Council 
of Nice itself. For in these documents there is no question of 
three Persons in common, and hence no reference is made even 
to the text from St. Matthew ; and, what is more, the Council of 
Sardis makes but a sparing use of Scripture texts to prove the 
divinity of the Son, As to the disputes concerning the Holy 
Ghost, which Gelasius Cyzicenus, at the close of the fifth cen- 
tury, relates as having occurred in the Nicene Council, they are 
undoubtedly supposititious, whatever may be said about the omis- 
sion of the v. 7 therein. 1 

But, although we contend that but few Fathers, taken sepa- 
rately, supply positive proof of the omission of St. John's text, 
we do not therefore deny that the text is wanting in many Greek 
codices and in a few Latin ones. This conclusion is warranted 
by the common silence of the Greek Fathers throughout the 
entire period of the disputes concerning *not only the Person of 
the Son, but also concerning the Holy Ghost, and the Three 
Divine Persons, which disputes have furnished us with ample 
demonstrations of the Catholic dogma from the fourth century 

We must not, however, neglect to notice an assertion made by 
our adversaries regarding St Leo the Great: " Leo Magnus", 
writes Griesbach, p. 13, " universum contextnm excsribit, sed 
hunc versiculum transilit in celebri epistola ad Flavianum in 
Graecum sermonem conversa et in Concilio Chalcedonensi prae- 
lecta". If this were true, the necessary explanation would be, 
that St. Leo, as addressing the Greeks, designedly omitted the 
verse ; for it is absurd to suspect that in the middle of the fifth 
century it was wanting in the Latin codices. In fact, thirty 
years after the epistle to Flavianus, we find the verse commonly 
read in the African churches; it was read also in Spain and in 
Gaul; in the following century, in Italy. Cassiodor us (whose 
father was in the train of Pope Leo, in his famous interview with 
Attila) found it in ancient and mos>t correct codices; it appears 
thenceforth in the common reading of the entire Latin Church. 
How then could it be unknown to Pope Leo? The epistle to 
Flavian proves merely that in St. Leo's copy the sixth and 
eighth verses went together, as in the codices used by other 
Fathers. The Pontiff does not quote the seventh verse, which 
followed our eighth, because it did not bear on his subject. 
His scope was to prove against the Eutychians that Christ had 
true human nature, and is shown by verses 6 and 8 joined 
together, and not by the seventh which follows. 

NOI do the ancient versions serve our adversaries better than 
1 H&rdouin, torn. L, pag. 295, 661. 9 Hard., torn, i,, p. 407, q<j. 

of the three Heavenly Witnesses. 209 

the Greek codices and the Fathers. First of all, let us put aside 
the Ethiopic, Armenian, 1 S)riac (Philoxenian), and all the later 
Syriac and Arabic versions, and the Slavonic version, for, what- 
ever may have been the primitive reading, they are all made 
from Greek texts of the fourth to the ninth century ; and we are 
willing to allow that during that period the verse was wanting in 
many Greek MSS. The learned have concluded from some his- 
torical data that the Copts had a version of the Bible in the third 
or at the beginning of the fourth century; but no one, we think, 
can form any certain judgment of the primitive text of that ver- 
sion. If the text be wanting in one or two copies known to 
critics, the probable explanation is, that it was omitted at a later 
period after the Greek. The same explanation holds concerning 
the pure Syriac version. In the MSS. of this version which 
are known to scholars, the Deutero-canonical books of the Old 
and New Testament (II. Peter, ii. 3, John Apocal ) are miss- 
ing, although it is proved that in the fourth century, in St. 
Ephrem's time, they were to be found in it. No wonder then 
that even in case of I. John, v. 7, the Syrians were in some 
measure led astray by the Greeks. We do not say that this can 
be proved to a certainty, nor do we undertake such a task. It 
is for our adversaries to furnish a demonstration, since they assert 
that a reading common to all the Church, and by long use, com- 
mon even to schismatics and Protestants, should be expunged as 
an interpolation. For us it is enough to show that on Catholic 
principles the authenticity of the verse may be proved, and that 
even on the false theological principles of Protestants, there are 
no critical arguments to prove it to be spurious. 

Before concluding our remaiks, we cannot but call the atten- 
tion of our readers to the variations of Piotestuntism in this matter 
as well as in many others. We have met with no arguments 
against the authenticity of this verse which were not already, at 
the beginning of the eighteenth century, familiar to Mill, Bengel, 
and others, if we except gome Greek MSS. more recently ex- 
amined, which, however, furnish no additional proof. Notwith- 
standing this, while the dogma of the Trinity was as yet 
unassailed, learned Protestants, not from deference to authority, 
but through a kind of Christian instinct remaining from Catholic 
times, 2 felt that the universal and constant usage of the Church 

1 In many Armenian MSS., r. 7 is wanting; but not in all (Card. Maii, Nora Bibl. 
PP., t. i., p 2, pag. 7). It was quoted ;\t the beginning of tUe fourteenth century 
in the Armenian councils of Sis and of Athan, the acts of which were published in 
Armenian and Latin by Galanus (Conciliat. Eccl. Arm. cum Roman., t. 1, par. 1, 
p. 461, 478). 

* Bengel, though a Protestant, thus writes: u Mirabilis est dispensatio divina 
non solum in toto verbo sed etiam in singulis eloquiis, quae instar sidcrum varies 
ortus et occasus habent* Eamque in hoc maxime loco gravissimo observare tas 
et, qua factum esse credas, ut testunonium clarissimum de SS' Trinitate extremo 

210 Authenticity of the Text of the three Heavenly Witnesses, 

was of immensely greater weight than a few arguments mainly 
negative by which it was sought to destroy an authority of such 
importance. Hence, from the end of the sixteenth century 
down to the closing ten years of the last, the Socinians were the 
only Protestants who denied, with the doctrine of the Trinity, 
the authenticity of this verse. The other Protestants who still 
held the doctrine of the Trinity strenuously defended v. 7, on 
the authority of the Latin version, and even, as Michaelis com- 
plained towards the close of the last century (1. c. sect. 1.), went 
so far as to accuse those of being heretics who denied it But no 
sooner did many Protestants begin to undermine the dogma, and 
especially as soon as the Rationalists openly rejected it, they 
began to bring forward not indeed new arguments which w -re 
not to be found, but old and well known difficulties by which 
they might first throw doubts upon, and then openly reject, verse 
7 as spurious. From this history of the controversy it is plain, 
that they were influenced more by prejudices and dogmatic 
errors than by critical arguments. It is much more surprising, 
however, that some even learned Catholics 1 either should have 
consented to the denial of the authenticity of I. John, v. 7, or at 
least in certain countries should hardly dare to openly affirm or 
to defend it. 

aevo lobanneo quasi apex apostolici testimonii ederetur* Atque id paulo postquam 
editum erat, absconditum quodammodo f'uit. Itaqt\e Graecis non permde lectum 

est idem autem latine propagatum martyres in Africa potissirnum ulteriore 

corroboravit Sic loannes Socinismum, Antichristianismum, etc' hoc versiculo, 

non dicemus primitus latine conscripto, sed hactenus certe Latinorum potissimum 
opera conservato redarguit" (Apparat. in h. 1 , *8). 

1 After the Council of Trent, at the close of the seventeenth century, Richard 
Simon was the first Catholic who directly proposed arguments against the authen- 
ticity of the verse (Grit, du N. T , torn. 2, c. 18); but far from meeting any to 
share his v ews, he met with severe reproof (Bossuet, Seconds Inst. sur leN. T. de 
Trevoux, torn. 4, p. 609 ). And yet Simon did not dare to deny explicitly the 
genuineness ot v. 7 ; on the contrary, he acknowledges that it is confirmed by the 
authority of the Church, and that it should be received. 

" 11 n'y a que I 1 autorite de I'Eglise qui nous fasse aujourdouy recevoir ce passage 
comme authentique. Les Grecs nimes qui sont ennemis des Latins, s'acordent 
la-dessus avec eux. (Ib. pag. 217). 



" Posui adjutorium in potente, ct exaltavi electum de plebe mea". 

Ps., Ixxxviii. 20. 

THIS is the second time, within a few weeks, that we are 
assembled in this Church. When we met here at the begin- 
ning of September, His Eminence the Cardinal Archbishop of 
Mechlin offered at the altar the divine sacrifice to call down the 
lights and the blessings of God upon the members of the Catholic 
Congress gathered together in his metropolitan city from all parts 
of Europe and of the world. It seems to me, and I am sure also 
to you, that this happened as if but yesterday. It was certainly 
but yesterday that our veneiated Cardinal assi?ted in the full 
vigour of strength and life at that office, at once sorrowing and 
jubilant, which Belgium celebrated -in memory of her heroic sons 
immolated by their own courage in defence of the holiest of 

If on that day you had been told that you should soon meet 
here again, and that you should meet on his account though with- 
out himself, how great would have been your surprise ! That 
surprise has been brought home to us, and has brought us all 
here to-day. 

It is true, then, that he is no more ! but his spirit will watch 
over us now, while we are engaged in cherishing his memory, 
and while we seek to edify ourselves by the example of his life, 
a life so full of days, so full of services rendered to God and to 

It is of that life I am about to speak to you ; to you, my lords, 
who were his brethren, and to you my brethren, who were his 
children. And if on the one hand, what you feel towards such a 
father and such a brother makes my task an easy one, on the 
other it does but increase my difficulties, for no tongue can 
describe the feelings which at this moment all of you experience. 
How much more unfit, therefore, to satisfy your expectation, am 
I after a few hours of hurried preparation during the^e three 
days, troubled as they have been by the unexpected blow which 
has fallen upon us? But if words fail, facts will speak for them- 
selves of the entire life of his Eminence Cardinal Sterckx, Arch- 
bishop of Mechlin and Primate of Belgium. 

I recognize in my text the leading idea of this life. God 
therein speaks of every man whom he selects for the accomplish- 
ment of some great design : " 1 have laid help on one that is 
mighty, and have exalted one chosen out of my people" Ps. Ixxxviii. 

J Sermon on occasion of the funeral of the late Cardinal Engelbert Sterckx, 
Archbishop of Methlin, by the Right Rev. Mgr. Dechamps, Bishop of Namur, 

212 The Late Cardinal Sterckx. 

20. This is how God speaks of tho. c e whom He chooses to achieve 
great things. Engelbert Sterckx belonged to the chosen ones 
of Providence, and he faithfully answered the divine call in the 
beginning, in the course, and in the end of his career. Let us 
see how this shines conspicuous in all his acts, that thereby we 
may lighten the weight of our sorrow. 

Engelbert Sterckx was born at Ophem, in this diocese, on 
November 2, 1792, of parents full of faith and other Christian 
virtues. Like Cardinal Gousset, Archbishop of Rheims, he 
sprang from the people, his father being a farmer of easy circum- 
stances. It was upon this family that Providence fixed His eye 
to choose from out of it a future prince of the Church. Since the 
days of the apostles down to our own, the Church has always 
been at once a great school of authority and of respect, and a 
great school of equality before God. At the age of nineteen, 
after the spotless and studious years of his early youth, Engelbert 
felt more and more the powerful impulse of grace which called 
him to devote his life to God. Obedient to the call, he entered 
the seminary at Mechlin in 1811. When he had been there two 
years, his aptitude for work and his singular discreetness caused 
him to be appointed under secretary of the Archbishop. Two 
years afterwards, he was ordained priest. In 1 $15 he was appoin- 
ted vice-rector, and afterwards professor of philosophy and of moral 
theology, so thoroughly was his progress in sacred learning and 
in the knowledge of men appreciated by his superiors. But, you 
know, my brethren, learning is but the means to an end. The 
sacerdotal heart ol the young professor burned with a longing to 
make use of these means, and to employ all his study and all hia 
strength in the great work of the salvation of souls. His long' 
ing was fulfilled, and in 1821 he was appointed to the parish of 
Bouchout. The professor of theology, thus changed into a country 
parish priest, esteemed himself fortunate in being able to devote 
his life to the sublime duties of the sacred ministry. He had no 
desire or thought of else, when in 1821 God's Providence, which 
had never lost sight of him, inspired his superiors to call him to 
the important office of Dean of Notre Dame, at Antwerp. 

It was in this new sphere of duty that his great qualities be- 
came conspicuous; his prudence, his charity, his firmness, hia 
sweetness, his increased application to business. But what 
especially characterised him was a moderation unmixed with 
weakness, and a constant love of peace. In 1827 the Prince of 
Mean, Archbishop of Mechlin did not hesitate to choose him for 
his Vicar-general. Mgr. de Mean felt his strength ebbing. Hia 
infirmities but too often played the traitor to his zeal. He 
wished therefore that his vicar-general should be his right arm, 
his second self. It was soon apparent that the Archbishop's choice 

The Late Cardinvl Sterckx. 213 

had been guided by Providence, for the hour was come when 
Engelbert Sterckx had to sustain with his archbishop and for 
his archbishop, what was perhaps the most serious struggle of 
his lifetime. Many of you were witnesses of that struggle, and all 
of you know its history. Not one of you has forgotten the trials 
of the Church in Belgium during the years that intervened 
betweei I'6z5 und 1830. At that period the king of the Nethei- 
lan i. wa.$ doubly deceived; deceived in Holland by the sec- 
tarians who sought to Protestantize Belgium, and deceived in 
Belgium by Belgians who had renounced at once the spirit of 
their ancestors and the religion of their fathers. These men, 
hating the Church more than they loved liberty, consented to 
sacrifice liberty to their anti-religious passions. They thronged 
round the throne, and would not allow the king to see the true 
Belgian people as it really was. Full of ability and restless 
energy they created such disturbances as made it difficult for the 
sovereign to hear the voice of the nation. Thus was William 
the First deceived as Joseph the Second had been, and he chose 
to attack among all the liberties dear to Belgians those especially 
which concerned the soul: freedom of conscience and freedom of 
education. Christian families soon found themselves placed in 
the alternative either of handing over their children to an educa- 
tional system which they condemned, or of sending them out of 
the country. Young men called to the priesthood were ruthlessly 
forced either to renounce their vocation, or to profane it by pas- 
sing through an ostensibly ecclesiastical institution founded at a 
great expense by a power hostile to the liberty of -the Church, 
and situated as if in contrast with the ancient university, at 
Louvain. This so-called philosophical college was the handiwork 
not of philosophy but of philosophism. Philosophism has never 
been the iriend of liberty. It never even took the trouble of 
going by byeways to get the education of the country into its 
hands; it went straight and seized upon it and made it a 
monopoly in the true sense of the word. The influence exer- 
cised in educational matters by moral power and liberty is no 
monopoly, for that influence is undoubtedly legitimate if liberty 
be not an empty name. A monopoly in the true sense of the 
word, and according to the usage of all languages, is a privilege 
secured by the power of the state. Such a privilege the state 
then reserved to itself in educational matters in Belgium. At 
the period to which 1 refer, the state reckoned upon the old age 
of the Primate of Belgium. Since 1826 that prelate was with- 
out a colleague in the episcopate, a metropolitan standing alone, 
an archbishop without a suflragan. But the state did not take 
into account the conscience of that old man, who leaned upon 
him whom he had chosen to be one heart and one soul 

214 The late Cardinal StercLv. 

Then was renewed in our midst and on our behalf, what hap- 
pened long ago in the east, on behalf of the entire Church, when 
the aged patriarch of Alexandra through his deacun Athanasius 
arrested the course of Arianisrn. 

If I recall here that illustrious name, I am but following the 
lead of the most illustrious of German writers, who did not fear 
to apply it to the archbishop of Cologne during a struggle which 
the world has not forgotten. The Church of Germany, says 
Goerres, was wanting for a man who could say: No. Such a 
man came, and the Church of Germany was saved. The man 
who in our country and during a struggle ever to be remembered 
by us, knew how to say no in his turn, was the vicar-general of 
Mechlin who realized to the full all the expectations of his arch- 

The government of the Netherlands ever refused to recog- 
nize him as vicar-general; and when, partially receding from 
its mistakes, it consented to sign a concordat with Leo the 
Twelfth, and to permit the vacant sees to be filled up, it still 
would not allow the vicar-genoral of Mechlin to be one of the 
new bishops. And why? Because tnat man, of whose condes- 
cension and patience and conciliating spirit all of you have had 
long experience, never would make advances to conciliation at 
the expense ot justice and truth; because he never failed to say 
No when his conscience forbade him to say Yes. And this is the 
reason why, when after 1832, the Church and the Holy See 
could use their liberty in choosing bishops, the first archbishop of 
Mechlin was Mgr. Engelbert Sterckx. 

He who had ever so faithfully defended the liberty of the 
Church and of education, did not fail to avail himself now of 
both for the good of souls and of his country. He completed 
the organization of his seminary, which he had commenced 
under Mgr. de Mean. In compliance with the prescriptions of 
the Council of Trent, he had but one seminary, divided into 
several sections, according to the requirements of the studies 
preparatory to the ecclesiastical state. At Mechlin, the centre of 
the diocese, he installed the sections of theology, history, and 
canon law. In the same city, but in a different quarter, he 
placed the schools of humanity, philosophy, and the natural 
sciences. He established corresponding sections in two other 
districts of the diocese: one at Wavre for the Walloon popula- 
tion, and the other at Hoogstraeten for the Flemish population 
of the province of Antwerp. After founding his seminary, he 
established numerous educational institutions throughout the 
diocese, such as the vast college of St. Louis, afterwards trans- 
ferred from Mechlin to Brussels, and finally, with the coopera- 
tion of all the yishops of Belgium, the important institution of 

The late Cardinal Sterckx. 215 

the Belgian college in Rome, in that city of Catholicity where 
every Christian nation has an establishment of its own. He also 
took care in concert with his episcopal colleagues to lend his 
aid to the government in organizing primary education in Bel- 
gium, so that it might be in accordance with the religious liberty 
of families, with the natural sentiment of faith, and with the 
requirements of social order. Every one knows that our beloved 
king, Leopold the First, always looked upon this as one of the 
greatest glories of his reign. The archbishop also exerted his 
best efforts to htve religious instruction given in all the houses 
of secondary instruction in the kingdom. Finally, at the head 
of his suffragans, he endowed Belgium with a great establishment 
for higher education, He was the first to conceive the idea of 
that Catholic university now so universally celebrated, where 
science is loved, and the very mention of whose name fills our 
hearts with gratitude towards tho^e who in it have restored to 
us our Alma Mater. Thither flock the youn^ men of the land 
in search of science in its widest sense. Yes, science in its 
widest sense; for there the natural, the rational, and the juridical 
sciences are taught in their fulness as in all the universities of 
the civilized world ; science in its widest sense, for not a single 
doctrine worthy of the name, remarkable either for its truth or 
for its falsehood, is theie kept concealed from the youthful minds 
of those who are soon to grow into men in the struggles of life. 
We possess there a striking proof that Christianity fears nought so 
much as want of light; there, no one dreads to approach the sub- 
ject of the supernatural, as those great children dread it whose 
very fear of it makes them cry out so loud ; there, it is proved that 
truth and faith are based on facts no less securely than purely 
scientific truth; there, it is shown that God demands faith, but 
demands it from the reason, and after having proved that it is 
He who speaks; there, it is recognized that though revealed 
truths still have for us, in time, their inaccessible side inacces- 
sibile lumen they have also another side perfectly accessible to 
reason, where the ravished intellect may contemplate the har- 
monies of the two worlds, of the world of nature and the world 
of grace, thereby enjoying a wondrous spectacle never to be 
beheld by those who shut their eyes to the light of God. 
Finally, the divine charter of the human race is there pointed 
out in the Gospel, a charter always more brilliant than any 
lights of ours, ever in advance of our progress, ever more perfect 
than the best of our laws. And from that Catholic university 
we see issuing forth solid Christian men to take their places in 
every sphere of social life, men endeared to their country and to 
religion, by their science, their faith, and their patriotism. 
But the happy union of those three qualities, science, faith, 

216 The late Cardinal Sterckx. 

and patriotism, brings us back to him whose death we are 
lamenting. The Archbishop of Mechlin was at once a man of 
God, a learned theologian, and a distinguished patriot. We hold 
in our hands a high testimony rendered to those rare qualities of 
the great departed, and we are the more happy in recalling it to 
your memory since it does justice at once to the Belgians and to 
their king. Hear how Gregory the Sixteenth spoke in the allo- 
cution of 13th September, 1838, seven years after Belgium had 
won back her independence: 

" The admirable zeal of the Belgian people for our holy religion 
has always been known and proved. We foresaw long since what 
great things might be expected from that kingdom for the Church's 
good, and for the salvation of souls. Events have shown, venerable 
brethren, that we were not deceived in our expectations, and we are 
therefore filled with a joy in which you are certainly sharers. Every 
one knows that seminaries and schools of ail kinds for both sexes, 
even for those of the lowest class, flourish in Belgium at present ; that 
the young are therein trained in piety and learning ; that these free 
schools are under the direction of the clergy ; that the Catholic 
University of Louvain, restored some years ago, is remarkable for its 
teaching of sound doctrine ; that not only the clergy, but the entire 
people, is a model of obedience and of devotion to this sovereign chair 
of St. Peter ; and, finally, that free communication in spiritual and 
ecclesiastical affairs with the Holy See, which is the constant and 
fruitful source of so much good, is nowise hindered in that king- 
dom. These advantages, which have brought us so much joy, are 
principally due to the entire body of our venerable brothers the 
bishops of that kingdom, and we wish hereby to pay public praise to 
*heir zeal and vigilance. They are due, above all, to our venerable 
brother Jnge/bcrt Sterckx, Archbishop of Al alines, a man of such inte- 
grity and so distinguished for his piety, his learning, his prudence, and 
his gentleness, that he has justly won for himself the esteem and 
good will not only of the bishops, of the clergy, and of the people, 
but also of the illustrious King of the Belgians. As it has been for 
a long time in our thoughts to give the Belgian nation a public testi- 
mony of our paternal affection, we have judged that in nowise can 
we please them more, or do anything more suitable, than by intro- 
ducing into your illustrious college the Archbishop of Mechlin". 

After words like these, my brethren, it is easy for us to speak 
the whole truth without dread of being accused of excessive zeal 
for the memory of our beloved and venerated metropolitan. 

Yes, he was distinguished for his piety. It filled hi n so 
thoroughly that it was sensibly reflected in his noble features. 
He thereby, all unconsciously, attracted souls to God. The love 
of God which glowed in his heart shot forth its flames, the fire 
of zeal for souls. Immediately after his consecration he estab- 
lished retreats for the clergy and missions for the people. Se- 

The late Cardinal Sterckx. 211 

conde'd everywhere by a faithful clergy, he welcomed with 
warmth, and with the heart of a tru^ Catholic bishop, those 
helpers of the pastoral clergy, the religious orders, raised by Pro- 
vidence to free men from sin, an 1 give them the liberty of the 
children of God. The sons of St. Dominic, of St. Francis, of 
St. Ignatius, of St. Vincent de Paul, of St. Alphonsus, the con- 
gregations of virgins consecrated to God for the education and 
salvation of those of their sex, the associations devoted to piety, 
to charity, to labour all, all were encouraged by the eminent 

Yes, he was distinguished for his prudence and for his gentle- 
ness. He knew how to speak the truth without making it 
odious, and to satisfy his conscience without yielding anything 
to passion. No wonder then, that, as Pope Gregory the Six- 
teenth declared, he won the esteem and affection, not only of the 
bishops, clergy, and people, but also of the sovereign. He loved 
the dynasty that crowned our national institutions. He was 
deeply attached to the royal family, and the attachment was 
reciprocal. He loved Belgium with an unconquerable love. 
He stood by the side of Mgr de Mean when Belgium was being 
made a nation. He held the pen when the Archbishop of 
Mechlin wrote to the National Congress the letter which became 
so famous, and which never can be forgotten. He stood by the 
side of the throne the day the King of the Belgians ascended it, 
and he was the first to call down upon his reign the blessings of 
God. It was he who blessed the marriage of King Leopold the 
First and of Queen Louise, whose holy memory shall ever live 
amongst us. It was he who in baptism impressed the indelible 
Christian character on the soul of the young prince whom we 
honour to-day as our king. It was he who presided at the 
majestic obsequies which the nation paid to its Queen. It was he 
who in St. Gudule blessed the espousals of the future King of 
the Belgians with the descendant of Maria Theresa, a princess 
who resembles so much her incomparable ancestress. It was he 
who, in the same sanctuary, called down the blessings of heaven 
upon the new reign. The impulses of his heart were in keeping 
with the lessons of his faith ; love for the rulers whom God had 
given to the nation, love for his country itself. And herein he 
was the best expression of the unanimous sentiments of the Bel- 
gian clergy. 

But how describe his love for the Holy See, for the centre of 
Catholic unity, for the Vicar of Jesus Christ ! He ever seized 
with eagerness the opportunity of visiting the tomb of the 
Apostles, and of prostrating himself upon the steps of the Con- 
fession of St. Peterj whither the episcopate of the whole Church 
ever resort to refresh their strength. The Cardinal of Mechlin 
YOL, JY. 15 

The late Cardinal Sterckx. 

returned to Rome on five different occasions after the visit which 
his promotion to the Cardinalate had rendered necessary. He 
went there to assist at the conclave which elected Pius the 
Ninth, that great Pontiff, whose right to independence is now 
defended by courage the most sublime, and by the leading 
speakers of Europe. He went there to assist at the definition 
of the universal belief of 'the Church in the Immaculate Concep- 
tion of the second Eve. He went there to the solemnity of the 
martyrs of Japan. He went there to the beatification of Blessed 
Berchmans, a child of his diocese. He went there to the 
recent festival of the Centenary of the Holy Apostles and of the 
canonization of the martyrs of Gorcum, in whose number were 
Belgians, and among them a native of Brussels, to whom our 
venerated Cardinal was connected by ties of blood. He cherished 
the hope of going there once again to take part in the coming 
General Council, and to share in the labours of that incomparable 
assembly, which will shine like a rainbow of peace in a sky now 
darkened by tempests; but God judged him worthy of a yet 
more perfect peace, and this divine word fell upon him : amodojam 
dicit spiritus ut requiescant a laboribus suis : opera enim illorum 
sequuntur illos. Whilst he devoted himself with holy ardour to 
spread devotion to the saints of his diocese, those blessed souls 
obtained for him from God the grace to come and join them in 
their glory. He saw without trouble death draw near, and he 
welcomed it with sweetness. His robust constitution and excel- 
lent health would seem likely to have kept far away from him 
the thought of death; but he was wont to apply to himself what 
he taught to others : we know not the day nor the hour. His last 
will begins with the words: Death may surprise me at any 
moment. What follows this expression is so full of faith, of 
piety, of profound Christian humility, and of pastoral charity, 
that I can find no better ending for this discourse than these 
words of his last will : 

" First of all I give most sincere thanks to God, my Creator, to 
Jesus Christ my Saviour, to the Blessed Virgin Mary, to my Angel 
Guardian, to my Patron Saints, and to all the saints in heaven for 
the countless blessings I have received during my life, especially for 
that of having been called to the ecclesiastical state, in which I have 
had more opportunities of sanctifying my own soul, and of doing 
more good to my fellow men. I am sorry that I have not made a 
better use of the graces bestowed on me by God, by help of which 
I could have reached a higher degree of perfection. I deplore all 
my negligences and all my faults. I deeply regret that I have 
offended a God so good in Himself, and who has loaded me with so 
many favours. I thank all the members of my family for the true 
affection they have always shown me (he then names them one by 

Documents. 219 

one). I thank my devoted vicars-general, the members of the metro- 
politan chapter, my faithful secretaries, all the deans, all the priests, 
all the religious men and women, all the devout faithful of my 
diocese, for their attachment to me, of which they have given me so 
many proofs, and for the services they have rendered me. If in 
aught I have offended them ; if I have given them the least pain, I 
humbly ask their forgiveness. I have never ceased to love them all 
without exception, even those who have shown me any enmity 
either on my own account or on that of religion. I pray God to 
enlighten all those who stray from the path of virtue and of truth, 
and to make them understand, that the true religion is the only 
source of happiness in this life and in the life to come, of the happi- 
ness of souls, of families, and of nations'*. 

I leave you, my brethren, under the influence of these words. 
They are calm as certainty, simple as the truth, touching as 
charity itself. With our Cardinal so venerated and so much 
loved, I pray God that they may reach those for whom they 
were intended, and that in His mercy He may make use of them 
to bring back the wanderers to the path which they may follow 
to the last. 



Come accennavo a V. Emza. nell' ultima mia, umiliai al S. 
Padre nell' udienza del passato Giovedi (14) la cambiale di lire 
sterline 350 con i sensi della lettera che 1'accompagnava, ed in quella 
di oggi (19) mi sono dato premura di presentare la nuova di lire 
sterline .500, leggendogli contemporaneamente la nuova lettera dell' 
Eminenza Vostra. In ambidue le circostanze, si 6 mostrato Sua 
Santita sensibilissimamente commossa per la perseverante costanza 
de' suoi buoni Irlandesi in accorreie ai suoi bisogni e ripetere con si 
esemplare maniera i sensi della sua devozione verso la S. Sede. Ha 
implorato dal cielo sull' Emo. Arcivescovo di Dublino, suo clero, 
suo Popolo, e su tutta 1'Irlanda le piu ampie benedizioni. Sono 
grandi, dicea Egli, le tribolazioni che mi circoridano, ma nello stesso 
tempo il Signore dives in misericordia mi procura tanti argomenti 
di consolazione che sentomi sempre piu forte in mezzo alia procella, 
che la mia confidenza nella Stella del Mare non potra certamente 
mancare ad ottenerci il pienissimo trionfo di una causa, che evideu- 

220 Documents. 

temente causa di Dio. Voile poi incaricarmi di esprimere nell' 
augusto suo nome all Emza. Vostra quest! suoi sentiment! ; ed 
io onorato di si dolce incarico, lo adempio iu questo foglio, cogliendo 
Qon estremo piacere questa occasione per ri-protestare quei sensi 
di profondissima venerazione, sincerissima stima ed amicizia, co* 
quali sono e saro sempre, baoiandole umilissimaraente le mani, 
Dell' Eminenza Vostra, 

Umilissimo Devotissimo Servitor Vero, 




FEBRUARY, 1868. 


THE hymn of St. Brogan-Cloen in praise of St. Brigid, which 
we now publish, is one of the most valuable records of the life 
of our great patroness which have been handed down by our 
early Church. It is preserved in a very ancient MS. of Trinity. 
College, which is certainly not later than the ninth century, and 
in the famous Liber Hymnorum of St. Isidore's, Rome, which is 
probably of the same age. 

The author of this hymn was St. Brogan-Cloen, whose name, 
as Colgan tells us. was honoured on the 1 7th of September, in the 
church of Rostuirck, in Ossory. The Martyrology of Donegal 
also mentions a St. Brocan as honoured on that day. The name 
Kilbrogan recalls his memory in the neighbourhood of Bandon, 
and he is venerated as patron of the parish of Clonee in the 
diocese of Waterford, where a few years ago a new church was 
dedicated under his invocation in the presence of the Cardinal 
Archbishop of this city. In the Roman MS. the following title 
is prefixed to the hymn in the original hand : 

Locu-p titnuf imni Sb^b " The place where this hymn 
DtA'otnA, HA CttiAin Tno|\1Tloe- was composed was Sliabh 
ooc. pefifo, bjioccAn Ctoen. Bladhma, or Cluain mor Moed- 
me [? immof\f\o] 1 hog. The author of it was 
C, meic 1oe$Ai]ie, p^h- Brogan Cloen. The time was 
occiif 'Afte&lA, rneic when Lughaidh, son of Loeg- 
. CAU^A haire, was king of Ireland, and 

1 The me is probably an error on the part of the scribe fontti, the uiual contrac 
tion for 11111110^0, "indeed", " moreover". 

VOL. IV, 16 

222 Ancient Irish Hymn of St. Brogan-Cloen 

Ulrj<Mi Ai|TO bpecAin, A Ailill, son of Dunlang, king of 
T)O -pocliUM^ pyifi co fio Lcinster. The cause of writing 
mrnf et> fef\c<\ bpi^ue cpe 2 ... it, viz., Ultan of Ardbraccan. 
cmb-om pbcA, A)1 die tutor of Brogan, requested 
tliuAn -po chornuinoit him to narrate the miracles of 
t}ni5"oe uit>e x>o. Brigid in appropriate poetical 

language, for Ultan had col- 
lected all the miracles of Brigid 
for him". 

From this important record we learn the following particulars : 

1. That St. Brogan lived for some time in the monastery of 
Sliabh-Bladhma, founded by St. Molua, and in that of Cluain- 
mor Moedhog, now Clonmore, in Bantry barony, county Water- 
ford, founded by St. Aedan, patron of Ferns, about the year 620. 

2. The period to which the poem refers embraced the reigns 
of Lughaidh, king of Ireland, and of Ailildus, king of Leinster. 
The Annals of the Four Masters mark the death of Lughaidh, 
son of Loeghaire, in 503, after a reign of twenty -five years. 
From Colgan we learn that Ailildus, according to the ancient 
catalogues of the kings of Leinster, died in 523, after a reign of 
twenty years. Thus, the subject of the poem would embrace the 
period from 478 to 523, during which St. Brigid adorned our 
island by her virtues and miracles. The learned Colgan having 
inadvertently referred this passage to the " time when the poem 
was composed", fell into a serious anachronism regarding the 
time of its composition. 

3. As to the occasion of the poem, St. Biogan is ex- 
pressly said to have composed it at the request of his master, 
St Ultan of Ardbraccan: "Ultan of Ardbraccan, the tutor 
of Brogan, requested him to narrate the miracles of Brigid 
in appropriate, poetical language, for Ultan had collected 
all the miracles of Brigid for him". In the MartyroLogy of 
Donegal, the same statement is made under the 4th of Septem- 
ber, the feast of St. Ultan, as follows : 

" Ultan, Bishop of Ardbrecain. He was of the race of Jrial, son 
of Coiiall Cearnach. One of the habits of Ultan was to feed with 
his own hands every child who had no support in Erin, so that he 
often had fifty and thrice fifty with him together, though it was diffi- 
cult for him to feed them. One hundred and eighty-nine was his age 
when he went to Heaven, A.D. 656. 

" Cuimin of Coindeire also says that he had a prison of stone, or 
boards against his side, and that he used to bathe in cold water in a 
sharp wind, thus he said : 

1 Col or jm lias omitted two words in las translation (IV. Th., p. 515.): being all 
but illegible, he doubtless did not notice them. 

2 A word is completely defaced hero. 

in praise of St. Brigid. 223 

" ' Ultan loves his children ; 
A prison for his lean side, 
And a bath in cold water 
In the sharp wind he loved*. 

" It was he that collected the miracles of Brigid into one book, 
and gave them to Brogau-Cloen, his disciple, and commanded him to 
turn them into verse, so that it was the latter who composed ' The 
Victorious Brigid loved not', as it is found in the Book of Hymns" 
(Martyr, of Donegal, Public. I. A. S. pag. 237. seq.). 

Again, when commemorating our holy patroness on the 1st 
of February, it is said : 

" It was Ultan that collected the virtues and miracles of Brigid 
together, and who commanded his disciple Broyan to put them into 
poetry, as is evident in the Book of Hymns, i.e., * The Victorious 
Brigid did not love' ", etc. (ibid., pag. 35). 

4. The connection of the author of our poem with St. Ultan, 
sufficiently indicates the time when it was composed. The death 
of St Ultan, as we have just seen, is marked in the Martyrology 
of Donegal in 656. The Annals of the Four Masters in the 
same year record his death ** on the 4th of September, in the 
one hundred and eightieth year of his age 1 ' (O'Donov., i. 269). 
The Annals of Ulster register it in the same year, though in 
662 they again mention it with the additional remark secundum 
alium librum. Tigernach records his demise in 657, varying as 
he generally does by one year from the other annalists. This 
date corresponds perfectly with the historic data which are given 
in the Scholia on the Metrical Calendar of Aengus the Culdee ; 
from which we learn that St Ultan specially devoted himself to 
the care of the orphans, who were deprived of their parents by 
the yellow plague, which laid waste our island about the middle 
of the seventh century (see Introduction to Obils, etc., of Christ 
Church, by Dr. Todd. 1. A. S., pag. Ixxv.). Cathal Maguire, in 
his Annotations on Aenghus, at the 4th September, says that 
Diarmait Mac Cearbhaill was king of Iieland in the time of 
Ultan of Ardbraccan; and we know from our annalists that 
Diarmait reigned from 644 to 665. In the Sanctilogium Genea- 
logicum of Michael O'Clery, at chap. 23, is given the genealogy 
of St. Ultan, who is ninth in descent from Caolbadh, king of 
Ulster, who died in 357. Allowing then thirty years to each 
descent, the age of St. Ultan is brought down to 627. As, How- 
ever, all our ancient writers agree in assigning an extreme old 
age to our saint, the date 656 may, without hesitation, be marked 
for his demise. 

Since, therefore, St. Brogan composed this poem at the request 
of his great master, St. Ultan, we may safely assign its date to 

16 B 

224 Ancient Irish H^rnn of St. Brogan-Cloen 

about the year 650. The reference to the monasteries in which 
it was composed, agrees perfectly with this date. Sliabh-bladhma 
and Clonmore were both founded about the year 620. The 
poem itself furnishes some intrinsic data which lead to the same 
conclusion: thus, in verse 10, a fact from the life of St. Coemghen 
of Glendaloch is historically introduced, and this saint's repose 
is chronicled in our annals in 617. We may, therefore, confi- 
dently assign the interval between 620 and 650, as the period 
when St. Brogan composed this poem. 

5. We should here add some notes to illustrate the many 
peculiar forms of expression which are used in the poem itself. 
Our limited space, however, obliges us to confine our remarks 
to the phrase which occurs in the second verse, in which St. 
Brigid is styled u The Mother of the heavenly King". At first 
sight this seems to be a startling expression, and yet it is only a 
simple metaphor taken from the words of our Divine Saviour, in 
which He teaches that whosoever performs the will of His 
heavenly Father, "the same is His Brother and Sister and 
Mother 1 '. 1 There was a special reason why our irish writers 
used this phrase in regard to our great patroness. They love 
to style her ** the Mary of Erin" : they liken her virtues, miracu- 
lous power, and patronage to those of the Holy Virgin; and they 
add that, as Mary is the leader of all the virgin choirs, so Brigid is 
the leader of the virgins of Erin. St Ultan, in the beautiful poem, 
" Christus in nostra insula" (Lib. Hymn , I. A. S., pag. 58), says 
of St. Brigid, that " she pledged herself to become the Mother 
of Christ, and proved herself to be so by her words and deeds". 
The same great saint, in his Life of St. Brigid, mentions how, 
during an assembly of the clergy of Kildare, a holy man an- 
nounced to them that he had seen the Blessed Virgin Mary 
in vision, and when on the next day St. Brigid came to 
the assembly, he immediately cried out, " This is holy Mary, 
whom 1 saw in my vision" : then adds the writer, " all gave glory 
unto her as being in the type of Mary" (Colgan, ViL Tert., cap. 
14, pag. 528). The Martyr ology of Donegal, on the 1st of 
February, writes : 

" A very ancient old book of vellum, in which is found the Mar- 
tyrology of Maelruain of Tamhlacht, and the saints of the same name, 
and the names of many of the mothers of the saints, states that Brigid 
was following the manners and the life which the holy Mary, Mother 
of Jesus, led. It was this Brigid, too, that did not take her mind or 
her attention from the Lord for the space of one hour at any time, 
but was constantly mentioning Him, and ever constantly thinking of 
Him" (Public. I. A. S., pag. 35). 

Other passages from our ancient writers, illustrating this title, 
1 Matth, xii, 50, 

in praise of St. Brigid. 225 

may be seen in the Book of Hymns (I. A. S., pag. 65). Hence, 
St. Brigid being " the Mary of Erin", our poets did not hesitate 
to apply to her in a figurative sense those titles which strictly 
speaking could only designate the special and characteristic pre- 
rogatives of the holy Mother of God. 

6. There is another short Irish poem which presents in a most 
striking way many of these titles It is preserved in the Liber 
Hymnorum of Trinity College and in that of St. Isidore's. Colgan, 
who gave a Latin translation of it (Trias, pag. 606), attributes it 
to St. Columbkille, and the preface in the Liber Hymnorum also 
mentions this saint as one of those to whom it was generally 
referred. Others, however, attribute it to St. Ultan, the great 
master of St. Brogan-Cloen, and under his name it was printed 
with an English translation by the learned Mr. Stokes in his 
Goidilica, pag. 81. It is as follows : 

e biclittiAicTi Brigid, noble woman! 
bj\eo OJYOA oibLecli A flame, golden, beautiful, 

oonpe T>on bicViftAich A sun dazzling splendid, 

An 5J\iAn cinx) coi-olecK May she bear us to the eternal kingdom. 

ttonpoepA t)t v1 5 1c ^ av frigid save us, 

Sech t>j\utijju "oemtte Despite the throngs of demons 

jv>[f]fvoeriA peunn May she overthrow before us 

CAcnu CAch cex>tne. The battle-hosts of every disetie. 

'Oopo'obA innurin May she destroy within us 
A]\ coVtA cif u Our flesh's taxes (i.e. our sins), 

mc1ij\oeb combtAchAib blossoming branch! 

m niAc1iAif\ ij*u. Mother of Jesus! 

Atropfvo^ iniMAin The pure Virgin, dear to us, 
ConofWOAin At>bAit Great her dignity, 

biAtrifoe|\ cecVurtbAit) May we be always safe 

lAtnrioeb TDO IxMgtnb. With my saint of the Lagenians. 

lechchoUbA ylAcliA She is a pillar of the Kingdom 
IA PACJ\<MC pi\imt>Ae With Patrick the preeminent, 1 

inciAcnc tiAfi/i^Aib The garment of garments, 

int>tM5Air tvigtiAe. The Queen of Queens. 

Tlobbec iAjvpnic When in our old age 

Aj\cuim3 VucciVicc Our bodies are laid in sackcloth, 

oiAjvAcn t\onbj\oeA May Brigid shower her blessings on us, 

|\onfoej\A "bjMgic. W:iy Brigid save us. 

7. As regards the hymn of St Brogan-Cloen, it was first pub- 
lished by Colgan (Trias, pag. 515), with a Latin translation. 
Mr. Stokes, loo, has of late published it from the Trinity College 
text (Goidilica, Calcutta, 1^66, pag. 82, seqq.), accompanying 
it with an English translation which, however, he admits to be 
very far fiom classical. We now present the Irish text of St. 
Isidore's MS., and we add a Latin translation, based on that of 
C'olgan, but in which many corrections have been made in accor- 
dance with the more literal version of Mr. Stokes. We cannot con- 
clude without thanking Mr. O'Looney for his kind and valuable 
assistance in editing this important record of our early Church. 

1 Tne gloss adds that " Patrick is the head of the men, Brigid of the women of 

226 Ancient Irish Hymn of St. Brogan-Cloen 


fAi^i-o buAt>Ach bich, 
eom mAilc: 
conctnl cocUmo cirnme-oA 
mtmoeb AN ecnAif\c AtnrnAicc. 
necnAig ecAit>e, 

con huAfAit hinir: 
iv mo uneen 

bni^ic rnAUAifv 
mine ptACA jren 

Aig, nijVbu ec, 

ni jAuchAijA bAnchAch bfAi^Ach : 10 

rnbu nAichip bemnecli, bpecc, 

cen neim, cen 
rnjVbti cliAlAT), ce-ppAchcAch, 15 

u f?pi 
CAin boi fp tob^u 


A)\AT) "oo 

AcllA 1T1A1C 

SAHCC toce, 25 

ATTICA pleA con 

1TIAC CAitle 

SAncc tDp^ce: 30 

bAtnen'o mn A nimchechcAib, 
poctop A 1^56. 

cech cpe^, 
mot) -po-pA^AC mobeoit; 

Gloss. 1. We are indebted to a kind friend for the following interlinear glosses: 
in a futnre number we hope to insert the marginal noteswith some further remarks 
on the author of the poem : m CAIJ\ .1. m fodap [she loved not] "bfMjpc. .1. 
t)|\eo fAij;ic [fierj' dart]. t)ic"h. 1. in bicVi [the world]. 2 SiAf A1|\ .1. no fAi- 
oefc<vr\ [she sat]. Coin. .1 avis, no [vel] Coin .1. in virginitate. 1n Ail<c. .1. in 
altitudiue. 5. 111 mo|\. 1. mbuA^A [not excessive]. necnAij;. .1. AliectiAcVi [her 
carping]. 6. CjMnoic con UA-fAt "hi^ip .1. ictif noboi con IJYIJ* u^AtnAUnmoice 
OCCAI [From the beginning she had the noble faith of the Trinity]. 12. Tli ni|v 
.1. m no nee [she sold not]. 13. Hi bn -jron feticu j'AncAcn. .1. mn bu 
I'AncAcli rni -peucti [she was not greedy for treasures]. 14. enneip .1. no 
enmfCAn [she bestowed]. Cen neitn .1. cen inroenjA'O [without reproach]. 
15. Tlin bu cliAt<vo. .1. nm bo JAIIT) [she was not penurious]. 16. ThCAin. 
.1. m nocnan [she loved not ]. 1n -ootnxm CAcnini. .1. CACHH in -oointnn -oiirem 

in praise of St. Brigid. 227 


Non dilexit Brigida victoriosa mundum, 

Sedit sessionem alitis in alto, 

Dormivit somnum captivi 

Sancta, propter absentem filiurn. 
Non multum fecit obloquium, _ 5 

Fidem habuit nobilem Trinitatis : 

Brigida mater Domini mei 

Coelorum, Domini inter natos optimi. 
Non erat querula, non erat malevola, 

Non dilexit contentiones muliebres vehementes, 10 

Non erat serpens contumeliosa, maculata, 

Non vendivit Filuiin Dei pro transitoriis. 
Non erat cupida renim temporaliurn, 

Largiebatur sine felle, sine remissione, 

Non erat parca, nee praetendcns excusationem, 15 

Non diligebat mundum transitorium. 
Non erat cum hospitibus aspera, 

Benigne tractabat leprosos miseros, 

In campo extruxit suam civitatem, 

Ad regnum Dei populosum nos conducat, 20 

Non erat armentaria montana, 

Nata est in medio campo. 

Bona erat scala pro populis, 

Ad intrandum in regnum Filii Mariae. 
Praeclara erat congregatio Biigidae, 25 

Praeclarus locus cum dignitate : 

Circa solum Christum erat sollicita, 

Familia ab hospitibus frequentata. 
Posuit bonis avibus Maccallous velum 

Super caput ^anctae Brigidae ; 30 

Clarum erat in eius gestis, 

In coelo exaudita est eius petitio: 
Deum Te precor in omnibus adversis, 

Modis omnibus quibus valet os meum, 

quit) em [she loved not the transitory things of the world for herself indeed]. 
17. -Achen. .1. i?enchAc, no yectnjA, no Acen .1. ACIJ\ .1. inA [passionate, or 
bitter, or (it may be thus: ) acher. i.e. angry, i.e. ira]. 19. -AfUiUCAchc .1. 
no chtnnc<yij; [she built]. 20 LAI-O. .1. X)e [of God], ttonfnA-oe. .1. " 
us]. 23. " 

[may Brigid conduct us]. 23. Ainpu. .1. mcAcin .1. "bjMgitxxe [the city, i.e. of 
Brigid]. "Oo cuAchAib. .1. *oo An-oAycnAin [that they may enter]. 25. Amnu. 
.1. bona. SAncc tJniglc. .1. a Sancto (clerivatur Sanct.) 26. Con htiAUx. 
.v ico<MiUAt [with dignity]. 27 t)A hoen. .1. bA nn Cni^c Aoen^n noboi 
AggA'ou'o, no cono^Abu^cAn [its solicitude was lor Christ alone, or (congaba, 
i.e ) it was solicitous, etc.]. 28. -Af coinci^. .1. Af jnAcliAcli [frequented]. 
pni 'OAmA. .1. ppi oepciu [by guests]. 2i>. po. .1. niAicVi [good]. 31. t)A 
ir.enx>. .1. bA -poiiuf [it was conspicuous]. 83. Tlo'ogui'oiu. 1. no'Dgu'Dini [j 
beseech thee]. 34. nv\c1i mo-o. .1. n<vo ino-o [every way]. RofAfAC. .1. t\o 

228 Ancient Irish Hymn of St. Brogan-Cloen 

"001111111 ivm]Aib, 1110 ctinim ! 35 

UfiiAfi, Oenfefi, Arnnu -pceoit. 
"pOAchnu x>on CAch Coern^en ctoc, 
fneccA cniA-pn tiiA'oe'p gAeu, 
t)Aloch cefCA cnoch 

n'onA-plAit) pch IAJI fAech. 40 

SAIICU bpi^ic fuAnAch, 
nibu tiAf\Ach im -peinc T)e; 
fech nichitnn, niho-penA 
IITO noeb x>ibAt) berViAt) ce. 

-AiToo|H5enAi mtli 45 

t)o fefCAib A]1 SAHC 
Ap nToejAncA A|At)tirii 


CecriA c"ho^Ai|AC t)iA]:oi'oe > o, 

tAceceim tii]:eiiAniAin ; 50 

Alien AiiiAin. 

|l-bA A]1X) 

Sech l3AfAt:liecli mcti *oe, 55 

nibu b|\onAcVi muo-pcup. 
i mAt)bocc, 
tocc AHX> 
bACAi|\ cAi-ocln n 

Ai^ Atibi^. 60 

'oo'OAA-p cenfAC, 

bte^on m HAITI bo ].-Acli|\i. 

lAclie Anbie 65 

on 1116*0011 

ScAftA1-p 1A1M11TI A ]TO-pb]1AC 

Inn niAc AmnA-p 

bjii^cAe A|i ecnAijAc A]i tlig, 70 

oobenc f echc mututi fitiA'oe, 

[they are able.] 35. "Ootrmti. .1. po-oomnA <JAW WA^e [deeper than 
the sea.] 37. Coemgen. 1. coem 111 gen, no Agin .1. A -opec, no mAich A 
entAb|\A [beautiful the child, or (beautilul) his mouth, i e. his countenance, or 
(the meaning of the word coemgen may bJ good his speech]. 39. X)A loch. 
.1. -OA lochA [of the two lakes.] 40. Com-o nAnUyi-o. 1. conAi^cnij [^o that 
he possessed]. lAn fAeuh. .1. IAN -pectin [after labor]. 41. m bu fAncc 
f-UAnAch. .1. Sic Sancta Brigita luit sicut Coemgen. ShuAnAch. .1. 
[sleepy]. 42. Hi bu UAnAch. .1. m hmuAinib ^encc t)e Aice, 
[it was not occasionally she had the love of God, but constantly.] 43. Sechmch- 
iuin. .1. mnochnen [she did not lay up], ni no-pnA. .1. mno cofnAfCA|\ 
[she did not preserve]. 44. DechA-o ce. .1. enccAnAc [fleeting]. 45. An-oo 

in praise of St. Brigid. 229 

Profundiorem pelago, magnifice praedicabilem, 35 

Trinum et Unum, mirifica narratio. 
Vocavit ad praelium Coemghenum celebrem, 

Nivem in eum agitat ventus, 

Glindolachae sustinuit crucem, 

Ut reperiret requiem post tribulationem. 40 

Non fuit Sancta Brigida somnolenta, 

Non temporaria circa amorem Dei, 

Non acquisivit, non custodivit 

Sancta, res transitorias huius mundi. 
Tot operatus est Dominus 4'5 

Virtutes per Sanctam Brigidam, 

Quot non factae sunt per hominem, 

In ullo loco ubi audivit auris viventis. 
Prima vice qua missa est, 

Tern pore verno, curru virnineo, 50 

Nihil diminuit de prosperitate hospitis, 

Nee diminuit eius substantiam. 
Larido ex cacabo postea, 

Quodam vespere, magnus fuit triumphus, 

Dum erat satiatus canis inde, 55 

Nee propterea contristatus liospes. 
Quodam die messis, licet erat pauper, 

Non erat haec ansa reprehension! s religiosae meae, 

Serenum fuit in ejus messe, 

Per reliqua loca ingens pluvia. 60 

Episcopi hospites accesserunt ad earn, 

Quod esset non modicum hospitalitati periculum, 

Nisi succurrisset Dominus 

Per lac trinum vaccarum. 
Custodiebat die vehementis pluviae 65 

Oves in media planitie, 

Pallium postea explicuit, 

Domi, super radium solis. 
Vir improbus, qui postulavit 

A Brigida, propter amorem Domini, 70 

Accepit septem verveces ab ea, 

i. .1. cen lAbAf\c JTOHA jrejscAtb fopf [without mentioning the miracles 
that follow herej. 48. CAJMYI. .1. ci-o AIJMTI [whatever place]. 1 (cuAtA). 1. 
ubi. 61. > Oo'OA<5^cen^Ac. .1 |\OAcliAfcr<x^r<\^ [they went (to her)]. 62. T11\ 
butmifv. .1. m bu bee, no m bu -cep-ioil [it would not be small, or, it would 
not be trifling] Go. 1T)Anb<vo. .1. mAru pi^e'o [had he not added]. 60. 
Aj\j;<Mt\c. 1 i\o ingAijx [she herded] tf7. lA]\tnn .1. 1A]\ -pen [after that]. 
o|\b|A<yc. .1. A cocobt, no feci-pecAC IIACCAJAAC ApcetiA [her cowl, or whatso- 
ever other upper annent (she wore)]. 69. 1n mAC. .1. in me]\tecli CAtnc co 
" [the thief who came to Brigid]. 1lo -oorcA-o. .1. pogA-oefCA^ .1. ^o 

[he requested]. 71. t>o bepc. .1. , .......... 

230 Ancient Irish Hymn of .St. Brogan-Cloen 




x>i inpocfiu 511*0, 75 

SencA impe bA oepjjtAiX). 
incAitti; comAitl, 
cer neim ceri t 

x>inchtoich "oop^ne f Atatro. 80 

intmoeb om'L; 

fO|ifieit A 

oobeyic 85 

, bA lioen ATTICA, 

TllluiX) A! Aim A"A tA11H 


, cinne 

nepc "Oe ]iot>o5tmrie|"CA|i, 90 

poboi mi t-An IA^ incoin, 
mcu noconmi1tefCA|\. 

1Tl]lll A|\Allltl, 

mi|i *ooc'Liic1ie^cA|\ "0011 luce, 

mcoiLI t)Ach AmmAAcA, 95 

nAmbo. 100 


T)o t)Ait; CobcAi Coil, 

inb6 1TTO1A1T) 

1n"OAim ^otDAA^cen^AC, 105 

po teo po'oo'pcioA'o necli, 
p^iu conucAib mx)ob 

mAUAtl CA11CAUA]A ACGcll. 

73. 1f oom fQUT. .1. 1|* -ourn t)An .1. 1^ -oom pb-oecc [it appertains to my pro- 
fession, i.e. my poetic art]. tTUcc1iour\ .1. TnA-o-oiAn impu)A? [if I fully 
relate?]. 76. SencA. .1. -po |en<\fCA]\ [she blessed]. 77. 1n CAiltij. .1. 
CAiVLech poboi 1 cVu<ym TlloipcuA, ocuf comAl/t,e rnn, coc<yp'lA iDpi^ic 
oocum tiA citle, co cAtnc lApfen co "bpigm, ocuf cop bo 5"L<Mi i<\pum [a 
virgin who was in Cluan Moscna, and slie was pregnant ; so that when Brigid 
came afterwards to the church, she went to Brigid and was thereupon cured.] 
79. t)A mo Atnpu. .1. t)A moT>e in cAtnpu ppcAile -oo 'oenAtn [it was a greater 
marvel to perform another miracle (than this just narrated)]. 81. Tli Apmo. 
.1. m ecAim A cupim .1. mecAim A Apim, -no niAiprnim cec m-oepriA T>O yepcAib 
[I cannot recite them, i.e. I cannot enumerate them ; cr, I do not mention all the 

in praise of St. Brigid. 231 

Nee gregis inde diminuit ipsa numerum. - 
Ad meam scientiam spectat referre 

Quot fecit sancta opera bona, 

Praeclarum ipsi balneum benedictum, 75 

Factumque circum earn cervisia rubra. ^ 
Benedixit quamdam sanctimonialem gravidam, 

Eamque curavit a dolore et infirmitate, 

Fuit et aliud miraculum majus, 

Lapidem convertit in salem. 80 

Non possem ennumerare omnia 

Quae fecit sancta creatura, 

Benedixit facie tabularem, 

Ita ut limpidus redderetur uterque oculus. 
Filia muta ailata fuit 85 

Brigidae, singulare erat facinus, 

Non dimisit manum suam e manu illius, 

Donee clare fuerint collocutae. 
Praeclarum quomodo lard urn benedixit, 

Hoc virtus Dei praestitit, 90 

Illud integro mense erat juxta canem, 

Nee canis semel attigit. 
Praeelarius erat et alterum, 

Portio carnium accepta ex olla 

Non inficit colorem vestium ejus, 95 

Licet calida fuerit ejus sinu excepta. 
Leprosus institit apud earn pro eleemosyna, 

Et bonum ei quod ipsa donaverit, 

Ilia benedixit vitulum optimum, 

Qui post hoc optimam inter vaccas diligebat. ICO 

Progressus postea curru vectus, 

Versus Aquilonem ad Biigh Chobtaigh Chadil, 

Vitulus cum leproso in curru, 

Vacca sequebatur vitulum. 
Boves qui ad earn accesserant, K 5 

Bonum eis si aliquis eos revertisset, 

Eis restitit fluvius, 

Mane reversi sunt domum. 

miracles she performed]. 82. 1m> noeb -otiil. -i. in-o -ctnl tioeb [the creature 
holy]. 89. SeriAfCA^ .1. Brigid. 90. no ooglinnefCA'p .1. pojtirmepcAp 
[secured (it)]. 94. "OocluchercAp. .1. i\o ooclAigeftA-p [she desires]. 96. 
Ofiocftach. .1. ce [hot]. pocfvef iwnAmiCCi -1. nol/AA'o inrxuicc .1. nnucc 
bjiigcfe [it fell upon her bosom, i.e. the bosom of BrigitJ. 97. 5<voe Ailgep 
ir) A Ail^Aif [he begged her alms]. 98. Corn'OfvuA'lAi'o -oo |\oe]\- 
[that she granted it]. 100. CApAi'p fO^\cLu riAmbo. .1. ]\o CAt\AfCA^\ 
cogu nAbo [the calf loved (followed) the best of the cowsj. 105. 
-p cetifAC. .1. fvo ACA^cAii^AUA|\ [which came to her]. 10G. 0. .1. 
rriAicli [good], fto oofcloA-o. .1 ]AOf cloifeT) [if (anyone) turned them]. 107. 
CotmcAib. .1. TJO cuA^cAib. 1iix>ob. .1. iiVOADAWO [the river rose n}]. 

232 Ancient Irish Hymn of St. Brogan-Cloen 

Ahech cetro Abf\eu, 
mean "oonechecAn yon pxn, 110 

Thbu teuhifet mm Am, 
TTlAc *Oe yononAix) nisi/Aim. 

s cone AltAi-o Acnec, 
you nu Ait) t>of epAin Anoy, 
SenAif bni$ic bAbAchAitt, 115 

ViAtnuccA ^AbAi-p jrof . 

c rnucc mecn t>i t>ob|\ech 
t)An tn<\5 peA, bA AtnnA, 
CAiynecA|\ com A!CA *oi, 
comboi mtlAccun 5 A ^r A - 120 

DO nAich A Ac 

ce t)0]"epnACAn 
t)Airenn mn A 1nmu1ieccAib, 125 

oen niAc1iAin ITlAic Tli^ 

Comt) mmmenc 
tlonbun oibencAicli 

Amc^AC ATnmt)A Attm-o cno, 130 

m yen pon'OA^o^yecAn 

^OIUA mynich cotAnt) x>6. 
An t)oni5ne oo fencAib 

niyAil t)o|iuinme cocenu, 

-ArnnA no^Ab pnonTo tu^tDAch, 135 

Unenfen mw^Aib Anenc. 
OmnA nActiAn^Aib myluA^, 

Inyechc nAite, T>i5neiy ciou, 

Aybenc AinTTlAc IA bni^cAe 

co Ainm inochl^At) Aboch. 140 

1nfec An^Aic-nA-o ctechi 

Afl lite fp1 fnAIC IITOniAT), 

f mmuin ftiic noic, 

imme-oon iAcb. 

mbAnunebchAch 145 

Anx)ouuAcnc imTTlAi^ Coit 

109. Cent>Abfvec. .1. robiM^ .... -po b|\<Mj<MC m-oeicTi [the (harness) 

broke upon the breast of tt.e horse]. 110 -OoiAecTiecAp .1. i\o peicrecAp 
'they were going] 112. popopAi'O __ 1> ^ Q pip|, ecA ^ no, ^\o po^cAgfecAfv. 
'helped or relieved (her)]. 120 "S^b^A .1 cellAC mop pi tm niAig X^Agen 
[a great hill situated in the phiin of Leinster]. 121. Af|\ip. .1. |\o e|\nAfCA]\ 
%he bestowed]. 123. ConfelAi. 1. |\o elxvi, no pofiu ...... [he 

escaped or . . . . ] 124. Ce-oor-eptiACAjv. .1. ce pocAipiecAp [though 

it (the multitude) hunted (him)]. 129. nonbup T>ibej\CAicri. 1. -OtublociAin 
ooib, tic j:ey\cuf\ [it is said they were Danes]. ISO. AtriCfAC ...... 

134. "Oojuujxnie .1. -cone Arupim [difficult to recount them]. 133. Atnj\d 

in praise of St. Brigid. 233 

Equus caput suum e fraeno solvit, 

Dum decurrebant per declive, 110 

Nee idcireo jugum inaequale exstitit, 

Filius enim Dei reg'a manu succurrit. 
Aper frequentabat ejus gregem 

Ab Aquilone, ubi est vallis nunc, 

Quern Brigida baculo suo benedixit, 115 

Cum grege jugiter permansit. 
Porcum pinguem ipsi datura 

Per campum Mage Fea, res praeclara, 

Insecuti sunt eum lupi, 

Usque dura veniret ad Uachter Gabhra. 120 

Tradidit vulpem sylvestrem, 

Donum curatori suo miserabili ; 

Ad sylvam postea evasit 

Quamvis eum persequebantur turmae. 
Clarum fuit in ejus gestis 125 

Quod singularis mater fuerit Filii Regis Magni ; 

Benedixit avem volatilem, 

Ita ut luderet super ejus manum. 
Novem latrones benedixit 

Qui intinxerunt sua arma in sanguine, 130 

Sed quern impetebant 

Lanceis, non habebat corpus [i.e. fuit species inanis]. 
Quantas fecerit virtutes, 

Nullus est qui referre posset plane, 

Praeclarum qualiter minuerit edacitatem Lugadii, 185 

Pugilis, et ejus non extinxit vires. 
Arborem quern dimovere non poterat multitude, 

Alia vice, praeclara virtus, 

Transtulit ejus Filius pro Brigida, 

Ad locum ubi (ipsa Brigida) moderatarn agebat vitam. 140 
Gemma argentea, quod silendum non est, 

Quae, ut malum servae militis fieret, 

Projecta est longo jactuin mari, 

Reperitur in ventre salmonis. 
Praeclarum ipsi qualiter viduae 145 

Succurrerit in Campo Caoil, 

gAib [well she took]. P|\oint). .1. |\O"oi5Aib 
she diminished the meal]. 138. Cloc. .1. epgne .1. ctocAd, ingmw [illustrious, 
e., famous, the deed]. 139. Am AC. .1. Cjvifc [Christ]. 140. Co Aipm. .1. co 
hnie-o [to the place]. IpocTilAi-o A bocK .1. 1 f OC|\AX> .1. itj\o bo rriAit A bich 
[when her life was mortified, i.e., holy]. 141. TlA-octecln. .1. flA|\ bo coi|\ .1. 
oocteic, no -oo -oiceilc [which it would not be just to conceal, or forget]. 142. 
1P|\1 fpAic. .1. -ppi cutnAit [towards the handmaid]. Int) ITIA-O. .1. in c|\en fep 
[the champion]. 143. jTuic. .1. -pocA [long]. Uoic. .1. e|\clioii\ [cast], 144. 
l4cK .1. 111 bpACAin [the salmon]. 145. Arnj\A. .1. WAicli .1. x>o "bjMpc 
[good, i.e., for Brigid]. 146. ApxiouccAcc. .1. A^oe^cAig [she succoured?]. 

234 Ancient Irish Hymn of St. Broyan-Cloen 

toifcip m^A] \niAin ntn 
1'on cem icpjm in-oboe^. 


irvonoeb 150 

bA hog 



m chejvo, -pobo Ampu t>i, 

bni$ic fpiAboif 155 

, commebAit) hicp. 
immeit) IA^ incei|\t), 

cix>oen -pcpepul, 

e x)o 
oune x)OT>ecliA; 

ittAic t)o 
An CATI -oobpech x>o 

^Abux) t)i, KJ5 

AmtTlAc jAempe 
oobe|\c oi 

An 61 met) A -01 -oobnech, 

mbo Ancef cech CUCA-I, 170 

coj^pich iuoeb ce^TJAi^e, 
fhcon Ai^necc Ant) chucAi. 
t)opAich A 

Sech m^upechc ^opcpAit) Ant), 175 

mcon ue]"bAt) bAnnA AJ\ 
popt)on luge b^igce bee 
pch -jrjtt ^Abut) co-conjoin, 
mnA tobpAn lech, 

gntiif Spipuu tloeb. 180 

coclAit)ib chenet), 

non-pnAt)Ac Anoeb 
nime -pech 

149. bA mo Atnj\u. .1. bA tno-oe [in cArnpu p^c Aite] t>o -oenAm -AH-O [it was 
^a greater marvel to perform another miracle]. 150. A|\it>|\ALA^cA|\. .1. ]\o 
ImoitsAfCAjx [(Brigid) effected]. 152. "OicVi. .1. -po oinifCAiA [be suckled], 
153. 1r> T)An Afvj^Aic. .1 in tnirro, no incAfCAit) [the gem, or the treasure]]. 
tlA'ocTiornmAij. .1. riA^obpTp [which he broke not.] 155. tlofbi. .1. f\ofbj\ip 
[(Brigid) broke it] 157. Ipocpeff. .1. ^voiAAX) [it was put], tap in cei|\-o 
.1. lAf in cei^-oAi [by the artizan]. 159. tli -pui|\ec1ic. .1. m Ai]\]\ecc [there 
was not observed,] 162. X)une T>ox>ecTiA. .1. "ooene A ciACcuin [a person to 
recount them]. 163. SeriAif -oiliAic. .1. fo t*eriAfCA]\ ecAch [she blessed 
raiment.] 169. Aflol. 1. inx> -OAbAd [the vessel], t)i. .1, oo biMgic [to 

in praise of St. Brigid. 235 

Quae combussit postern novum, 

Super ignem in coquendo vitulum. 
Praeclarius fuit et alterum 

Quod praestitit Sancta, 150 

Mane postis repertus est integer, 

Et matrem sugebat vitulus. 
Donarium argenteum quod non potuit frangere 

Faber aerarius, praeclarum erat Sanctae, 

Fregit Brigida sua manu 155 

Postea, ut exsilierit in tres partes. 
Ponderatae erant partes per artificem, 

Repertum est, post hoc miraculum aliud, 

Ne scrupula quidem est inventa, 

Qua pars tertia maior altera fuit. 160 

Quot patravit miracula, 

Non est qui plene posset referre, 

Benedixit paramenta Conlaido, 

Quando ad Italiam ibat, 
Quando erant ei necessaria, 165 

Ejus Filius ante earn ipsam non decipiebat, 

Attulit illi paramenta in area, 

Quae feliciter posuit in curru. 
Vas mulsi erat ei oblatum, 

Nee detrimenti quidquam passus est offerens, 1 70 

Repertum enim est juxta ejus domum, 

A pud earn non inventum fuit. 
Tradidit illud suo curatori, 

Quando ipsi erat necessarium, 

Nee repertum est crescere, 175 

Nee ex eo cecidit gutta. 
Protegant nos preces Brigidae, 

Sit protectio ab defendendum rios contra pericula, 

Nos miseri simus sub ejus patrocinio, 

Antequam veniamus ad conspeetum Spiritus Sancti. 180 
Succurrat nobis cum gladio ignito, 

In certarnine contra impetus daemonum malignos, 

Perducant nossanctae ejus preces 

Ad regnum coeleste liberates a poenis. 

Brigid]. Do bf\ec1i. .1. CUCA-O [was brought]. 170. th bo Aticef. .1. 111 bu 
X)omAine x>or> ci cue [it was not disadvantageous to him who brought (it to 
Brigit)]. 173. <\n\ip. .1. i\oej\nArc<\|\ [she bestowed]. AViAcViij. .1. Api|\- 
wuij^xe [her steward]. 175. TH fU|\ectic. .1. rnbAj\tiecc, .1. tiifi\icli [there 
was not observed, i e , not found]. 177. fop -ooti ncge. .1. froi\rmicj;e bpi^ce 
,v |\o[f]o]\CAcc < M5cc -oun Aicjepn .1. "bpsce [upon us (may) Brigid's prayers 
(be), i.e., may her, i.e., Brigid's prayers protect us], "bee. i. j\o bee [may they 

be]. 178. "Oonfoi|\. .1 AJ\ jropi-oin [ . . . our assistance]. 

182. CiAjvi. .1. -oubA .1. elcA -otibA x>ewoin [black, i.e., black 

iiights of demons ..,.]. 184. UonpA-OAC- .1. . . . 

236 Ancient Irish Hymn of St. Broyaii-Cloen 

IA liAin^bu t)on cliAch, 185 

CAchrnec p<xt)Au, ferip cectitiAch, 
nicAfA tofii^ic buAt>Ac1i bich. 
Acceoch erilArn SAncdDfAi^ce, 

Co f AnccAib ChiVle *OAH<X, 190 

|Aobbec ecpom ocuf ph 

Afec Ache ITlAipe, 195 

<vo mil HAITI m<\n mobpige, 

t)1A|ACU1|Ae J 

A nerilxMn, 
m cejMiAm tnte 200 

At) Cr\1fC, ctocVlAcVl tAbflAt), 

TTlAic *Oe 'OAn buAtJA; 
*Oe cenr^enA 

CAcll |AO5 Ab, CAcIl ]AOcVltlAtA. 

, cAch -po^Ab, 205 

|\obbe bennAcc tojAi^ce ^Ai-p ; 
bennAchc bpigce ocuf'Oe, 

oonroicliit 210 

HlAir\e ocii]" SATICC 

[ ..... our deliverance]. 187. C^cTimec. .1. Cornice .1. 1rn]\ec|\A 
[protection]. pA'DAc. .1. in "Oe m<xic [of the good God]. Cecil riAcli. .i.cecli 
DAriA [each science]. 189. eyvtAm. .1. e|\el.Aiii .1. ATobot AllArn -p|\i oeriAtn 
fei\CA ocu^: mi^bAite [great her hand, i.e., wonderful her hand in working 
miracles and prodigies]. 193. Im^e-oet). .1. f\o iMAX>A5et> .1. ]\o uncecc [who 

in praise of St. Brigid. 237 

Antequam eainus cum angelis ad certamen, 185 

Curramus ad Ecclesiam celeriter ; 

Protectio Domini praestantior est omni officio, 

Non amavit Brigida victoriosa mundum. 
Precor patrocinium Sanctae Brigidae, 

Cum Sanctis Killdariensibus, 190 

Se interponant inter nos et poenas, 

Anima mea in perditionem ne veniat. 
Sanctiinonialis quae percurrebat Curreach, 

Sit noster clypeus contra arma acuta, 

Non invenit sui similem praeter Mariam, 195 

Confidamus in Virtute mea, [i.e. Brigida]. 
Confidamus in Virtute mea, 

Sit protectrix nostris turmis, 

Adjuvet ejus patrocinium, 

Ut mereamur omnes evadere. 200 

Laudes Christi sermo preclarus, 

Adorare Dei Filium officium victoriosum ; 

Regnum coeleste obtineat, 

Quicunque recitaverit, quicunque audierit. 
Quisquis auscultaverit, quisquis recitaverit, 205 

Benedictio Brigidae sit su^er eum, 

Benedictio Brigidae et Dei, 

Sit super recitantes simul. 
Sunt duae sanctae virgines in caelis, 

Quae suscipiant meam protectionem, 210 

Maria et Sancta Brigida, 

Quarum patrocinio innitamur singuli. 

drove, i.e., who went]. Cu|\|\ecli. .1. a cursu equorum dictus eit. 199. 

CoriAcj\A 1. -|\o cognA [may it help me], 200. Aj\|\oi1tem. .1. |\oe|\nAtti 

[may we deserve], 201. ClochAcK .1. 4ijvoij\c [distinguished]. 210. X)otn 

x>ichi1L .1 In the MS. Trinity College, Dublin, is added the Latin 


" Sancta Brigitta virgo Sacratissima 
In Christo Domino fait fidelissima. Amen '. 



" This i* the forest primeval. The murmuring pines and the hemlocks, 
Bearded with moss, and in garments green, indistinct in the twilight, 
Stand like Druids of old, with voices sad and prophetic, 
Stand like harpers hoar, with beards that rest on their bosoms. 
Loud from its rocky caverns, the deep- voiced neighbotiring ocean 
Speaks, and in accents disconsolate answers the wail of the forest. 
This is the forest primeval; but where are the hearts that beneath it 
Leaped like the roe, when hehears in the woodland the voice of the huntsman ?" 

LONGFELLOW'S Evangeline. 

BENEATH the pines of the Arcadian forests described in these 
lines by the poet, the Catholic Church lias created a civilization 
which she alone has power to create, and which may well put 
to shame the civilization of which older nations are so proud. 
In these solitudes as elsewhere, ur,der her saving influences, 
the stern wilderness has rejoiced and has flourished- like the 
lily; it has budded forth and blossomed, and has rejoiced 
with joy and praise. 1 True, the civilization of which we speak 
has none of the splendour or luxury of that of Europe ; its glory 
is entirely from within. It has its seat in a poor tribe of Indians 
won from their unbelief to the faith of Christ ; its triumphs are 
not so much over the material world as over the inner world of 
the hearts of these poor and unknown men. The Souroquois, com- 
monly called Micmacs (men practising secrets), were a large and 
powerful nation, occupying the present Nova Scotia, the Atlantic 
coast of New Brunswick, the southern shore of the St. Lawrence, 
and the islands of the gulf of the same river as far east as New- 
foundland. In 1760, when Maynard made his submission to the 
British, the Micmacs were three thousand in number, yet at that 
time their number was considerably diminished. They are now 
about two thousand. They still hold large tracts of land. In 
Cape Breton alone, government has secured to them fourteen 
thousand acres of excellent land. Whilst in the United States 
the Indian tribes are fast disappearing before the white man, being 
mowed down by the vices which the latter has implanted among 
them, the Micmacs have been preserved, and their preservation 
is owing to the Catholic Church. In seven years the Indians in 
the States have lost seventy-four thousand souls, while the Mic- 
macs are still almost what they were one hundred years ago. 
One of the missionaries who has spent his life among them has 
communicated to us a truthful picture of what Catholicity has 
done for the Micmacs, and that picture we now wish to lay 
before our readers in all simplicity. 

1 Isaias, zxxv. 2. 

The Catholic Church in the Wilderness. 239 

The Micmacs pay particular honour to the Blessed Trinity ; 
for that reason they sign themselves frequently with the holy 
sign of the cross. They have a great devotion towards our crucified 
Saviour ; hence they sing and read often His passion, and have 
it represented in their chapels by the stations ; hence their great 
respect for crosses and crucifixes. They have a great devotion 
towards Jesus in the Blessed Sacrament, in honour of which they 
have several hymns, canticles, the whole doctrine of it being put 
into verses, which they sing like psalms. They have also a 
great devotion towards the Infant Jesus. I never read more 
beautiful and tender compositions than they have in their lan- 

They have a great devotion towards the saints. Those whom 
they honour in particular are : the ever Blessed Virgin Mary, 
called our Mother Mary, St. Joseph, St. Joachim, called Suasin, 
their patron saint, their guardian angel, but above all St. Anne, 
the glorious patroness of the whole tribe. She is called by them 
our grandmother St. Anne. They know several prayers, hymns, 
and canticles in honour of St. Anne, our Mother Mary, St. 
Joseph, St. Suasin, my angel, and of the patron saint. Several 
of these are said during the morning and evening prayers. 
Every little child knows our mother Mary, and our grand- 
mother St. Anne. The names of these saints are often repeated 
during the day, as, our Mother Mary^ help me; but grandmother 
St. Anne, pray for me- They make also novenas in honour of 
those saints. They have pictures of them which they keep 
with the greatest care. Every chapel is under the invocation 
of St. Anne. Every one knows with what solemnity the feast 
of St. Anne is celebrated amongst them. 

They make often pilgrimages in honour of St. Anne. When 
they are in great danger on the sea in their canoe, or in the 
winter hunting in the woods, or to obtain the grace of baptism 
for a child not yet born, or to be restored to health, or to obtain 
some other favours from heaven through the intercession of 
St. Anne, they make a vow to visit one of the places where 
she is honoured, and to offer some presents in that place. I 
saw an Indian who was very sick and given up by all. He 
made a vow to visit St. Anne in Canada, if God would restore 
him to health. His petition was granted, and he walked all the 
way to Canada and back. In general they make the vow to go 
to the Indian Island, C B., and to other chapels, and also to 
places where crosses are erected. 

Though the holy names of our mother Mary, of St. Anne, 
etc., are often repeated by the Micmacs, yet they will always 
pronounce them with reverence in their necessities and dis- 


240 The Catholic Church in the Wilderness. 

tress of soul and body. Jesus, have pity on me; our Great Spirit, 
have mercy; our mother Mary, 1 beseech thee to help me, etc., are fre- 
quent expressions ; but they will never pronounce them in vain in a 
disappointment or a passion, as far as I know. They have no idea 
that holy names should be pronounced in trivial matters or in 
passion. When the Micmac speaks of God, of His saints, of 
holy things, he will be very serious. A girl was once accused 
for having committed a grave fault. And what had she done? 
She was smiling a little while she was instructing little children. 
I know of no expression in that language which amounts to a 

Whenever any of the Micmacs has offended another by quar- 
relling, fighting, or by provoking any one to anger, or encou- 
raging him to fight, or by giving bad example by his conduct 
to any one, he has to ask publicly pardon, which is called in 
their language, Habiksiktadimk. The offender has to go in 
the wigwam of him whom he has offended ; all the relations of both 
parties who are present, as also the neighbours, assemble. One 
of the old people will make a speech to exhort them to pardon. 
He who has received the offence expresses then his case, and 
also the offender. All this is done quietly. Then the offender 
rises, goes before the other one, kneels down, and says: My 
friend, forgive me; after which he kisses him, and he gives the 
kiss of peace to every one present. This is done with the greatest 
silence. Then the other party rises, goes to his offender, kneels 
down, and says : My friend, 1 forgive thee; after that he kisses him, 
arid all present receive the kiss of peace. 

One of the chiefs or one of the old people again makes a speech. 
Every one of both parties receives a penance, with the difference, 
that the offender gets a greater one. After the pardon all is 
forgotten, it is even forbidden to mention it again. If the offence 
has been grievous, such as fighting, etc., then the two parties will 
go to confession after the ceremony is over. 

If one of the young men or women has offended an aged per- 
son, though the latter may have been the first to provoke him, 
the young people have to go into the old man's camp and ask 
pardon; for they say we ought to respect old people, and 
not speak before them. This is also the case if a son or a 
daughter answer their parents, or give them a reprimand, or 
strike them. If a husband has left his wife, and has gone to 
live in another wigwam, he must be the first to ask the pardon. 
But if she has given him reason for doing so, she has to come 
to the camp he is living in, and be the first to ask pardon. 

If the two parties refuse to make use of the pardon, the 
chief has to prepare them, or the captains are employed as peace- 
makers, or others who have some influence over them. This is 

The Catholic Church in the Wilderness. 241 

very seldom the case. I know but of a single one during six 
years. Two men were quarrelling about a piece of cleared land. 
Each one of them pretended it was his own, and that the other 
ought to come into his wigwam to ask first pardon. They 
remained about a month in that state. 

Besides this public pardon there is a private one. Before 
any one goes to confession he will go to the wigwam of those 
he has offended, or who have done anything against him, and 
will ask their pardon and give them the kiss of peace. If any 
one refuse him pardon, he cannot go to confession. 

If any one of them is very sick, all those who have offended 
him, and who have been offended by him, will go to visit him 
and ask pardon. After his death they all pardon one another. 

Besides the public and private pardon, there is also a general 
one, which takes place on Good Friday. The whole tribe comes 
together on that day. The chief, or whoever presides, gives an 
exhortation on forgiveness. Then the chief will ask pardon of 
all for the offences during the year ; then the old men ; and so on. 
The pax will not be given on this occasion ; and the women 
will not ask pardon on that day. 

Little children who have offended others will only receive 
nibisochen discipline, and do not make use of the pardon. 


The Micmac is well known for his great charity. You may 
well say that the whole tribe forms but one family, and that 
everything is common amongst them, food, clothes, tools, wig- 
wam, etc. If they get anything, they will divide with their 
neighbours ; or if it is too small to be divided, they will invite 
them to their wigwams. If any one of them has had a good 
hunting, such as killing a moose, or a good fishing, every one will 
partake of it, and there will be feast for all every day as long as it 
lasts. If anyone enters a Micmac's wigwam while he is at a rneal, 
he will be invited and get thasame portion as the rest, should he 
even be entirely unknown to him. The Micmac will consider 
it as an injury if any other Micmac enters his camp at the time 
of a meal and does not partake of it with him. At any time by day 
or by night that a stranger enters the camp, the woman will never 
fail to prepare the little food that she has. They consider it a 
great honour if a white man eats with them. 

Old people, orphans, the sick and infirm, are particular 
objects of the Indian's charity. An old man who has no near 
relation to take care of him, is taken into the family of a young 
man, who treats him just as his own father. The other 
Indians will bring him from time to time something to comfort 
him in his old age. They make, from time to time, collections 

242 The Catholic Church in the Wilderness. 

amongst themselves to buy for him what he stands in need of, 
and you will observe that, in general, old people are better 
dressed and fed than the rest. A very old Indian brought me 
one day six shillings and three pence. I asked him from whom 
he had got it, for I knew he was unable to work, and others 
supported him. He told me that the Indians had made a col- 
lection for him to buy some food and clothes. " My food", he 
said, " is good, I do not wish for a better ; my clothes are 
also good for the short time I have to remain here ; but my soul 
wants some food and clothes, that it may be well dressed when 
it goes before the Great Spirit". 

If the parents die and leave children behind them, every family 
is desirous to take them into its own household. They are not 
well pleased if another family gets the preference. They con- 
sider and treat an adopted child as their own. The Micmac 
would never permit that any child belonging to the tribe should 
be received into the family of a white man. He does not only 
like to receive into his family orphans belonging to his tribe, 
but he likes also to get orphans or abandoned children belonging 
to the white people, and even to the blacks. Last week an 
Indian family came to me. They had a black baby, whom they 
got from a Baptist girl in the Gut of Canso. I admired the great 
love, attachment, and care they had for the little mulatto. He 
died a few days ago in my camp. They were very sorry. I 
asked the Indian : " Are you glad the baby is gone home ?" 
" No, my father", he said, " I feel sorry in my heart, but I am 
glad he has received baptism, and is gone to the Great Spirit, 
where he prays for me and my family. If I had not taken him 
the poor child would not have received baptism". Some of the 
Indians came even from Pomquette (a distance of ten miles), to 
assist at his funeral. If any one is sick, every one visits him 
continually ; they will travel twenty to forty miles to visit him. 
Every one will bring him something; they prepare medicine 
for him ; go to the white people to get something better than 
they can give him themselves ; they speak to him of heaven, of 
Jesus, of the Great Spirit, of our Mother Mary, of St. Anne, etc. 
They say prayers for him ; if his sickness increases, every one 
considers it as an honour to go for the priest, and even if the 
priest's house be very far off. In a word, each strives to alleviate 
his position, and prepare him for eternity. When a woman is 
sick, the other women will take care of her children ; and if 
there is no daughter in the family able to work, every woman 
will take her turn to prepare the food. Every morning and 
evening they pray for their benefactors, and for all people in the 
world, dead and living. On every great festivities they make a 
collection in their chapels, and that money is destined to get 

The Catholic Church in the Wilderness. 243 

masses said for all who live in this world. They will say: 
" This mass is for the Pope, bishops, priests, and all living in the 

I repeat it, all the Micmac live in such a way as if they were 
but one family. They make also use of no other name amongst 
them than brother, sister, father, mother, grandfather^ grand- 
mother, son, daughter. They have many other names in Mic- 
mac, but they use them only when they speak amongst them of 
others not belonging to the tribe. 

A man or boy will call every woman, if she is older than him- 
self, my older sister; if younger, my younger sister. A woman 
or girl will call a man and boy, if he is older than herself, my 
older brother; if younger, my younger brother. A child is called, 
my son, my daughter, or my child. Every old man is called by 
young people, my grandfather; if he has never been married, 
my uncle. An old woman is called, my grandmother. But a 
husband calls his wife my wife, or my friend; and she calls him 
my husband, or my friend. 

From those names you may see that they consider themselves 
as all belonging to one and the same family. 

The Micmac children show always a great respect, love, obe- 
dience, and assistance towards their parents. They will never 
speak in their presence whenever strangers are present. When 
they have done anything that displeases them, they will kneel 
down before them, ask pardon, and kiss them, after which a pen- 
ance is imposed upon them. They do not speak disrespectfully 
of them, never mention their faults, not even to the priest. 
Nothing could give more grief to an Indian boy or girl, than to 
mention in his presence a fault which his parents have commit- 
ted. In the wigwams they give the first place to their parents, 
and should any one occupy that place of honour during the ab- 
sence of the parents, as soon as they see the father coming home, 
they will leave that place. They will never pass before their 
parents, except tli3re are strangers or old people on the opposite 
side, and then they will always make it known to them. They 
obey them punctually in the least things. They firmly believe 
that if they disobey them, they disobey the Great Spirit, who will 
punish them and shorten their life. They will never do any 
thing, or go to anyplace, without asking their permission. 

The assistance they give to their parents during life, and in 
their sickness, and after their death, is beyond description. I 
saw boys who in the morning left the wigwam, and brought to 
their parents in the evening the little food they had got, without 
having touched it themselves. Every thing they earn and receive 
they bring to their parents, without retaining for themselves the 
least thing. Sometimes the boys go in a season of distress 

244 The Catholic Church in the Wilderness. 

a great distance, to where some money can be made, and they 
bring every penny home, and give it cheerfully to the father. 
I know a widow of forty, who by her hard labour supports her 
sick mother, her blind grandmother, and an orphan boy, 

An Indian family was living alone in the winter in the woods ; 
the mother became sick ; the boy walked over sixty miles in deep 
snow to get a priest for her. 

After the death of their parents they pray for them every day 
during one year, and are most careful to have masses said for 
them. They will give the value of the crosses and medals they 
have received from them for the same purpose. 

The parents have a great love and attachment for their 
children. Before the child is born they will pray daily that he 
may receive baptism. It gives them a great trouble if one of them 
dies without that sacrament. The mother can never forget it, 
not even in her old age. You will hear them saying, " My 
father, I have something in my heart that troubles me ; my 
child died many years ago, and has not been baptized. Poor 
child, it cannot see the Saviour. It is not buried in blessed 
soil. I cannot have masses for it, I cannot see it when I die", etc. 

The Micmacs believe that those children go to a dark place, 
where they will remain until the end of the world, and having 
not yet had their time of probation, they will then get it, and it 
will be of a short duration. 

After the birth of the child there are prayers of thanksgiving 
to God and to the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Anne, to be said 
by the parents. The child is brought the same day, if possible, 
to the priest. If it is sick and no priest near, one of the Indians 
will give him private baptism. Many of them, especially the 
catechists, know very well how to give it. A great number 
of the children die very young, and some who have received 
but private baptism. 

One of the children was suddenly born in a canoe on the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence. It was dangerously ill, and the father 
baptized it, and it died before they^ landed. I asked the father, 
" Why did you baptize it?" He said, " There was no other one 
in the canoe but I myself, my wife, and my little children". He 
had baptized it well with water from the St. Lawrence. 

The mother will never fail to present herself for the benedic- 
tion post partum. It is called in Micmac the entering into the 
Church. They consider it of the greatest importance. They be- 
lieve that if any woman dies without having received it she cannot 
enter heaven, and has to wait in purgatory until another woman 
applies her own, which she has received, though many years ago, 
from the priest, to her. If, therefore, any one is dangerously 
sick, who has not received the purification post partum, another 

The Catholic Church in the Wilderness. 245 

woman will give her her churching, and then she will come again 
to the priest to get it back. It is very difficult to convince them 
of the contrary. They are not well satisfied with the practice of 
those priests who tell them, when they present themselves post 
partum, it is not necessary ; when you go to confession you are 
churched. The hieroglyphical book of rites which they possess 
tells the women that they have to receive the churching before 


The parents teach the children all the prayers and singing 
they know themselves ; and they pay other Indians, who are 
good scholars, to teach them. The parents are proud of their 
children in this respect. The more they know of prayers, cate- 
chism, instructions, the more the parents like it. I said to an In- 
dian, " Look at that boy, he knows one hundred different prayers". 
He said: " Look at my boy, who knows one hundred and four- 
teen". He really knew them, and was but eleven years old. 
He who knows all their books is considered a great scholar and 
a wise man, and he is set to teach others. There is great emula- 
tion amongst them : one tries to surpass another in learning the 
prayers and Catechism. A mother will repeat continually to her 
baby the words, Jesus, our Mother Mary, St. -Anne; so that they 
are the first words the child learns to pronounce. When they 
commence to talk, they will continually recite before them the 
small catechism; so that the little children learn it by heart 
before they know what they pronounce. 

In the evening, sitting around the fire in the wigwams, they 
relate the principal events of the Old and New Testament, and 
they make a deep impression on the children's minds. 

As soon as the child knows well his prayers and the small 
catechism, he is permitted to go to his first confession. The 
mother will give him an instruction on confession, examine his 
conscience, and tell him of what he has to accuse himself. As 
she is watching her child continually, she knows his faults I 
listen sometimes with the greatest attention to these motherly in- 
structions to children. It is astonishing how simply and beautifully 
the mother explains to her child the sacrament of confession. After 
his first confession he will commence to learn Kornmuneuli, which 
is a large treatise on communion only. It contains the prayers 
to be said before and after communion, which have to be learned 
by heart ; the preparations for soul and body, etc. After that 
they learn the large catechism, the historical catechism, etc. 

The parents are inconsolable if a child who is preparing for 
his first communion dies without it, and they will do all they 
can that he may receive it before he goes to his home. 

246 The Catholic Church in the Wilderness. 

It must not be forgotten to mention that the parents make 
frequent use of the discipline for the children. For the least 
thing it will be applied or only shown to them. 

When a son is old enough to get married, his parents will give 
him a private instruction, and tell him to go and look for a good 
wife. If he knows already one that pleases him, he will inform 
them ; if not, he will depart to look for one. Having found a 
person that pleases him, he tells her nothing about marrying, 
neither does he speak of it to her parents ; but returns to his 
own parents, and informs them, and the matter will be settled 
between the parents of the bridegroom and bride ; all the rela- 
tions of both will be consulted; and at last, after they have 
given their consent, the marriage will take place. 

When a Micmac takes sick, the chief will be informed of it in 
order to make it known to all. All his relations, and every 
Indian belonging to that place, though he may be far off, will 
come to see him. If the sickness is dangerous, the priest will be 
sent for. They are afraid of nothing more than to die without 
a priest. If they fear that he will die before the arrival of 
the priest, the sick person will take a crucifix, which is kept in 
every family for that purpose, into his hands, and having said, 
with the assistance of a catechist, all the prayers before con- 
fession, he confesses his sins publicly to the crucifix; which is 
called confession to Jesus. After that he says the prayers after 
confession. He continues frequently to repeat the act of con- 
trition, with a desire to see the priest and confess to him. 
One of them had just expired when the priest from a far distance 
arrived. He had the crucifix in his hands, his eyes were turned 
towards the direction he expected the priest to come. The 
priest was told that he was asking continually for him: his 
last words were, that he was very sorry he could not see the 

In their books there are prayers to be said and psalm to be 
sung in the beginning and end of the sickness, during the agony, 
and after the patient has expired. 

One of them is appointed to prepare the sick man for death. He 
says prayers for him and reads to him. The sick person will 
often recite short prayers. One which he repeats oiten is this : 
My dear Jesus, to heaven 1 desire to go. When he is in his 
agony, all will assemble around him ; he is exhorted to pronounce 
in his heart Jesus, Mary, Joseph, St. Anne, while they are 
singing the prescribed prayers and psalms. They sprinkle him 
and the wigwam often with holy water in his sickness, and 
especially in his agony, and after he is gone home. Medals and 
the crucifix are often presented to him to kiss ; and if he is not 
able to keep it himself in his hands, they apply the crucifix to 

The Catholic Church in the Wilderness. 247 

his lips to kiss it. They like also to give him into his hands, 
while in agony, a lighted blessed candle. But if the Driest is 
present, they will perform none of their own ceremonies, but 
leave the whole over to him. They would not dare to do any- 
thing while he is present. I never saw any one who did not like 
to die, or who was afraid to die. They speak to you of heaven as 
of their home, and he will tell you with a cheerful countenance : 
/ wish to go home. 

It is astonishing what beautiful instructions a dying father or 
mother gives to his children. Last fall I visited several times 
an Indian at some distance from this. His last instructions to his 
wife and children would deserve to be written as an example. 

After death, they wash the body. They prefer salt water for 
this purpose, if they can get it, and put some holy water in it. 
Prayers are said outside the wigwam, while the body is being 
washed iaside in it. The object of those prayers is that, as the 
body is undergoing a washing, so the soul may be washed from 
everything that is preventing its entry into heaven. 

A cross or a medal is put around his neck, and a pair of beads 
put into his joined hands. Then they will make a collection 
amongst themselves. Every one will give something, and if he 
has no money, he will put a basket, a handkerchief, a knife, 
etc., which will be turned into money. The amount of the col- 
lection is brought to the priest for masses. Day and night the 
body is surrounded by watches. Prayers are said, hymns and 
psalms are sung. The chief will bury him, if no priest is present. 
He uses his own ritual. It is a translation from an old French 
ritual. The ceremony for an adult is very long. He is brought 
in procession to the graveyard, the cross that is to be placed on 
his tomb precedes. When the coffin is in the grave, every one 
of them puts a handful of clay on it. 

All that belonged to the departed, as his clothes, tools, etc., will 
be sold at public auction amongst themselves, and the amount 
is given for masses for his soul. If an infant should die or a child 
before it has attained the use of reason, the money obtained from 
the selling of his clothes, etc., will be given to have masses said 
for all the nearest relations of the child that may be in Purga- 
tory. They will say to the priest: "This money belongs to 
that child ; but he is with the Great Spirit, he does not want it. 
But he has relations who may be in Purgatory, and he will give 
it to them, that they may sooner see one another in heaven". 

The relations of the departed will also during the year make 
several collections for masses for him. The children will ask for 
masses for their parents, though they are many years dead. Last 
year an Indian mude an offering for masses for his father and 
mother who died fifteen years ago ; and yesterday the same 
Indian returned to me on the same errand, 

248 The Catholic Church in the Wilderness. 

Besides the masses, they pray for the dead, give alms for them, 
they fast, take the discipline, receive the sacraments, etc. They 
never forget the dead. When they come to any place where one 
has been buried they will not pass by without paying him a 
visit and praying on his tomb. After the death of any one he 
will be mourned by his relations. The children mourn their 
parents one year. The mourning clothes will be put on them by 
the father or mother or nearest relation, and they will be taken 
off from them by the same after one year. They perform a 
ceremony on putting them on and taking them off. 

The heart of the Micmac is filled with grief and sorrow at 
the death of a relation. A father related to me a few days ago 
the death of his daughter of two years, who died a few weeks 
ago. He was shedding tears, and was so moved that he could 
not continue his description of how she died. Sometimes they seem 
to be insensible, and any one who does not know their nature 
would consider them as having no feelings But if you knew his 
language, then you could see what passes in his heart. At the death 
of any relation or friend, they are interiorly so much affected 
and moved that they seem exteriorly to be cold and without 
feelings. The only thing that consoles him is, that he will see 
soon in Heaven his dearly beloved ones. 


There are no vices amongst the Micmacs, if we except a few 
they have contracted from the white man. Riches, and the 
desire to become rich, and to obtain honours, are the root of 
nearly all vices. The poor Indian possesses nothing, and has 
no desire for the goods of this world. He cares for nothing 
and looks for nothing but the panem quotidianum. And for 
that reason he is considered by those who do not know the 
nature of the wanderer of the forests, as being lazy and improvi- 
dent. If he have plenty, he will divide it with his neighbours, 
and he lives well as long as it is lasting. If he have nothing, he 
is contented and cheerful. He will go to rest in the evening 
with an empty stomach, not knowing how to get his breakfast in 
the morning, as contented and cheerful as if he had a splendid 
supper. He can bear hunger and cold without complaining or 
being impatient. The word impatience is not even to be found 
in his language. Drunkenness, which they owe to the white man, 
was formerly for a time prevalent amongst them, but it has of 
late years so diminished amongst them, that there are at present 
but very few drunkards to be found ; and that vice will soon 
disappear, since the association of temperance has been instituted 
amongst them, in which they renew their resolutions every year 
on St. Anne's Day. There are over forty families belonging to 

The Catholic, Church in the Wilderness. 249 

Pomquette, and there are but two amongst them who take some- 
times during the year a little too much, and it is done at the in- 
stigation of the white man. 

Notwithstanding the great poverty of the Micmac, and the 
many occasions by which he is surrounded, he is sure to observe 
the seventh commandment. He says that it is an old command- 
ment, and we must never break any of the old ones. If he 
breaks it, which is very seldom the case, it is always in a great 
necessity to support his body, and he takes only as much as to still 
his hunger, and he will leave some work, as baskets, etc., in the 
same place, to pay the owner. Some families arrived one 
evening near a potato field. They were very hungry, it was late, 
and the houses were far off. They did not know what to do. 
At last they decided to take some potatoes, and to leave the 
value of them in the field. They left several baskets in the field, 
and put stones in them that the wind might not carry them off. 
The owner on finding them was well pleased and admired the 
honesty of the Indians. 

There is also a little jealousy amongst them if one is more 
esteemed by a priest or by some other person than the rest; 
and for this reason they have been accused by some as speaking 
too much one against another. If this occur some time or 
other, it is in general done with the good intention to correct him. 


The Micmacs are punctual in the observance of abstinence 
and fast days, notwithstanding their great poverty. None of 
them will eat meat on Friday. I saw many of them who had 
plenty of venison, but they did not touch it, though they had 
nothing at all but a few boiled potatoes from the preceding day, 
without bread or u bit of fish. Even while they are travelling, 
they will abstain from it except compelled by necessity, and then 
as soon as they can see a priest they will tell him of it. If on 
Fridays they get meat in Protestant houses, they will leave it 
on the plates and eat the other things. A great number of 
them abstain also from eating meat on every Saturday during 
the year. One of their Church commandments says: Meat not 
eat two days before Sunday. It is very difficult to convince them 
that they can now eat it. They will say it is not good to 
change the commandments. Many of them do not touch any 
meat during the whole Lent. I was often compelled to oblige 
mothers who had little children to eat meat on those days. This 
was quite lawful, for the mother having but miserable food, was 
suffering with her child. Those who abstain from meat during 
the whole Lent, are highly praised by the tribe. Young men 
and women, even the old people, and young boys and girls, 

250 The Catholic Church in the Wilderness. 

rival each other in this. Every one tries to imitate the others, 
and they receive in public praise on Palm Sunday, by being held 
up to others as an example to be imitated. He who has abstained 
from meat during the whole Lent, is invited to eat meat on Palm 
Sunday. This practice is contained in their book. Their fast 
is still more severe during the Holy Week. On Good Friday, 
called by them " the Great Friday", many of them abstain from 
eating anything until sunset, others eat nothing but a small piece 
of their own bread baked under the ashes about noon. On that 
day our Saviour's Passion is sung and read publicly, for they 
have it in two different ways. 

They impose often upon themselves fasts during the year, if 
they have committed any fault, or to obtain some favour, either 
for themselves or for others, from heaven. Fasts are also imposed 
upon them by their parents or by the chief, if they have com- 
mitted some public fault. Every Friday during the year they 
take the discipline in honour of our Saviour's scourging. They 
make use of a scourge composed of several small twigs tied 
together, which they call nibisochen. 

The father will give the discipline to every child by striking 
his hands and his naked arms. Prayers arc said while it is 
given. After the head of the family has given it to his wife and 
children, he will receive it from his wife. If the father is absent, 
the mother will give the discipline, and if there is no other 
woman in the camp, she will given it to herself. It is astonish- 
ing to see how little children of five and six years present their 
hands in order to receive it. The discipline is also made use of 
if any of the smaller children does any thing wrong. Tears came 
often in my eyes when I considered the abstinence, fasting, and 
discipline of these good simple children of the forests, consider- 
ing that their whole life is a fasting on account of the poor food, 
and that they have often to fast from necessity. 

They have a great desire to receive the holy sacraments. 
There is no necessity to admonish them to come to confession; 
on the contrary, the missionary has to prevent them, that they 
may not come too often. These innocent people experience the 
full effects of confession and communion. When some of them 
are living in my neighbourhood, they present themselves almost 
every week for confession ; and when I tell them to come back 
next week, they will answer that they have offended God, and 
that they might die without having obtained forgiveness. If 
they have done anything that seems to them a great fault, they 
will come a distance of sixty or eighty miles to make their con- 
fession, and this during the coldest days of winter. I saw women 
walking through the snow, a distance of eighty miles, in order 
to have the happiness to confess in their own language. Many 

The Catholic Church in the Wilderness 251 

of them come every year from the remotest parts of the 
country to confess in their own language. The greatest number 
of them know the prayers before and after confession and com- 
munion by heart; and those who do not know them make use* 
of the book ; and if they cannot read, another will assist them. 
They approach the sacraments with the greatest reverence and 
devotion. Any one who sees them going to communion is edified. 
You can see well by their exterior that they are going to receive 
Jesus Christ Himself After communion they remain motionless 
on their knees, to ask, as they say in their own language, good 
things for the soul and for the body, for themselves and for 
others. And before taking anything after communion they will 
always take some cold water. The day of communion is spent 
in praying, reading, and receiving instruction. 

The Micmac has a great love for the holy virtue of purity. 
Should anyone of them hear improper language, he will run at 
once to bring an accusation against the speaker. The chief and the 
parents will give the culprit a severe reprimand, and he will 
receive a public penance. Whoever behaves with impropriety 
has to appear before the priest, and the chief will impose a 
public penance on him. It is the greatest dishonour and shame 
for a Micmac to be accused of anything against holy purity. 
The children are taught from childhood by their parents to be 
modest. A young woman will not be permitted to leave the 
wigwam in the evening. She will not be permitted to go into 
the houses of the white people unless accompanied by others. 
Very few illegitimate children are in the tribe, and their fathers 
in general belong to the white people, by whom the poor women 
in many cases were seduced by force. There are tt about forty 
Micmac families in a settlement distant about ten miles from 
here. I know them over six years, and during that period 
there is but one illegitimate child. The poor girl had been 
violently seduced by a miserable young Protestant. 1 had 
to do all in my power to prevent her father from killing 
the oppressor. He considered it as the greatest dishonour 
that could befall his family. The poor girl took it so much 
at heart that she died of grief after the child was born. All 
the young women of the tribe then took the resolution to 
cut the fellow's ears off, for they knew that he was passing 
from time to time on a road leading through the woods. I 
prevented them also, and on asking why they intended to cut 
his ears off, that he may be known by all as a bad man, they 

An illegitimate child is considered low amongst them. It can 
never attain the rank of a Micmac. It can never be elected chief. 
They believe also that it is very hard for such a child to enter 

252 The Catholic Church in the Wilderness. 

heaven. They say some of the father's malice remains in him. 
There is something true in this, for such children in general are 
naturally not so innocent as the pure Micmac. 


The Micmac is fond of singing, and every one of the tribe, 
men, women, and children, knows well how to sing. Their voices 
are good. It is remarkable that there is no other song in their 
language, if you except a few war songs, than ecclesiastical, pious 
songs. Their singing book contains the gradual, vesperal, pro- 
cessional, ritual, pious canticles, hymns, psalms, etc. They know 
no other songs but those contained in that book. They will never 
sing any of their war songs except when requested. They sing 
Mass and vespers on Sundays and festivals ; they sing a great 
part of their morning and evening prayers ; they sing in their 
wigwams, on their journeys, while they are working, in the 
woods: you may say, they sing wherever they are. You 
will hear them singing in the woods beautiful hymns and 
canticles in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary, St. Anne, St. 
Joseph, or hymns for Christmas and Easter. I know many 
children from seven to ten years, who sing, besides many other 
songs, mass and vespers. Having a good ear, and hearing the 
songs continually, they must learn it. It is really beautiful to 
hear them sing the Canticum Trium Puerorum, the Passion of 
Christ, His genealogy, etc. 

They sing with feelings of devotion. I saw them shedding 
tears on hearing the singing of Christ's passion. All these holy 
pious songs make a deep impression on these innocent good 
hearts, who are not corrupted by any passion, 

They make frequent use of the sign of the cross during the day, 
and in the night. They will never take any meal in their camps 
without crossing themselves and saying the prayers before and 
after. When they have public dinners, the prayers are longer, 
and a part of them is sung before and after. They sign them- 
selves whenever they eat or drink even the least thing, as an 
apple, or a drink of water, or even medicine. When they 
receive any blessed object from any one, some also when they 
receive any food, sign themselves before receiving it. They 
cross themselves in the evening when they lie down, in the 
morning when they rise ; before they commence any work what- 
soever, and after it ; when they go on a journey, when they come 
home ; when they put on a dress or take it off; in all dangers of 
the body and of the soul, etc. As soon as the child is born, the 
mother will make the sign of the cross over him. When she 
lays her infant down, or takes it up, or before she suckles it, and 
after it, she will cross herself and also sign the infant. The 

The Catholic Church in the Wilderness. 253 

children are often requested by their parents during the day to 
cross themselves. In general they have a great veneration 
for that holy sign, and it is very often made by them. 

The Micmac has a great love, respect, and attachment for 
everything that is blessed, as rosaries, medals, holy water, 
candles, etc. Every one knows that the Micmacs consider as 
the most beautiful neck ornament, a pair of beads, a medal, a 
cross. They kiss those blessed articles often and with devotion. 
Many of them say the prayer beads every day, others but a part 
of it, even on their journeys. They recite it while they are 
walking. All people who are unable to do anything repeat 
their beads several times during the day. I know one old Indian 
who says the whole rosary daily for several years. On Sundays 
and festivals, at the death of any one, and on some other occa- 
sions, they recite the beads in common. Holy water and blessed 
candles are often used by them. They take them also as a 
medicine when they are sick, and apply them to the sore part of 
the body. They keep them for such purpose* for years. I saw 
pieces of wax candles amongst them which have been blessed by 
the Rev. Father Vincent. They consider blessed things of great 
value. I know some of them who were looking several days in 
the woods for a cross, or a medal, or a pair of beads they had 
lost. I saw others who went back over twenty miles, all the 
way they had come, in order to find a cross, or a medal, they 
had lost. A gentleman offered two pounds to an Indian for a 
silver cross, but he would not sell it for any price. I offered 
myself to another Indian ten dollars for a silver cross. I knew 
he stood in need of money, and I knew also that they do not 
like to refuse to a priest. " Fathr", he said, " I like that cross 
much, it has saved me from many dangers. If I take that 
money, in a few days it is gone ; but I have always my cross". 
One of them lost a rosary in the woods. He was looking for it 
for three days, but could not find it. I gave him another pair. 
Afterwards he brought mine back, and told me he had found 
his after having made another search in the woods with the help 
of others. I asked him : " Why were you again looking for it ? I 
gave you a better pair". " Father", he said, " I was very sorry 
that it was lying in the woods". 

Before a lather or a mother dies, they give their children the 
blessed articles they possess. The children prefer them to anything 
in this world. They would rather die than to part with the 
articles thus received. They are handed d :>wn to their great- 
grandchildren, and you will still find small silver crosses amongst 
them, which were given to them by the Rev Father Maillard, 
who died in 1762. If any one dies they put a cross or a medal 
around his neck, and bury him with it 

VOL, IV. 18 

254 The Catholic Church in the Wilderness, 

Some of them wear also the scapular. Every one would like 
to wear it, but only those who prepare themselves for years will 
be admitted into that confraternity. 

They have a great respect for their chapels, graveyards, and 
all things connected to them. The chapel is called by them the 
Prayer house, the Creator His house. They behave also in it and 
towards it as if it was the house of God. One of them is 
appointed to keep it clean and in order, and he has to inform the 
chief if any thing stands in need of repair. For that purpose 
one of the chiefs keeps some money taken from the collection 
made on great festivals. One of them keeps the keys of the 
church, and he considers that office as a high honour. They 
will not suffer anything outside of it that would not become the 
house of God. Last St. Anne's day a few young white fellows 
commenced to dance in the evening near the chapel. As soon 
as the Indians heard of it, all the men ran to that place, and the 
white fellows had a narrow escape. They were highly scanda- 
lized at the conduct of such Catholics, and they came to the 
priest and asked satisfaction for it. 

In all their chapels the stations of the Way of the Cross are 
erected. I do not know whether it has ever been canonically 
erected. If they are living in the neighbourhood of the chapel, 
they will make on every Friday the via crucis. 

There is a large cross erected in every graveyard. There is 
a pious practice amongst them to pray before it on every Friday 
during Lent. I know Indians who go there every Lent, though 
they are living several miles from it. No inclemency of weather 
can prevent them. That cross is called Mount Calvary. Crosses 
are erected on every tomb. They visit often their cemeteries, 
and pray on the graves of their departed relatives and friends. 
The sprinkle also, from time to time, holy water over the tombs. 

Every one knows their esteem, obedience, love, and attach- 
ment to the priests. He is called the Creator His servant; he 
who speaks to us in the name of the Great Spirit They call him 
our father, or my father. I never heard them speak disrespectfully 
of any Padlias, as they call them ;on the contrary, they will always 
speak with the greatest respect of him amongst themselves and 
to others. The children are taught from childhood to respect 
them. In their catechism book there are several chapters on 
the respect, love, and obedience they owe to the priest. Any- 
thing he tells them to do, they will do it immediately. I have 
not the least doubt that if a priest were assaulted in their 
presence, they would defend him with their own lives. They 
often request the Padlias to say prayers for them. 

The Indian is and will always remain childish in his disposi- 
tion, and in his manner of acting. Happy are these children, 
for the regnum coelorum is promised to them. 



A REMARKABLE article in the Quarterly Review for January 
addresses itself to the well-worn question, " What shall we do 
for Ireland?" The ability with which the subject is handled, 
the point of view from which it is approached, and the critical 
situation of Irish affairs at the present moment, contribute to give 
to this paper considerable importance. The writer speaks as 
one of the ruling class addressing his peers; and a singular 
parallelism may be traced between the teachings expressed in 
the Quarterly and some recent utterances of a distinguished 
member of the present government. It is probable, therefore, 
that these views are likely to colour and give their character to 
the remedial measures which Ireland and the empire expect 
from parliament during the coming session. 

With the purely political side of the reviewer's remarks we 
have no concern in these pages. But his views on the question 
of the state endowment of the Irish Catholic clergy are such as 
to challenge the attention of all Catholics, and to demand in 
particular a few observations from us. 

Before we set forth his views, it will be well to furnish our 
readers with an outline of the reviewer's method. On the thres- 
hold of his inquiry after the measures best calculated to remedy 
the evils under which Ireland suffers, he lays down a principle 
which, for him, is immutable, and an articulus stantis vel cadentis 
reipublicae. This principle he makes the touch- stone of all the 
plans that have been hitherto proposed to remedy Fenianism, 
emigration, the land agitation, and the agitation against the 
Established Church. Against this principle he measures repeal, 
occasional domestic parliaments, disendowment of the Church, and 
tenant-right, and as he judges them to agree with or to differ from 
his standard, he faithfully accepts or rejects them. Indeed, he 
rejects them all. The result of his investigation is, " that the 
idea of finding in legislation any speedy or complete remedy 
for the discontents of Ireland is a mere delusion". 

This is a hard saying. It is hard to hear that the misfortunes 
of the country are beyond the healing power of the state, and 
that the legislature must abdicate one of its essential qualities, 
its very reason for existing the furthering of the common 
good. And what is this fundamental principle from which the 
reviewer starts, and which, according to him, forbids Ireland to 
hope anything of good from the legislature ? Wise and good 
Irishmen long have toiled, and even now are toiling with infinite 
patience to build up in the people's hearts a peaceful fabric of 

18 B 

256 The " Quarterly Review" on pensions 

hope in constitutional means of redress. What manner of prin- 
ciple is this which, by a single touch, shatters their work to 
atoms ? The reviewer thus announces it : 

" The problem which Ireland presents is not one of abstract justice, 
but of political expediency, not what may be claimed as a right by 
those who deny us any right at all, but what is necessary if we would 
maintain the integrity of the British Empire and its present position 
among the powers of the world. The fundamental principle is, that 
under no conceivable circumstances would England be justified in 
entertaining for a single moment the idea of such a dismemberment 
of the empire as would be involved in the political separation of Ire- 
land from Great Britain. This must underlie all our deliberations, 
and its violation, or a tendency to violate it, should be deemed by 
every good subject utterly fatal to any proposal for the satisfaction 
of Irish discontent. As tending towards such a separation, we reject 
the idea of a repeal of the legislative union ; and as almost equivalent 
to the repeal of the legislature we reject the idea of governing Ire- 
land by Irish opinion, and limiting the functions of English mem- 
bers of Parliament to affirming and recording whatever Irish members 
may agree upon, if indeed they can be induced to agree upon any- 
thing. Lastly, we consider that all demands that may be made for 
change must be viewed with reference to the feelings and wishes of 
those who hold Ireland fast to the British connection, and that, expe- 
dient as it is to conciliate our opponents, it is still more expedient 
not to alienate and disgust our friends". 

Gathering up the ideas contained in these words, we find it held 
that Ireland is to be governed, not according to justice, but accord- 
ing to expediency ; not for the good of her people, but for the good 
of England ; and that all proposed changes must be viewed with 
reference not only to the interests, but even to the feelings and 
wishes of those who hold Ireland fast to England. And who are 
they ? The reviewer plainly states (p. 263) that they are the Saxon 
and Protestant, rather than the Celtic and Catholic elements of 
the Irish population ; and again (pag. 264) that the danger now is, 
not that England should trample on the Catholic, but that she 
should alienate the Protestant. In other words, all Irish ques- 
tions are to be decided according to English interests ; and no 
matter what amount of injustice be perpetrated thereby, the 
feelings and wishes of the Saxon and Protestant population of 
Ireland are to guide legislators in their choice of remedies for 
Irish sufferings. 

It can be readily understood, that tested by such principles as 
these, the disendowment of the Establishment is pronounced by 
the reviewer to be impolitic. Of course, he takes no note of the 
remarkable document lately published by the upper classes among 
the laity against the Established Church. Ke also closes his ears to 
the sullen ground-swell of popular dissatisfaction deepening its 

to the Irish Catholic Ckryy. 857 

voice with the deepening of the despair of the masses. He con- 
fesses, however, that one thing is quite clear, that if there had 
been anything like unanimity in Ireland on the subject, the 
Established Church must have been swept away long ago. We 
take courage from this statement. For we see in being that 
unanimity which our reviewer refuses to see ; we know that the 
Catholic clergy and the laity from the highest to the lowest are 
determined never to desist from their labours until the Establish- 
ment be overthrown. Such unanimity breeds in us a hope so 
strong that even our reviewer cannot gainsay it. 

There is, however, one- grievance which our reviewer admits 
it is in the power of government to redress, and the remedy he 
proposes is the special point to which we beg to call attention. 
The grievance is, that the Irish people are forced to defray out 
of their poverty and misery the expenses of their own clergy. 
The redress is, that the government should pay the Catholic 

" If we want to do something really beneficial to Ireland, we must 
search until we find a practical grievance which it is in the power of 
government to redress, suffered by the people of Ireland, and not 
suffered by the people of England and Scotland, or not in the same 
degree. Such a grievance is not to be found in the tenure of land, 
nor in emigration, nor in the existence of an establishment devoted 
to the religion of a small minority. It exists nevertheless, and is 
capable of complete remedy. The great mass of the people of Ireland 
are much poorer than the people of England and Scotland, but 
they have4o bear a burden from which the great mass of the people 
of England and Scotland are exempt. They are forced to defray, 
out of their poverty and misery, the expenses of their own clergy. 
Believing in a religion whose peculiarity it is above all other reli- 
gions to interpose the priest between man and God a religion which 
works entirely through sacerdotal agency, and which looks on the 
denial of the sacraments as the most fearful of spiritual privations- 
the Irish peasant, while the Episcopalian has his Established Church 
and the Presbyterian his Regium Donum, must bear, without aid 
from any quarter, the whole burden of his Church. It is not the aid 
given to the Church of Ireland,it is the aid withheld from the Roman 
Catholic Church, which is the real grievance of Ireland, the one 
complaint to which there is no answer, the one evil which we can 
and do not remedy. . . . No position can be more cruel or painful than 
that of a Roman Catholic priest in Ireland really anxious to do his duty 
to his flock as a good pastor, and to the state as a good citizen. He 
must live on their contributions, and therefore he must not point- 
blank oppose their convictions. He is endeared to them by the 
uniform law of human nature, which makes us love those whom 
we benefit, but at the same time he has forced upon him, together 
with his sacred functions, no little of the functions of a demagogue. 
He dare not appear as loyal or as peaceable as he really is. He is of 

258 The " Quarterly Review" on pensions 

the people himself, and naturally even where he leads is also led by 
sympathy, by the desire of popularity, and, it must be admitted, by 

pecuniary interest When we reflect 

on the vast power possessed by the priest over the education of the 
young, over the opinions and conduct of the older, over the con- 
sciences of all, we cannot sufficiently regret that the government has 
allowed such a body of men to exist without making at least an 
effort to draw them within the circle of its legitimate influence. The 
real enemy that Ireland has to guard against is not Fenianism, with 
which the law and those whose duty it is to put it in force are quite 
able to deal, but the settled spirit of alienation and disaffection 
which, amid the foolish and distorted traditions of a state of pros- 
perity, splendour, and happiness, that never existed in Ireland, and 
under the teaching of a priesthood which owes nothing to the English 
Government, grows up in her cabin* and farm-houses. The Catholic 
priest, so long as the ancient faith exists, must always have at least 
sufficient influence over his flock. We cannot afford to artificially 
increase it by forcing upon them the duty of maintaining him side by 
side with the Episcopalian and Protestant Establishments, as a man 
proscribed and persecuted, and therefore all the dearer and more 

Such a proposal, and so expressed, awakens some very impor- 
tant reflections. 

1. The object of English statesmen in wishing to afford state 
aid to the Irish clergy stands here revealed in all its cynical 
deformity. It is not so much that they may do an act of tardy 
justice ; it is not that they may undo ever so little the work of 
centuries of persecution; not that they may provide the Irish 
people with religious help and comfort ; but simply that they 
may enslave the Church and make of her a political instrument 
to help the working out of their own designs. They cannot 
sufficiently regret that the government has allowed such a body 
to exist without making an effort to draw them within the sphere 
of their " legitimate influence". They cannot brook the idea of a 
priesthood existing which owes nothing to the English govern- 
ment. And, therefore, the Catholic clergy of Ireland must be 
chained in golden fetters to become the humble servants of the 
English crown. The great Italian poet has left it written how 
bitter it is, in any case, to eat the bread of a stranger, 

" quanto sa di sale 

II pane altrui". 

How much more bitter would it be when he who eats knows that 
the morsel has been flung to him as a shameful bribe which is 
to rob him of his sacred liberty ! 

2. This plan of state aid to the clergy is proposed by those 
who start from the fundamental principle, that any change to be 
made in Ireland must be made in accordance with the feelings 

to the Irish Catholic Clergy. 59 

and wishes of the Saxon and Protestant elements of the popu- 
lation, rather than of the Celtic and Catholic. Therefore, we 
may safely conclude, that state aid to the clergy is an engine 
likely to prove favourable to Protestant interests and injurious 
to those of Catholics. 

3. The system of state aid thus recommended is precisely the 
system of levelling up which has found favour with some Catho- 
lics. The reviewer would retain the Protestant Establishment, 
but would place by its side a Catholic quasi- establishment. It 
is certainly not to the advantage of the system that it is the pet 
idea of those who would govern Ireland on the principles 

4. The proposal means not merely to grant pensions to the 
Catholic clergy, but to grant them in such a way as to compel 
the clergy to receive them. " The salary", says our reviewer (pag. 
281), " should be paid into a bank, and if a change in the law be 
required for that purpose, an act should be passed making the 
sum so paid in to their credit seizable in execution for debt. 
Care must be taken to make known to the peasantry of Ireland 
that the state has taken on itself to provide for the maintenance 
of the Roman Catholic clergy, both that the people may see an 
act of tardy justice has been at last done, and that knowing the 
priest to be otherwise provided for, they may be relieved from the 
impost they now bear". In other words, the state proposes to 
compel the Catholic clergy to submit to its " legitimate influ- 
ence", and be brought into harmony with the feelings and 
wishes of the Saxon and Protestant elements of the population. 
To effect its purpose, it would first dry up the sources whence 
the clergy is at present supported by destroying the voluntary 
system. And here we have to notice a striking historical parallel. 
Ireland has, alas ! so many points of resemblance to unhappy 
Poland, that there is no need of words to show how much 
alike have been the histories of both nations. Within the last 
month the Russian government has come forward with a scheme 
of state support for the Catholic clergy of Poland, and has made 
known to the Polish peasantry that it had charged itself with 
the maintenance of the Roman Catholic priests. It has gone 
farther. It has positively prohibited the voluntary system. It 
has made it a crime in a Catholic to contribute towards the sup- 
port of his priest, and in a priest to receive alms from those to 
whose souls he gives spiritual blessing. It would appear, then, 
that England is anxious to imitate towards Ireland the crowning 
piece of ruthless tyranny which Russia has exercised towards 
Poland. The same end is sought to be gained by both powers, 
the same means are shaped to reach the end ; the only difference 
is, that Russia is the honester, England the more crafty of the two. 

260 Liturgical Questions. 

5. The reviewer admits that at present the Irish Catholic 
clergy profess their unwillingness to accept money from the 
state. But he consoles himself by saying that this is not a funda- 
mental article of faith, and that the decision need not be immu- 
table ! There was a time, he says, when the payment of the 
Roman Catholic clergy of Ireland was regarded by them in a 
very different light. He quotes a letter from the Knight of 
Kerry to Sir Robert Peel, in which that gentleman states that 
in 1802 the bishops cheerfully acquiesced in the endowment of 
their Church. But we have published in this periodical the 
correspondence which took place, at the period referred to, 
between the Irish prelates and the Holy See, in which the Irish 
bishops are praised for the resolution they had come to of not 
accepting any pensions from the crown. The reviewer must, 
therefore, rest his hopes of a speedy endowment of the Irish 
clergy on some other grounds than these. 

We have thus acquired fresh proof, if fresh proof were needed, 
that the scheme of pensioning the clergy is but a snare set for 
the liberty of the Church ; that it is intended as a snare by the 
state, which would rigorously require the clergy to admit the 
yoke of its " legitimate influence" ; that it is the darling idea of 
those who love Ireland little, and the Church of God less, to 
use it as a lever to cast out our Catholic priesthood from those 
faithful hearts to whom they are " all are dearer and more vene- 
rated" because they share with their flocks the crust earned by 
honest toil. Does not this justify the wisdom of the bishops at their 
late meeting, wherin they declared that beyond the pride of 
place and power, beyond the glitter of gold, beyond the smiles 
of the great, they loved the independence of the Church of God ; 
and that above all earthly advantages they prized the fulfilment 
of the prayer they themselves so often address to their Master : ut 
jEcclesia Tua, secura Tibi serviat iibertate 9 


We have received the following communications : 
1. " You would contribute very much to the information of 
some of your readers by the publication of the instruction of 
Pius the Ninthj or at least an extract from it, on the subject 
of indulgences transferred (August 9th, IS 52), for I find there 
exists a very general and erroneous impression that, although 
the festival and solemnity are often transferred, the indulgence 
annexed never can be transferred. 

" Will you kindly state in the next number of the Record the 

Litargical Questions. 261 

cases in which the indulgence is transferred along with the 
feast, and say if the indulgence of the Immaculate Conception 
on the 8th of December last, was among the cases". 

The decree to which our correspondent refers runs as fol- 

"Cum hac nostra praesertim aetate, maxime ob Ecclesiasticas 
Conventiones ab Apostolica Sede cum exteris nationibus initas, festo- 
rum legitimae translationes occurrant : et generatim cum per hujus- 
modi translationes ex justis causis debitis tamen cum facultatibus 
factas (licet etiam pro sola externi cultus celebratione quin et una 
simul Officium cum Missa transferatur,) fidelium devotio excitetur 
ad laudandum Dominum in Sanctis ejus, huic fidelium pietati 
fovendae atque animarum saluti quam maxime interest ut etiam 
indulgentiae his festis adnexae transferantur. Quamvis autem alias 
turn a S. Rituum Congregatione, turn ab hac Sacra Congregatione, 
Indulgentiis sacrisque Eeliquiis praeposita quasitum fuerit, utrum in 
translatione festorum etiam translatae intelligantur adnexae indul- 
gentiae et vel negativa intercesserit responsio, vel in singulis casibus 
recurrendum esse ad hanc S. Congregationem sancitum esset nee 
unquam generali decreto publice evulgato usquedum huic translation! 
indulgentiarum provisum fuerit : attamen Emi. Patres Generalibus 
Comitiis hujus Sacrae Congregationis, attentis actualibus temporum 
hujusmodi et peculiaribus locorum et Ecclesiarum et fldelium 
circumstantiis, atque etiam die 16 Februarii currentis anni pro 
concessione generali translationis indulgentiarum occasione transla- 
tionis festorum supplicandum Sanctiseimo unanimiter censuerunt. 
Sanctissimus itaque Dominus Noster Pius Papa IX. audita-de his 
omnibus relatione per me infrascriptum Secretariae ejusdem S. Con- 
gregationis Substitutum in Audientia diei 9 Augusti 1852, facta, 
benigne mandavit ut oinnes indulgentias quae hucusque quibusdam 
festis concessae fuerunt ac in posterum concedentur, vel quae pro 
iisdem festis aliquibus Ecclesiis et publicis Oratoriis pariter concessae 
fuerunt et in posterum concedentur, vel etiam si libuerit de consensu 
Ordinarii illae concessae in Sacris Supplicationibus, aut in Novendi- 
alibus vel Septenariis, sive Triduanis precibus ante vel post festum 
vel ejus Octavario perdurante ; translatae intelligantur pro eodie quo 
festa hujusmodi vel quoad solemnitatem tantum et externam cele- 
brationem (non tamen quoad Omcium et Missam) in aliquibus locis, 
vel Ecclesiis, publicisque Oratoriis, sive in perpetum, sive aliqua 
occasione, sive ad tempus, eoque durante, legitime transferuntur. 
Cum vero transfertur tantum Omcium cum Missa non autem Solem- 
nitas et exterior celebratio festi, indulgentiarum nullam fieri transla- 
tionem decrevit. 

" Hanc autem Apostolicae benignitatis concessionem Eadem Sanc- 
titas, Sua, quibuscumque in contrarium non obstantibus, ac perpe- 
tuis futuris temporibus absque ulla Brevis expeditione valituram, 
per hoc S. Congregationis Decretum typis impressum publicari 
voluit dummodo ceterae omnes aliae conditiones in particularibus 

262 Liturgical Questions. 

vel generalibus concessionibus praedictarum indulgentianum pro iis 
adipiscendis praescripto omnino serventur". 

From this decree it is evident that indulgences are sometimes 
transferred, viz., in the case of feasts which are transferred 
legitime, juxta conventiones ab Apostolica Sede initas, or debitis 
cum facultatibus. 

When only the office and mass of a festival are transferred, 
and not its solemnity and external celebration, then the indul- 
gences are not transferred. But when the solemnity and external 
celebration of a festival are transferred, even although the mass 
and office be not transferred, (for tamen in the decree is equiva- 
lent to licet) 1 the indulgences are also transferred. Thus when 
the feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary occurs 
on Good Friday or Holy Saturday, by a privilege altogether 
special to itself, it is transferred, together with its obligations, 
in the entire Church, to the feria secunda post Dominicam in 
Albis (Dec. 11, March, 1690, n. 3055). In such a case the indul- 
gences are transferred together with the feast. 

But if the translation of a festival should take place acci- 
dentally as it were, and on a special occasion only, or if, in some 
particular place on account of a perpetual hindrance, it should 
occur that a feast be perpetually transferred to another day accord- 
ing to the general rubrics, the indulgences are to be gained on the 
day from which, and not on the day to which, the feast has been 
removed. 8 The indulgences of the festival of the Immaculate 
Conception, 1867, were to be gained on Sunday the 8th 
December, and not on the Monday to which the mass and 
office were transferred. 

2. "Is it necessary, in order to have the way of the cross 
canonically erected, to have the permission of the bishop of the 
dioc3se where the church or oratory is situated? Should the 
permission of the ordinary be in writing? If the priest about 
to erect the stations possess this written permission, can he then 
proceed to their erection, or must he besides have the special 
power to do so ? Are the faithful who practise this devotion in 
a church or oratory where the above conditions have not been 
complied with, deprived of all the indulgences attached to the 
way of the cross?" 

The following documents from Prinzivelli's Decreta Authen 
tica S. C. Indulgent., bear upon this subject. 

I. " Cum diversis non obstantibus regulis a S. C. Ind. SS. 
Reliq. preposita sub die 3 Aprilis, 1731, ex Brevi S. M. dementis 
XII. die 16 Januarii ejusdem anni, et ex Brevi SS. D. N. die 3 
1 De Hcrdt, p. 4, n. 33, ix. * D Herdt, 1. c. 

Liturgical Questions. 263 

August!, 1741 . . . . ad varia explananda dubia, circa modum 
erigendi Stationes quae Viae Crucis, seu Calvarii ut vocant, emanatis, 
non semel controversiae, ad ipsammet S. Congregationem delatae 
fuerint super subsistentia, vel nullitate erectionis Stationum hujus- 
inodi, ex defectu licentiae vel consensus respective obtinendi, ut in 
praeallegatis Brevibus, clare precipitur. Eadem S. Congregatio ad 
quascumque in futurum eliminandas in hac re difficultates die 30 
Julii 1748 censuit prescribendum esse quod in erigendis in posterum 
ejusmodi Stationibus, tarn Sacerdotis erigentis deputatio ac Supe- 
rioris localis consensus, quam respectivi Ordinarii, vel Antistitis, et 
Parochi, nee non Superiorum Ecclesiae, Monasterii, Hospitalis, et 
Soci Pii, ubi ejusmodi erectio fieri contigerit deputatio, consensus et 
licentia, ut prefertur, in scriptis et non aliter expediri, et quando- 
cumque opus fuerit exhiberi debeant, sub poena nullitatis ipsiusmet 
erectionis ipso facto incurrendae. De quibus facta per me infra- 
scriptum ipsius Sac. Congregationis Pro-Secretarium SS. D. N, die 
3 Aug. relatione, Sanctitas Sua votum Sac. Congregationis benigne 


" A. E. VIGE-COMES, Pro. Sec." 

II. On the 28th August, 1752, the following question was 
proposed : 

" An in hujusmodi erectionibus quae fiunt extra ambitum Con- 
ventuum FF. Ordinis S. Franeisci tarn de Observantia, quam Refor- 
matorum et Recollectomm requiratur licentia Ordinariorum, nee non 
Parochorum, aliorumque respective Superiorum in consensus in 
scriptis ? Respons. Affirmative et transmittantur decreta". 

III. " Vicarius Generalis Dioecesis Molinensis sequentia dubia Sac. 
Congregationi solvenda proposuit : 

1 " Detecta nullitate alicujus erectionis Stationum Viae Crucis 
ob defectum executionis conditionum in Apostolico Rescripto, vel de 
jure praescriptarum, estne necesse, hujusmodi nullitate sanata 
iterum benedicere cruces, et pictas tabellas jam antea benedictas ? 

" S. Cong, respondit : Dummodo nullitas non cadat super cruces 
antea benedictas, minime mecessarium est, alia nullitate sanata, iterum 
cruces benedicere. 

2 " Petitiones pro hujusmodi erectionibus fieri ne debent cui de 
jure in scriptis sub poena nullitatis concassionis, vel sufficiat quod 
factae sint oretenus ? 

" S. Cong, respondit : Quamquam in scriptis, ac de consensu Ordi- 
narii, et loci patroni optanda sit petitio, tamen si oretenus, sub poena 
nullitatis, negative. 

3 " Si hujusmodi erectio nulla detegatur ob omissionem docu- 
ment! in scriptis talis concessionis, sequutae executionis, poteritne 
hujusmodi defectus in posterum, atque etiam post longum tempus 
suppleri ? 

" S. Cong, respondit : Suppleatur documenti defectui per novas 
litteras Institutionis, seu confinnationis ab Ordinario conficiendas, 
dummodo constet aliunde de sequuta erectione. 

264 Liturgical Questions. 

4 " Estne tempus determinatum, et quale, pro confectione docu- 
ment! sequutae erectionis Stationum Viae Crucis vigore Apostolic! 

" S. Cong, respondit : Negative, sed expedit, lit quam primum con- 
ficiatur documentum juxta Apostolicam concessionem, ne dubia in 
posterum oriantur. Et ita ut supra ad supradicta dubia eadem 
Sacra Congregatio respondit et declaravit die 27 Januarii, 1838. 

IV. u Vicarius Generalis Apamiensis expostulat an pro validitate 
erectionis Viae Crucis, et ad lucrandas Indulgentias ipsi adnexas, sit 
absolute necessarius Processus Verbalis ab Episcopo vel ab ejus 
Vicario conficiendus, an sufficiat facultas a Sanctu Sede per Rescrip- 
tum obtenta ? 

" Sac. Congregatio respondit : Circa ersctionem Stationum Viae 
Crucis, impetratis antea ab Apostolica Sede iiecessariis et opportunis 
facultatibus, omnia et singula quae talem erectionem respiciunt, 
scripto fiant tarn nempe postulatio, quam erectionis ejusdem concessio, 
quam instrumentum (quod) in Codicibus, seu in actis Episcopatus 
remaneat et testimonium saltern in Codicibus Paroeciae seu loci 
ubi fuerint erectae praefatae Stationes, inseratur. Die 25 Sept. 

With these texts before us it becomes an easy task to reply 
to our correspondent's queries. Several points are to be consi- 
dered, viz.: 1 the authorization from the Holy See; 2 the 
petition to the bishop ; 3 the bishop's permission and that of 
the local superior ; 4 the drawing up of a document stating the 
fact of the erection. As to the first, there can be no doubt that 
it is absolutely required. It may be received either directly, or, 
as is more commonly done, through the ordinary, who receives 
faculties ad hoc for his diocese. The petition to the bishop, 
properly, should be drawn up in writing, but if made by word 
of mouth the concession is not thereby rendered invalid. The 
bishop's permission, however, must be in writing, otherwise 
the concession is invalid, and the indulgences are not attached 
to the Stations. The consent of the paish priest or local superior 
should also be given in writing, sub poena nuttitatis, as is 
distinctly stated in the decree of 28th, 1752 ; " Praescri- 
bitur ut in saepedictis erectionibus faciendis extra Ecclesias 
Conventuum FF. dicti Ordinis (Minorum S. Francisci) neces- 
sario requiratur in scrip tis et non aliter licentia Ordinariorum, 
nee non Parochorum, et aliorum superiorum consensus, in quo- 
rum juriidictione Viam Crucis erigi contigerit sub poena nulli- 
tatis ipsiusmet erectionis ipso facto incurrendae". For the validity 
of the erection it is moreover required that there should be a 
document drawn up stating the fact of the erection itself (see 
supra, n. iv.) which should" be placed in the hands of the ordi- 
nary, and a record of the same should be ke^t in the parish 
register. A formula for the purpose is supplied in the Appendix 

Documents. 265 

ad Rituale JRomanum. 1 The case (probably not unfrequent) 
in which the bishop's permission, etc., have not been given in 
writing is considered in the third question by the Vicar-General 
of Moulins (supra, n. iii.). According to the answer of the Sacred 
Congregation the deficiency may be supplied even after a long 
period of time, by new letters of institution or confirmation, to 
be issued by the ordinary. 


Allocution of his Holiness Pope Pius IX , delivered in Secret 
Consistory 20th December, 1867. 


Dives in misericordia Deus, qui consolatur nos in omni tribula- 
tione nostra moestis lebus iucunda permiscet, Venerabiles Fratres, 
ut in eo semper sperantes, nullisque deterriti difficultatibus perga- 
mus alacriori usque ammo iustitiae iter insistere, et Ecclesiae suae 
sanctae causam impavide propugnare, omnesque vires ad Apostolici 
ministerii Nostri partes explendas intendere. Omnes profecto vident, 
quanta divinae suae bonitatis argumenta praebere dignetur clemen- 
tissimus Dominus inter gravissimas calamitates, quibus in hac tanta 
temporum iniquitate ubique afflictatur Ecclesia, et haec Apostolica 
Sedes premitur, atque inter maxima, quibus undique cingimur peri- 
cula. Et sane dum Satanas eiusque satellites, et filii horrendis qui- 
busque modis contra divinam nostram religionem, contra Nos, et 
hanc Petri Cathedram furere, et saevire, ac infelicissimae Italiae 
populos, ex parte longe maxima Nobis devotissimos, divexare non 
cessant, misericors, ac miserator Dominus miris ostentis adest Eccle- 
siae suae, adest Nobis, et omnipotent! sua auxiliatur virtute. 
Enimvero, Venerabiles Fratres, omnes catholici orbis Sacrorum 
Antistites arctissimo fidei, caritatisque vinculo Nobis, et huic Sanctae 
Sedi in dies obstricti unanimes, et id ipsum sentientes, qua voce, qua 
scriptis rei catholicae causam defendere, et Nos, et hanc Apostolicam 
Sedem omni ope iuvare non desinunt. Atque etiam laici viri in 
magnis, publicisque per Europam congressibus suam attollunt vocem 
ad catholicae Ecclesiae, et huius Sanctae Sedis iura tutanda, et ad 
civilem Nostrum, eiusdemque Sedis Principatum vindicandum. Quae 
eiusdem civilis Principatus causa in Parisiensi praesertim Senatu, et 
in Collegio legibus ferendis nuper fuit unanimis prope suffrages ac 
sententiis splendide et magnifice propugnata, bonis omnibus plau- 
dentibus et exultantibus. Catholici autem populi abominandam 
inimicorum nostrorum perfidiam, vehementer detestantes publicis, ac 

1 Appendix ad Rituale Romanutu, etc. (W. B. Kelly, Dublin,) pag. 65. 

266 Documents, 

splendidis significationibus filialem et venerationeni declarare, et 
continuis largitionibus Nostras, eiusdemque Sedis angustias suble- 
vare gaudent, atque utriusque sexus fideles, licet pauperes, suo aere 
Nobis opitulantur. Ac praesto sunt inter Ecclesiasticos, Laicosque 
Viros turn disertissimi oratores, qui suis sermonibus in publicis quoque 
conveutibus veneranda, et inconcussa iustitiae, veritatis, et huius 
Apostolicae Sedis iura diligenter, sapienterque defendere, et adver- 
sariorum mendacia refellere summopere gloriantur. Quamplurimi 
autem viri nobilissimo etiam genere nati ex omnibus fere regionibus 
religionis causa excitati, propriis familiis, ac etiam uxoribus filiisque 
relictis, ad hanc urbem certatim concurrunt, et omnibus despeotis 
incommodis ac periculis, Nostrae militiae nomen dare, et pro Ecclesia, 
pro Nobis, ac pro civilis Nostri, jet huius Sanctae Sedis Principatus 
defensione vitam ipsam profundere non dubitant. Nee desunt 
catholici parentes, qui religionis spiritu incensi filios suos etiam uni- 
genitos ad huius Sanctae Sedis causam tuendam mittunt, et illustre 
Machabaeorum matris aemulantes exemplum, illos pro hac causa 
sanguinem fudisse gloriantur et gaudent. 

Accedit etiam, ut populi civili Nostrae ditioni subiecti, quamvis 
nefariis omnis generis insidiis, minis, damnisque a perditissimis 
hominibus exagitati, tamen stabiles et immoti in sua erga Nos, et 
Sanctatn Sedein fide permaneant. Quos inter profecto eminet 
Komanus Populus Nobis penitus dilectus, summisque laudibus deco- 
randus, cum fere omnes cuiusque ordinis, gradus et conditionis huius 
Almae Urbis cives singulari Nos affectu et obsequio prosequi ac 
civili Nostro et Sanctae huius Sedis Imperio obtemperare, Nobisque 
succurrere summopere gestiant. Nostis autem, Venerabiles Fratres, 
qua fidelitate Nostri milites omni certe laude dignissimi excellant, 
et qua admirabili virtute ipsi contra scelestissimorum hominum 
turmas depugnarunt, et quanta cum gloria in acie mortem pro 
Ecclesia occubuere. Ac probe scitis, Serenissimum ac Potentissimum 
nobilis et generosae Gallicae Nationis Imperatorem gravissima Nostra 
considerantem pericula, strenuos suos misisse milites, qui cum prae- 
stantissimis eorum ducibus omni alacritate et studio in Nomentano 
praesertim, et Eretino certamine Nostris militibus auxilium dare, et 
cum ipsis fortiter dimicare, et pro hac Sancta Sede cum summa sui 
nominis laude mortem oppetere laetati sunt. Neque ignoratis quo- 
modo in sacrarum praesertim expeditionum regionibus, Deo auxili- 
ante, divina evangelii lux quotidie magis effulgeat, ac sanctissima 
nostra religio maiora incrementa suscipiat, et sedentes in tenebris, et 
umbra mortis, depulsa mentis caligine, ad sanctae matris Ecclesiae 
sinum confugiant, et quomodo ubique varia pia instituta quibusque 
christianae, civilisque societatis classibus et iiecessitatibus vel maxime 
utilia in dies augeantur. 

Quae quidem omnia a Nobis breviter commemorata, ac multi- 
plices impiorum hominum insidiae miro modo detectae, ac dissipatae 
luculenter ostendunt, quomodo omnipotens, et misericors Dominus, in 
cuius manu sunt hominum corda, Ecclesiam suam mirifice tueatur, 
defendat, et evidentisshne confirmet, inferi portas nunquam adversus 
earn esse praevalituras, Ipsumque Nobiscum esse omnibus diebus 

Documents. 267 

usque ad consummationem saeculi. Itaque Venerabiles Fratres, 
maximas, ac immortales clementissimo misericordiarum Patri pro tot 
acceptis beneficiis semper agamus gratias, omnemque spem, et 
fiduciam in Eo unice collocantes non desistamus ferventissimis pre- 
cibus Ipsum exorare, ut per merita Unigeniti Filii sui Domini Nostri 
lesu Christ! pergat Ecclesiam suam ab omnibus eripere calamitatibus, 
ac Nos liberare a Nostris, Suisque inimicis, eorumque impia consilia 
et desideria confundere, et dissipare. Atque etiam Eum deprecemur, 
ut eosdem inimicos atque etiam illos, qui contra Nos pugnantes in 
Nostroruin militum potestatem redacti, omuique caritate a Nobis 
tractati in sua pertinacia persistunt, ad salutarem poenitentiam, ac 
rectum iustitiae tramitem reducere dignetur. Quo vero facilius 
annual Deus precibus nostris, deprecatores apud Eum indesinenter 
adhibeamus primum quidem Immaculatam Deiparam Virginem Ma- 
riam, quae omnium nostrum est amantissima mater, ac potentis- 
simum christianorum auxilium, quaeque quod quaerit invenit^ et frus- 
trari non potest; deinde Beatissimum Petrum Apostolorum Principem, 
et Coapostolum eius Paulum, omnesque Sanctos Caelites, qui cum 
Christo regnant in caelo. Antequam vero dicendi finem faciamus 
Nobis temperare non possumus, quin meritas, amplissimasque laudes 
tribuamus, et gratissimi anirni Nostri sensus iis omnibus, et singulia 
profiteamur, qui Nostram, huius Sanctae Sede, Ecclesiaeque causam 
turn voce, turn scriptis, turn subsidiis, turn alia quavis opera, ac vel 
ipsius vitae discrimine tanta cum sui nominis gloria propugnare 
contendunt. Atque haud omittimus in omni oratione et obsecra- 
tione cum gratiarum actione Deum, a quo omne datum optimum, et 
omne donum perfectum descendit, hurniliter enixeque precari, ut 
istos omnes Ecclesiae suae filios Nobis carissimos, ac strenuissimos 
eiusdem Ecclesiae defensores uberriinis quibusque divinae suae 
gratiae donis, omnibusque caelestibus suis benedictionibus cumulare 


Reply of Pope Pius IX. to the Address presented to his Holiness 
by the meeting held at Dublin 15th November, 1867. 

Dilecto Filio Nostro Paulo S. R. E. Presbytero Cardinali Cullen, 

Archiepiscopo Dublinensi. 


Dilecte Fili Noster, Salutem et Apostolicam Benedi ctionem. 
Alacri ac libentissimo animo amantissimam et observantissimam 
Tuam accepimus Epistolarn die 24 proximi mensis Novembris ad 
Nos scriptam, quae, Dilecte Fili Noster, Litteras nobis misisti ab 
istius Tuae Dioecesis Clero, Populoque fideli exaratas ad eoruoi 
sensus exprhnendos in frequentissimo conventu istie die 15 ejusdem 
mensis Novembris habito palain publiceque declaratos. Equidem 

Notice of Books. 

verbis exprimere non possumus quanto solatio et consolation! Nobis 
fuerint ejusdem Cleri Populique LitteraeJ inter gravissimas, quibus 
affligimur, acerbitates. Etenim ex eisdem litteris magis magisque 
novimus qua singular! fide et observantia idem Clerus, Populusque 
Tuae curae commissus Nos, et hanc Petri Cathedram prosequatur, 
quantoque afficiatur dolore propter maximas Nostras augustias a 
deterrimis Dei hominumque hostibus excitatas, et quo spiritu sit 
animatus ad Nostram, ac Sanctae hujus Sedis defensionem et qua 
indignatione reprobet ac detestetur nefarios et sacrilegos impiorum 
hominum contra Nos, et hanc almam Nostram urbem ausus conatus- 
que, et quo ardente studio fervidas Deo indesinenter adhibeat preces, 
ut Ecclesiam suam sanctam a tantis eripiat calamitatibus, omnesque 
Ecclesiae inimicos humiliet, disperdat, ac de iniquitatis barathro ad 
rectum justitiae ac salutos tramitem reducat, innrmitatem Nostram 
omnipotenti sua virtute adjuvet, roboret, defendat, et consoletur Nos 
in omni tribulatione Nostra. Itaque, Dilecte Fili Noster, vel maxime 
optamus, ut isti Tuo Dublinensi Clero et Populo significes, gratissi- 
mas Nobis fuisse hujusmodi egregias filialis pietatis significationes 
omni laude dignissimas, et omnes certioies facias de paterna Nostra 
in eos caritate, deque enixis precibus, quas Deo humiliter offerimus, 
ut eumdem Dublinensem Clerum et Populum omnibus divinae suae 
gratiae donis replere velit. Denique fac Tibi persuadeas, praecipuam 
esse, qua, ob eximias Tuas virtutes Te in Domino complectimur, 
benevolentiam. Cujus quoque certissimum pignus esse volumus 
Apostolicam Benedictionem, quam ex intimo corde profectam Tibi 
ipsi, Dilecte Fili Noster, cunctisque Clericis, Laicisque fidelibus Tuae 
vigilantiae concreditis peramanter impertimus. Datum Romae 
apud Sanctum Petrum die 16 Decembris anno 1867 Pontificatus 
Nostri anno vicesimo-secundo. 



Catholic Education: Report of a Meeting of the Clergy of Dublin, 
held at Marlborough /Street, 18th December, 1867. 

This book gives in a permanent form the speeches delivered 
at the meeting of the clergy lately held in Dublin. It also con- 
tains, Appendix I Letter of the Irish Bishops to the Right 
Hon. E. Cardwell, M.P., Chief Secretary for Ireland, 18th 
March, 1860; II. Resolutions of the Irish Bishops, adopted at 
their General Meeting in October, 1867. 



MARCH, 1868. 


1. THE invaluable record of the life of our apostle which we 
now publish dates back to the beginning of the sixth century. 
It is preserved in the Liber Hymnorum of Trinity College, a 
MS. so ancient that the late Dr. Petrie reckoned it to be about 
twelve hundred years old, and all are agreed that it cannot have 
been written later than the ninth or tenth century. 1 This poem 
is also, given in the equally venerable copy of the Liber Hijm- 
norum preserved in Rome, 2 and passages from it are found in 

1 Dr. Todd writes, " This beautiful MS , which cannot be assigned to a later 
date than the ninth or tenth century, may safely be pronounced one of the most 
venerable monuments of Christian antiquity now remaining in Europe". Book of 

Hymns, I. A. S., pag. 1. 
* It is 

is a curious fact that the Liber Hymnorum known to Ware and Ussher seems 
to have been the copy now preserved in Rome. Both these distinguished anti- 
quaries eulogize it as a vetustissimus codex, and Ussher gives the following data 
for determining the MS. to which he refers: "in hymnorum, partim Latino 
partim Hihernico sermone Scriptorum, codice vetustissimo, notatum reperi trium 
Episcoporum opera in Nicaena Synodo illud (symbolum Athanasianum) fuisse 
compositurn, Eusebii et Dionysii et nomen tertii (sic enim ibi legitur) nescimus 
. . . . In eadem hymnorum collectione Nicetam Deum laudavisse legimus 
dicentem: Laudate pueri Dominum. Te Deum laudamus, te Dominum confitemur 
etc., ista praeterea adjecta appendice: Te Patrem adoramus aeternum, Te sempi- 
ternum Filmm invocamus, Ttque Spiritum Sanctum in una divinitatis substantia 
manentem confitemur : Till uni Deo in Trinitate debitas laudes et gratias referi- 
mus : ut Te incessabili voce laudare mereamur per aeterna secula seculorum. 
Amen". ('De Rom. EC. Symbolo' epist. ad Vossium. Works, vol. 7, pag. 30U). 
Now these statements are quite at variance with the T. C. D. Manuscript (Todd, 
loc. cit. pag. 9), whilst they are found word for word in the Roman MS. Thus at p. 44 
the Roman MS. presents the following Introduction to the Athanasian creed: " The 
synod of Nicea composed this profession of Catholic faith: and three bishops alone 
drew it up, i.e., Eusebius, Dionysius, et nomen tertii nescimus. But it was sa;d 
that it was the whole synod did it since it was it that approved of it. In the city 

VOL, IV, 19 

270 St. Piece's Poem on the Life of St. Patrick. 

some of the most ancient lives of St. Patrick. 1 In both the 
above MSS. St. Fiecc of Sletty is assigned as its author, and the 
best Celtic philologists, judging from its language alone, unhesi- 
tatingly refer it to the sixth century. Eugene O'Ourry regards 
it as the oldest monument extant of Celtic hagiology (Lectures, 
pag. 342-3) ; and in one place he writes: " St. Fiecc of Sletty is 
the author of a biographical poem on the life of St. Patrick in 
the Gaedhlic language, a most ancient copy of which still exists 
and which bears internal evidence of a high degree of perfection 
in the language at the time at which it was composed ; it is 
unquestionably in all respects a genuine and native production, 
quite untinctured with the Latin or any other foreign contem- 
porary style or idiom" (Ibid., pag. 4). 

2. The introduction to the poem of St. Fiecc in the Lib. 
Eym. T. C. D. will be given hereafter. We will now present 
the introduction to it which is preserved in the Roman MS. 
which has some important variations from the Dublin text : 

VIACC fleipce oo^oriAi in rnobyof o Fiacc of Sletty it was that composed 

t>o PACJVAICC. 1n "piAc pn "OAtiA WAC this eulogy of Patrick. Fiacc indeed was 

ept>e true ejvcliA, true D^ejAin, WAIC eon of Mac Erche, son of Bregan, son 

OAfve bAj^Aig OCAC oebAf\c1ie, ITIAC of Dare-Bai rach (from whom the 

CAttiAif tnojv, "OAtcA t>Att in fiACfiM Ui-Bairche) son of Cathair-M or : and 

oo "Oti DCA6 rnAc "htnUiCAif, A^-ofil* Fiacc was disciple of Dubthach Mac Ui 

"he^en-o epue. 1HAmp^ LoegAi-petnic Lugair chief poet of Ireland. In the 

tteiVlocuf pACTVAicc'oo^ottA'o oert-pe. time of Loegaire Mac Neill and Patrick 

1r> "oubchAchfin AcfA^AcVic JMA pAC- it was composed. And it was that Dub- 

J\AICC 1 cettt^Aig IAJV nA j\At> T>O toe- thach who rose up in presence of Patrick 

rAitve tiA ^o ei-iAjjer) necVi i\etni i|*ir after Loegaire had said that no one 

den, ocuf bA CA^A oo PAC^AICC "he should arise before him in Tara. And 

ofein itnmAcli octtf p.obAicfet) o he was beloved by Patrick from that 

pAC|\Aicc lAnfin. ttn-o OAn PAC^AICC day forth, and was baptized by Pa- 

jrec co cecn in "OubcViAir pr 1 t/Aig- trick afterwards. Moreover Patrick 

rub. p^t VA1 T iA|mm X)ubcn AcVi ^A'llce went one time to the house of that Dub- 

rnoi|\ f^M pAc^Aicc. Acbe^u -pAC- thach in Leinster. Whereupon Dubthach 

f|\i "OtibchAcVi " Ctnnnij; -oAtti- gave great welcome to Patrick. Patrick 

of Nicea it was done and that city was in Bithinia, a province that is in Asia Minor. 
To extirpate the heresy of Arius was the cause of its composition, for what he said 
was that the Father was greater than the Son, and the Son greater than the Holy 
Ghost. Moreover, the synod, that is, eighteen bishops above three hundred, was con- 
vened by Constantino at Nicea, and they prayed to be victorious over his eloquence, 
so that God vanquished him". At pag. 34 in the same MS. we have the Introduction 
to the " Te Deum" : it is as follows : " Nicetas, successor (comorba) of St. Peter, com- 
posed this hymn. In Rome, moreover, he composed it. Incertum vero quo tempore et 
ob quam causam factum, nisi Nicetam Dominum laudare voluisse diceremus, dicens: 
Laudate pueri Dominum, laudate nomen Domini. Te Deum laudamus", etc. At the 
close of the hymn is given the additional sentence word for word as cited above 
from Ussher. It was a puzzle to the learned Ussher to know who this Nicetas was 
who was thus assigned as the author of the Te Deum. To us it seems very clear 
that it refers to Pope Anicetus who was elected successor to St. Peter A.D. 167, and 
died in 175. Another proof of the Roman MS. being that which was consulted by 
Ware and Ussher, is found in the statement of Ware, that the Liber Hymn. 
which he used was then in Ussher's library, but had formerly belonged to the con- 
vent of Friars Minors in Donegal. This, too, is verified in the Roman MS. 
1 For instance in Leabhar-Breac, " Book of Hymns", by Dr. Todd, pag. 33. 

St. Piece's Poem on the Life of St. Patrick. 271 

ot fe, "fefv 5t\Ait> 

oenecclie ocuf oen TTIAC 
OCAI T)in", " cex> AJ\ A ctnnclnpti 
pein .1. -pe^x in cfy\ocriA fin", ot 
"OubcViAcn, '"OiA -out fo^jvA-OAib" ot 
PACJVAICC. " PACC pri" ot "OtibchAcli 
"ocu-p x>o cVioi'op'oe fOf\ CUAIJVC 
1 cormAccAib". 1n CAM CJ\A bACAj\ 

11 A bjVIAclirUVpA 1f A1TO CA111C 
OCUf A CUA1f\C teif. " XXCA 

puro", ot "OubcliAcJi, " inui]Ao- 
imiAAi'ofetT!". " CIA belch" ot -pAc- 
IVAICC, bef inbA JiAit *oo ^uox* t>ixi- 
mtif". 4< -oencAjxcfviAt 

ot "OtlbcVlActl, " COt111ACA'OA|\ 

Oc conriAif\c cf\A -piAc -pn 
"ce-o cjMAtcAjV', ot \ e, " 
oo bAchAitt A|\ feAc", 
pn", A|\ ye, "A|\ m pt m 1iej\inx) 
ptit> Atecliec", "nocgebcliA t)A|\ A 
nen", ot PACIAAICC, "1-p tugti mo 
epbAToye A "h-eiMtro" ot "Pic " <]tiAni 
OubdiAcVi". CAtt CI\A PAC^AICC A 

tltcVl<V1 *OO pAC CU11C OCU|" CA111C 

lAAch tno|\ fAi-p 1A|\ yem, ocuy |\otei5 
innon-o -n-ectAp^A coTitnte inoen 
Ai-ocne uet ocu "oiebuy uc Atii -pe|\tinc, 

OCUf CO CAfVCAt) g^At) tl- 

ocu-p com-orie if A^-oepfc 

itte, octiy A chomA|\A T)1A1 
toe -ono "otunA gobtA p\i fteipce 
clitiAi-o; cetnpuf tuno^o ttig- 
A\ 1 Vie bA 

JM 'hep.en'o cunc. 
mot<yo -oo 
ec t)o |\onAt> tic 

said to Dubthach : "Seek out forme", 
said he, " a man of orders, of good 
family, and good morals, of one wife, and 
one child only. " Why have you asked for 
him" said Dubthach, " that is for a 
man of that kind". Patrick replied, 
" To go under ecclesiastical degrees* 
(i.e. to be consecrated bishop). "Fiaec 
is that man", said Dubthach, " and he 
has gone on a visit to Connacht". 
When, however, they were thus dis 
coursing, there came Fiacc and his visi- 
tation with him. " There is the man", 
said Dubthach, "of whom we have 
spoken". " Whoever he is", said Patrick^ 
" what we have said may not be pleas- 
ing to him". " Set about tonsur- 
ing me", said Dubthach, " that Fiacc 
may see it". In truth when Fiace 
perceived it, he asked, " what", said 
lie, "are you about to do?'' "to ton- 
sure Dubthach:" said they: u that is a 
loss", said he, " for there is not in all 
Erin such another poet as he". "You 
will be received in his place", said Pa- 
trick. " Less is my loss to Erin", said 
Fiacc, * than that of Dubthach". Patrick 
then cuts off the beard from Fiacc, 
and there came great grace on him 
after that ; and (he learned) all the 
ecclesiastical order in one night, or ifl 
fifteen days as others say. And Patrick 
conferred on him the di 

conferred on him the dignity of bishop ; 
tunoppA A|\ and he is archbishop of Leinster since 
then, and his successor after him. The 
iccjui-oAtn AUC- place then was Duma Gobla to the 
north west of Sletty. The time was 
that of Lugdach Mac Loegaire, who 
was king of Ireland then : the occasion 
was to eulogize Patrick, and it was after 
his death it was composed as some 
authors say". 

3. The close connection of St. Fiecc with our Apostle, which 
enhances so much the poem which we publish, is recorded in 
the most ancient documents of our early Church. When St. 
Patrick on Easter-day presented himself in the festive hall of 
Tara, in the midst of Laoghaire's court, " no one rose up at his 
approach except Dubhtacli Maccu Lugair alone, an admirable 
poet with whom at the time was present a certain youthful poet 
named Fiecc, who was at a later period an illustrious bishop, and 
his relics are venerated in the territory of Sletty. This Dubhtach 
alone among the assembled multitude arose from his seat to pay 
honour to St. Patrick, and the saint blessed him ; and he was the 
first who believed in God on that day, and (his deed) was 
counted unto him for righteousness". 1 Thus is this memorable 

1 "Nemo de omnibus ad adventum ejus surrexit praeter unum tantum, id est. 

19 B 

272 St. Piece's Poem on the Life of St. Patrick. 

scene registered in the Book of Armagh, a MS. of the beginning 
of the ninth century, but copied from a much more ancient 
codex. The other Lives of our apostle repeat the same narra- 
tive, and they give us the additional particulars, that Dubthach 
was the king's chief bard, and that St. Fiecc was his foster-son 
and disciple. 

4. We next meet with St. Piece when our apostle, a little 
before the foundation of Armagh (A.D 445) after visiting Magh 
Life, the plain from which the river LifTey takes its name, 1 
entered the territory of the tribe called Laegliis or Leix, now the 
Queen's County. Here St. Patrick visited Dubhthach, and the 
narrative of their interview, which corresponds with the Intro- 
duction to the Poem of St. Fiecc, is thus preserved in the Book 
of Armagh : 

" Patrick went from Tara into the territory of Leinster, so that he 
and Dubhthach Maccu-Lugir met at Domnach Mor Criathar in Hy- 
Kinsellagh. Patrick requested Dubthach about a ' materies' of a 
bishop of his disciples for the Lagenians, to wit, a man free, of good 
family, without stain, without blemish, who would not speak little or 
much of flattery ; learned, hospitable, a man of one wife, for whom 
there was born but one child. Dubthach answered, I know not of 
my people but Finn (i.e. the Fair) of the Lagenians, who went 
from me into the country of Comiaught. As they were speaking, 
they saw Fiacc Finn coming towards them. Dubthach said to 
Patrick : come and tonsure me, for the man is found who will save me 
by taking the tonsure in my stead, for great is his piety.2 Then 
Fiacc Finn relieved Dubhthach, and Patrick tonsures and baptizes 

5. The introduction to our hymn informs us that St. Fiecc at 
his baptism received a copious abundance of the graces of Heaven 
and that " in one night, or as some attest in fifteen days, he 
learned the whole ecclesiastical order". The Tripartite Life adds : 
" St. Patrick baptized and tonsured Fiacc who hitherto had been 
only a catechumen, and gave to him an alphabet written by the 

Dubhthach Macculigil poetam optimum apud quern tune temporis ibi erat quidam 
adolescens poeta nomine Fecc qui postea mirabilis episcopus fuit cujus reliquiae 
venerantur hi Sleibti. Hie, ut dixi, Dubthtach solus ex gentibus in honorem 
Sancti Patricii surrexit et benedixit ei Sanctus : crediditque primus in ilia die Deo 
et repputatum est ei ad justitiam :" Macutenus in Book of Armagh, fol. 4. This 
passage is repeated with a few clerical variations in the Life of St. Patrick by 
Probus (Trias Th. pag. 51) where instead of Fecc the name of the youthful poet 
is written Phiehg. 

1 See Todd's Mem. of St. Patrick, pag. 11. 

2 5oi]\e is clearly proved by Mr. Stokes to mean piety (Goidilica, pag. 104): 
we have therefore adopted his translation instead of that of O'Donovan, who gives 
this passage " for he is very near". 

8 Tirechan, in Book of Armagh, fol. 1 8, ap. O'Donovan in Ir. Gram. App. 2nd 
pag. 436. 

St. Piece's Poem on the Life of St. Patrick. 273 

saint's own hand and a blessing, aided by which he learned the 
whole Psalter in one day. In a short time Fiacc, with the assis- 
tance of the grace of the Holy Ghost, made such progress in 
piety and knowledge that it seemed fit to his master not only to 
consecrate him the first bishop from among the Lagenians, but 
also to constitute him chief and supreme bishop of the whole 
province of Leinster" (iii. 21 ap. Colgan, Trias, pag. 154). It 
is not easy to determine to what the alphabet refers, which was 
on this occasion presented by our apostle to Fiecc. We cannot 
well suppose that the disciple of Dubhtach was at this time igno- 
rant of the letters which constitute what we commonly call 
the alphabet : and hence the gift of our apostle written by himself, 
must either mean some compendium of Catholic faith such as the 
alphabetical poem which St. Augustine composed against the 
Donatists, or perhaps the Apostles Creed, or the 118th psalm, 
which was known as the alphabetical psalm. This how- 
ever is mere conjecture, and we will feel deeply indebted to 
any of our correspondents who may more fully illustrate the 

6. The Book of Armagh next commemorates the consecration 
of Fiecc by St. Patrick, and the foundation of the church of 
Domnach-Fiecc : " St. Patrick (it says) put the grade of a bishop 
upon him, so that he was the bishop who was first ordained with 
Leinstermeti, and Patrick gave a case to Fiacc, to wit, a bell and 
a reliquary, and a crozier, and a book-satchel, and he left seven 
of his family with him, viz., Muchatocc of Inisfail, Augustin of 
Inisbecc, Tecan, Diarmuit, Nainnid, Paul, and Fedelmid. After 
this Fiacc set up in Domnach-Feicc, and was there until sixty of 
his family (i.e. disciples) died there". 1 Thus Domnach-Fiecc, 
situated to the East of the Harrow in the county of Carlow, was 
the first monastery founded by St. Fiecc, and he must have con- 
tinued to reside there for many years, as sixty of his holy dis- 
ciples closed their earthly career there in the odour of sanctity 
before he chose Sletty for his abode. The companions who were 
left with him by our apostle to share his labours and imitate his 
virtues (socios taborum actionumque imitator es. Vit. Trip.) are 
all named as illustrious saints in the calendars of our early church. 
Muchatocc (the same as Cadoc) is honoured as an apostle in 
Wales and Brittany, as well as Ireland. Augustin was one of the 
first companions of Palladius. Tecan and Diarmit are commemo- 
rated 011 the 9th of September, and the 10th of January. Nainnid, 
the same as Nennidh, was surnamed the pure-handed, for it was his 
privilege to minister the holy Viaticum to our great Virgin 
Patron, St. Brigid. Paul, at a later period, chose a desert island 
for his hermitage, and was there visited by St. Brendan. Fed- 

1 'Tirechan's Annotat. m Book of Armagh, in Stokes Goidilica, pag. lOi 

2 74 St Piece's Poem on the Life of St. Patrick. 

helim's feast is on tlie 9th of August, and he is venerated as 
Patron of Kilmore. 

7. The foundation of the church of Sletty is the next fact which 
we meet with connected with St. Fiecc. The angel of God an- 
nounced to him, says the Book of Armagh , " that it is across the 
river (Barrow) westward, in Cuil Maige, thy resurrection shall 
be : in the place in which they shall find the boar let it be there 
that they build their refectory, the place where they shall find 
the doe, let it be there that they build their church. Fiacc said 
to the angel that he would not go till Patrick should come to 
measure his place with him, and to consecrate it, so that it should 
be from him that he would receive his place. After this, 
Patrick went to Fiacc and measured his place with him and 
consecrated it and measured out his forrac/t [ there ; and Crim- 
than granted that place to Patrick, for it was Patrick that gave 
baptism to Crimthan, and it is in Sletty that Crimthan was 
buried" (' Tirechan' loc cit. Stokes Goid. p. 104). The terri- 
tory of Sletty had originally belonged to the family of St. Fiecc ; 
but through the animosity of Crimthan, king of the Hy-Kinsel- 
lagh, all the relatives of our saint, together with his father and 
four brothers, were banished from his states and compelled to 
seek a home in other parts of the island. From these exiles 
were derived the KinellEnna in Munster: and by them were also 
founded two monasteries, one of which was in Ulster, and the 
other in the territory of Hy-Crimthainn. Hence St. Fiecc feared 
that it would be in vain for him to ask a site for a monastery from 
Crimthan. On the other hand the king held our apostle in the 
greatest veneration. It was at the hands of St. Patrick that he 
had a little while before been regenerated in the waters of bap- 
tism, and no fewer than forty churches are said to have been 
founded through the munificence of the monarch, at the request 
of our apostle. It was probably with a view to restore concord 
between Crimthan and the family of Fiecc, that St. Patrick 
wished to found the monastery of Sletty, and it is added that at 
his solicitation " not only was the site for a church granted to St. 
Fiecc, but also a grant was made to him of all the surrounding 
territory, comprising a fifth part of his paternal possessions with 
which he was enabled to endow that church which he made his 
episcopal see" (Vit. Trip. pag. 155). As the death of Crimthan 
took place in ihe year 483 according to the Annals of Ulster, the 
foundation of Sletty cannot have been later than about A.D. 480. 

8. St. Fiecc is styled ' a wonderful bishop', mirabilis Episcopus 
by Probus : the other records of his life further inform us that 
he was remarkable for his penitential austerities. Thus we find 

' O'Donovan translates firrach 'establishment'. Jocelyn says that the monas- 
tery of Domnach Fiacc was at a place called Forrach. ( Vit. cap. 117.) 

St. Pieces Poem on the Life of St. Patrick 275 

it specially commemorated in a passage preserved by Ware, that 
" St. Patrick ordained in that country (Leinster) another bishop, 
a native of Leinster, named Fiach, a most religious man who at 
the command of the blessed Patrick converted and baptized the 
people of Ceanselach which is the largest and best part of Lein- 
ster. This Bishop Fiach with great patience subdued his fleshly 
appetites and concupiscence and finished a most holy course of 
life in his city of Sleibti, near the river Barrow in the white Field". 
(Ir. Writers,p. 6). In the ancient Tripartite Life of St. Patrick, at- 
tributed to St. Evin, it is also said that Fiecc went on every 
Slirove- Saturday 1 to a cave on the hill ofDromm Coblai. 2 He used 
to bring with him five loaves of bread; these sufficed for his food 
during the whole time of Lent, which was passed in the cave in 
silent prayer, and on Easter Sunday he returned to Sletty to cele- 
brate with his brethren the joyous festival of Easter. 3 

9. There is one other fact connected with St. Fiecc's life 
which cannot be here omitted. We give the narrative from the 
ancient Irish Tripartite Life of our apostle, as translated by 

" At a certain time Sechnall (i.e. Secundinus) went to Armagh, and 
Patrick was not at home ; and he saw two chariot horses with 
Patrick's people before him, unyoked. And Sechnall said : It were 
proper to give those horses to the bishop, that is, to Fiacc. When 
Patrick returned this was told to him. He at once ordered the 
horses to be yoked to the chariot, and sent them without any one to 
guide them until they were in the desert with Mochta. They went 
southward the following day to Domnach Sechnaill (i.e. Dunshaughlin.) 
They went thence by the east to Gill-AuxiH? After that they went 
to Cill-Monach, 6 and thence to Fiacc in Sletty. . . . The cause 

1 This was the vigil of Lent, which formerly commenced on Quadragesima 

2 This as we have seen was the name of the mountain near which St. Fiecc's 
monastery was founded. 

3 Irish Trip. Life, ap. O'Curry Lectures, App. pag. 607, from Egerton MS. 93, 
in British Museum. 

4 This was probably the modem Inishmot, barony of Slane, county Meath. 

* Perhaps the present Killosoly or Ktllossory, in the barony of Coolock, on the 
road from Drogheda to Dublin, ten miles from Swords. The Four Masters place 
another Gill Usaille, in Liffe. See Four Masters, A.D. 454 ; as also Chron. Scoto- 
rum, A.D. 874, where Cill-Ausaille is mentioned as belonging to Leinster. See 
also the curious record of the arrival in Ireland of St. Auxilius, Chron, ftcotorum, 
A.D. 438. St. Auxilius was one of those who were ordained with our Apostle. 
" Auxilius, Iserninusque et caeteri inferioris gradus eodem die quo Sanctus Patri- 
cius ordinati suit". J3ook of Armagh, fol. 2. His name is also mentioned in one 
of the Synods of St. Patrick, and his death is recorded in the Annals of Ulster in 
the year 459 (i.e. 460). He is commemorated in our martyrologies on the 30th of 
July, under the name Cob/tair, which Irish word has the meaning of aid, help, and 
thus corresponds with the Latin Auxilius. 

6 This is explained in the next extract as being the monastery of St. Man- 
chan. It is now Lemanaghan (Liath-Manchainn) in the barony of Garrycastle, 
King's County. The Martyrology of Donegal has the following note ; " The town 

276 St. Pieces Poem on the Life of St. Patrick. 

of giving the chariot to Fiacc was that chafers had gnawed his leg so 
that death was near him" (Ap. O'Curry, loc. cit. pag. 007). 

The Book of Armagh records the same fact: St. Patrick, it 
says, " sent the chariot to Sechnall without a charioteer in it, but 
it was the angels that directed it. Sechnall when it had spent 
three nights there with him, sent it to Manchan, and it remained 
three nights with him. He sent it to Fiacc. Fiacc refused to 
accept it. After that it went around the church three times, 
and the angel said to Fiacc : it is to you that this has been given 
by Patrick when he came to know your disease" (Tirechan, in 
Book of Armagh, loc. cit. and Stokes' Goidilica, pag. 104). 

10. The date of Fiecc's demise is not registered in the Irish 
chronicles. As he was still a youth when St. Patrick first 
preached the truths of redemption to the court of Laoghaire, we 
may readily suppose that his holy life was not brought to a close 
till about the year 510. Not far from the Church of Sletty was the 
small monastery of Minbeag, and there St. Fiacc passed to his 
reward. His son Fiachra, who had been promoted to holy 
orders by our apostle ( Vit. Trip. iii. 21), lived in the same monas- 
tery, and became eminent for sanctity. His name is entered in 
our ancient Calendars on the same day as St Fiecc, the 12th of 
October. Thus in the Martyrology of Donegal : " Fiacc, bishop 
of Sletty, in Leinster, of the race of Cathoir Mor Fiachraidh 
his son, of the same church as Fiacc his father" : in the martyro- 
logy of Tallaght it is thus: "Fiacc and with him his son 
Fiachra in Sletty": the Calendar of Cashel has " Fiachra son of 
Fiecc, and both rest in Minbeag, i e., the wood which lies be- 
tween Cluainmor-Moedhog, and Achadh-AbhaW ': the Martyro- 
logy of Maguire repeats the same, " Fiachra was the son of Fiecc, 
and he is with him in Minbeag, i.e. in the small cell which is in 
the wood between Cluainmor-Maodhoc, and Achadh-Abhall, 
where also St. Fiacc rests". In the extract already given from 
the Book of Armagh, it was said of St. Fiecc that his relics were 
venerated " in the district of Sletty", en jus reliquiae venerantur 
hi Sleibte: Probus, after mentioning his episcopal see (which by a 
clerical error is written Themoria), adds: " cujus reliquiae nunc 
venerantur ibidem" : and the Vita Tripartita of St. Evin also says 
of St. Fiecc: " He now rests in the church of Sletty". We will 
only add the entry in the metrical calendar of Aenghus, with its 
glosses, on the 12th of October, as preserved in the Leabhar Breac, 

X)1otn (a)p<xcc A^Af piAchjVAi, Proclaim Fiach and Fiachrai, 

Onme 1 tno}\ in rnAirt-pn ; Onme great is the treasure ; 

whose name is Leth-Manchin, is in the same place, and it is a parish church ; five 
miles from thence is Manchan's Well and penitential station". 

1 It has been suggested that o inne moj\ would be a more correct reading of 

St. Pieces Poem on the Life of St. Patrick. 277 

tnobn bAlcc inlDuAit) fin, Mobius great was the marvel 

1nctAj\AinecVi (b) CAin pn. That gentle flatfaced man. 

Gloss. Gloss. 

(a) "010111 .1. Ai-pnei-o .1. pAcV)}\A tnAC (a) Dlom. i.e., proclaim : Fiachra was 

cnpAcVi Vie AgA-p cornAt) t>o .1. omm son of fiach. and is with him in 

.1 dlt "bee pi icij\ cluAin mo-p rnoe- Onme i.e , a little church which is be- 

ooc AgA-p AcViA-o riAbAVl ip Atropi'oe tween Cluain Mor Moedoc and Achadh 

ACA pAcc beo]\. n-Abhall; 1 it is there .FYacA is still 

(6) CtAjAAinecVi .1. cen fpoin lei-p commemorated. (6) Clarainech? (i.e., 

1C1JV. TTlobii clAt\AitiecVi HIAIC t)et>- flat-faced) i.e., having no nose. Mo- 

Ain, mAic b]\epAit, mAic -A-ilpl, THAIC bins the flat-faced man was the son 

1x>tiAi, mAic AcV)j\Ai, WA1C l/CigriAi U|\i- of Bedain, son of Breasal, son of Ailgil, 

nog, mAic "b^eg-ouiVb, mAic Ai|\c son of Idna, son of Atra, son of Lug- 

cVitnpp. lime tYlobii AgA-p "pincAn na-tri-n-og, son of JBregdulb, son of 

utiAm geneAl/ogiAtn ViAbue|\tinc. 3 -4^ Cuirp. Hinc Mobius etFintan unam 

tTlobii ctAt\Ainecli o 5tAfnA'iT)en genealogiam habuerunt. Mobius the 

Til n-jAlt-Aib AgAf t)e]AcViAti Ainm flatfaced man from Glasnaoidhean in 

mobii AgA-p TDeoAti Aintn A cVtA|\ AgA^ Gallaibh and Berchan was the name of 

ingen pinx)bAip]A Ainm ATIIA- Mobius,and Beoan was his father's name, 

Vii ciH WAC diAiTDg p.o- and Uamid the daughter of Findbctrr, 

AgAf ^UCA-O, AgAp -oo Co^\- was his mother's name, and it was in 

X)O Ltngmb ContiAcc > oo. Kill-mac- Taidg he was conceived and 

Ocu-p TT^MA tntiAi mAi|\b "oo cornp^eiT) born, and he was of the (tribe of) Cor- 
Vie. CiA|\AinecVi -oin Vie UAip. ]AO- cofhirlhi of the Lighne* of Connaught, 
cViAi]AiTo in ui|\ AJATO co|\ bA ViAencVi- and it was from his dead mother he was 
tA|v uti Vii. -pi. born: he was therefore flat-faced, for 

he so pressed his face to the clay that it 
was all as one smooth board. 

11. No trace now remains of the church and monastery of 
Sletty, 5 founded by St. Patrick, hallowed by the penance and 
virtues of St. Fiecc, and enriched with his remains. The name 
indeed is still preserved in the corrupt form of Slath or Slatey, 
and marks a churchyard and parish (now comprised in the 
parish of Killeshin) in the barony of Slievemargue, Queen's 
County, about a mile to the N.N.W. of the town of Carlow, on 
the banks of the Barrow. In the churchyard are two stone 

this text. It would then mean from Inne-mor is the treasure. Inne mor or 
Inde-mor was situate in the south of county Kildare. See L'hron. Scotorum, A.D. 
500 for the battle of Inde-mor in Crich Ui-Gabhla. The word Onme, however, is 
clearly written in the Leabhar Breac. 

1 Now Aghotd in the barony of Shillelagh, co. Wicklow. 

2 This word ClAi]\enec clairenach frequently occurs in the lives of the Irish 
saints. In the martyrology of Donegal it is explained as follows: " Clairenech,id 
est, natus cinn tabulata Jade sine loco oculoruiii". In the hymn of St. Brogau, it 
is mentioned among the miracles of St. Brigid that she "blessed a clairenach and 
gave sight to both his eyes" (see /. E. Record, February, p. 230). Cogitosus 
describes the same miracle by the words "oculos coeci nati aperuit" ( '1 rias. p. 
520); and Animosus more fully explains it as referring to one who was " coecus a 
nativitate habens tabulatam faciem"(ib. p. 560). In the Li/e of St. Maidoc it is 
more fully explained : " Vir quidam in Britannia tabulatam habens faciem, id est, 
sine oculis et naribus ab utero natus" (Colgan, Acta, p. 210). 

3 Leabhar Breac. fol. 49 In the margin is added, " Fortcern in hidrona 
L/aigen:" that is "The feast of St. Fortchern in Hydrone in Leinster". 

4 Now Barony of Leyny, county Sligo. 

5 The Vita Trip, explains the name as equivalent to monies : " venit ad locum 
qui Slepte vulgo, id est, monies, appellatur" (iii. 23). 

278 St. Fiecc s Poem on the Life of St. Patrick. 

crosses of remote antiquity, and not far from it are the ruins of 
a small church still called Slieb-teach, i.e. * the house near the 
mountains', which probably is the Minbeag and Onme, 1 i.e. * the 
small church' of the Calendars. The similarity of the names 
Sliebhte and Sliebteach, may account for the varying statements 
of the calendars, which place the repose of St. Fiecc in the 
' small church', and of the lives of St. Patrick, which mention 
his repose at Sleibhte. 

1 2. From a mistaken interpretation of some passages in St. 
Fiecc's poem, many learned writers have been led into a serious 
error regarding its date. Thus Dr. Todd writes: " it contains 
an allusion to the desolation of Tara, and consequently must 
have been written after the middle of the sixth century" (St. 
Patrick, etc., pag. 313). Indeed the desolation of Tara dates 
from the reign of Diermit, who became monarch of Ireland in 
the year 539, and died in 558: and Colgan, to explain the 
difficulty, styles this passage a prophetic announcement, prophe- 
ticum oraculum (* Trias', pag. 6). For the same reason Lanigan 
very hesitatingly affirms that the whole poem was composed 
" probably not later than the seventh, or perhaps the sixth 
century", (Ec. Hist., i. 58). O'Conor, too, in his * Hib. Rer. 
Scriptores', deems it necessary to prolong St. Fiecc's life till 
at least A.D. 540. 

Let us see, however, what grounds the poem presents for such 
theories. Twice reference is made to the desolation of Tara: 
the first time in the tenth strophe, where the druids announce to 
Laoghaire that the new doctrines of salvation would bring ruin 
on his kingdom, which idea is expressed by the metaphorical 
phrase * the land of Tara will be a desert'. Such words, how- 
ever, have neither the prestige of prophecy, nor the authority of 
history: they simply express the alarm of the druids at the 
approaching overthrow of their pagan superstition. 

It is however on the second reference to the destruction of 
Tara that the above theories mainly rest. It occurs in the 
twenty-second strophe, which may be thus literally translated : 

" In Ardmagh there is sovereignty, 
Long since Emain has passed away, 
A great church is Dun-Lethglasse, 
I wish not that Tara be deserted". 

Now, if this text be closely examined in the context in which 
it stands, it will be seen that it is not at all favourable to the 
theories which we have mentioned. Indeed, St. Fiecc neither 
announces in prophecy, nor commemorates as a fact the destruction 

1 In the gloss given above., Onme is called Omin, which has some affinity with 

St. Pieces Poem on the Life of St. Patrick 279 

of Tara. He merely records in the present strophe the foundation 
of Armagh, and declares that our apostle assigned to this see the 
spiritual sovereignty: and then he adds that such a prerogative 
of this favoured city interfered not with the other boasted glories 
of Erin : it did not lessen the historic renown of Emain, or the 
privileges of the church of Down, rich with the treasure of our 
apostle's remains: neither did such a spiritual sovereignty 
diminish the civil prerogatives of the monarch, or imply that 
royal Tara should be a desert, as the druids had wickedly pre- 
tended. All this certainly does not suppose that Tara was then 
deserted, neither does it present a prophecy of its future desola- 
tion. It rather implies that Tara (popidosa Teamhir) was 
thickly populated, and was still the seat of sovereignty: and 
hence this strophe should rather serve as a clear proof of the com- 
position of our poem before the year 540. 

13. The title ardepscop, commonly translated archbishop, 
which is given to St. Fiecc in the introduction to the poem, has 
been brought forward by the learned Bollandist, Byeus (Acta 
SS. Boll, ad 12. Oct. p 98), to prove that the author of this 
introduction must have lived later than the twelfth century, the 
time when the title archi-episcopus began to be used in the 
Western Church. This conclusion, however, is wholly at variance 
with the age of the very MSS. which have preserved to us alike 
the poem and its introduction and scholia. The old Irish word 
ardepscop had not the definite meaning attached to the canoni- 
cal title Archi-Episcopus in the twelfth century. It was used to 
indicate a chief bishop (which is its literal meaning) precisely as 
in the oldest monuments of the Celtic language ard-righ indicates 
a chief-king: ard-file, a chief poet : ard-anchoire, a chief 
anchorite : and ard-eaynaidlie, a chief sage. Whether the Bishop 
who was honoured with this title enjoyed any special authority or 
jurisdiction, is a question wholly unconnected with our present 
matter, but of which we hope to treat at some future day. It is 
evident, however, that the theory of the learned Bollandist is 
entirely devoid of foundation ; but we may pardon his error, as at 
the time when he wrote, the early monuments of our language 
and of our Church were almost unknown, and were for the most 
part sealed books, not only to continental scholars, but also to the 
natives of our island. 

14. As regards the age of the introduction and scholia, Mr. 
O'Curry, judging from the peculiar idiomatic structure alone, 
was of opinion that they were not later than the eighth century. 
Being preserved in independent MSS. of the ninth or tenth 
century, in which the Introduction at least forms an integral 
part, they were certainly derived from more ancient sources, and 
hence a venerable antiquity must be assigned to them. One 

280 St. Pieces Poem on the Life of St. Patrick. 

incident which is narrated in the Introduction bears with it the 
impress of a very early date. It is the giving of the tonsure by 
cutting off not only a portion of the hair, but also the beard. 
This mention of the beard in regard to tonsure is not met with, 
that we know of, in any of the more recent documents of our 
Church. It is, however, expressly commemorated in one of the 
canons of our apostle, which enacts severe penalties against all 
ecclesiastics who neglect to tonsure their hair and beard according 
to the Roman usage: " more Romano capillos suos aut barbam 
tondere". 1 

15. Besides the poem which we now publish, there are other 
compositions which have been by some very ancient writers 
attributed to St. Fiecc. Thus the Latin poem on St Brigid, 
which begins " Christus in nostra insula", published for the 
I.A.8. by Dr. Todd in the ' Book of Hymns', pag. 57, and 
generally attributed to St. Ultan of Ardbraccan, is said in the old 
Irish Introduction to have been by some referred to " St. Fiach 
of Stebte" (ibid. pag. 60). There is another short Irish prayer 
preserved in the two ancient MSS. of the Liber Hymnorum, 
which may with more certainty be assigned to our saint. In the 
Dublin MS. it has the simple heading prefixed: " It was Ninian 
(i.e. Nennidh) the poet that made this prayer ; or it was Fiecc of 
Sletty". 2 In the Roman MS. it has no distinct heading, but is 
given as forming the concluding part of the poem of St. Fiecc, 
being written by the original hand, and in the same characters as 
the text of the poem. Whether composed by Fiecc himself, or by 
St. Nennidh, it will serve to illustrate the sentiments of our saint ; 
for Nennidh, as we have already remarked (. 6), was his dis- 
ciple, and thus in this sweet prayer we have a record at least of 
the school of St. Fiecc. We present it to our readers, together 
with its glosses from the Dublin MS. : 

"It was Ninian the poet that made 
no -JMACC fleibce. this prayer: or it was Fiacc of Sletty. 

-<yotntiirieintttAij\ rioeb PACJAAICC Let us put our trust in Patrick, chief 
pjxitttAbfCAl hefverm, Ai^-oi^c A Ainm apostle of Erin. A bright flame, honour- 
tiAt>AinpA bfveo bACf ef gence, CAch- able, illustrious his name. He baptized 
-p -prvi 'oyvui'oe t>tij\cVi-|vi'oe Gentiles: he battled with obdurate 
cntirnAfchti, LA fO|\CAclic A^A Druids. He overcame proud men by 
-pn-omme; ^oneriAig Viejxenn the aid of the king of bright heavens. 
mo|\ Jjein : gtn'ornic "oo He sanctified the fair plains of Erin. 
niniAbfCAt, oormeftnAfu; Great is the man to whom we pray. 
bjYichemnAcVic, T>O nn'ou- Let us pray to Patrick, chief apostle, 
cVif\Ac1it;Aib oerntiA oof\c1iAi'oe, "DIA to save us on the judgment-day from 
tern LA hic^e |DAC|\AICC -pjvhriAb- eternal condemnation, and from the evil 
TGAlL. 3 designs of wicked demons. May God be 

with me, with the prayer of Patrick 
chief apostle". 

1 See Essays on the Early Irish Church, by Rev. P. F.Moran : Duffy, 1864. p 306. 

2 See Stokes' 'Goidilica 1 , pag. 95. 

3 The following glosses are added iu the Lib. Hymn: -<VotnuinemniAij\ .1. 

St. Pieces Poem on the Life of St. Patrick. 281 

16. St. Nennidh belonged to the royal race of Laoghaire, and 
was a near relation of St. Fortchern, and of the holy virgins, 
Kthnea and Fedhelinia. He received his first lessons in virtue 
from our apostle, and was by him placed in the school of St. 
Fiecc. St. Brigid prophetically announced to him one day that 
when her death would be approaching, she " would receive at 
his hands the communion of the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ" 
(Act. SS. Colgan, p. 112). Nennidh, on this account, wished to 
lead a life of solitude and penance in distant countries, hoping 
that thus St. Brigid's life would be prolonged for the benefit of 
Erin. He spent some time in Britain, then visited Rome, and 
subsequently built for himself a hermitage in the Scottish island 
of Mula, " in magna ciborum, in maxima vitiorum continentia". 
The origin of the epithet Lamhglan, i.e. the pure-handed, which 
is usually given to St Nennidh, is thus explained in an ancient 
life of St. Brigid : 

" Sanctus Nennidius volens manum suam mundissimam servare de 
qua Beatissima Brigida praedixit ut in die exitus sul divinum viati- 
cum sumeret, fecit circa earn, aeneam arctam manicam cum sera et 
clavi ne ilia corpus suum taugeret, neque de aliquo immundo tangere- 
tur : inde ipse agnomen habet, nam Scotica vocatur Ninnidh Lamhgh- 
lan quod latine Nennidius manus mundae sonat" (Acta SS. p. 112.) 

The feast of St. Nennidh is thus marked on the 18th of 
January, in the " Martyrology of Donegal" : 

" Ninnidh, bishop of Inis-Muighe-Samh, in Loch Erne, he was 
Ninnidh Saebhruisc, who was of the race of Enda, son of Niall ; it was 
he who was usually called Nmnidh-Laimhiodhan, to my knowledge. 
The Book of Hymns states that Ninnidh, son of Eochaidh, was Nin 
nidh Lamhiodhan" (I. A. S. pag. 21). 

He was for some time disciple of St. Finian of Clonard, and 
amongst his companions in Inish-mac-Saint, in Loch Erne, is 
mentioned the great St. Kieran of Clonmacnoise. He is some- 
times called bishop of Donach-mor, which was situated to the 
west on the mam land not far from his island monastery of Inish- 
mac-Saint. He died about the year 540. 

17. Before concluding these preliminary remarks, we must add 
that our readers are indebted for the present accurate edition of 
St. Fiecc's invaluable poem to the kind assistance of many 
esteemed friends, and in a special manner to the 0' Curry MSS. 
in the Catholic University. 

dAgrnAic inriA tntnnjiri [i.e., let us put our trust in him.] "OeDAij; .1. Alxyitro 
fvo-oittsefcAfx [i.e., nobly he overcame.] VotienAig .1. pofumgefCA^ .1. t>o 
fvigne A rtmecn .1. A 5\xvn<yo [i.e., he washes, i.e., he did wash it, i.e., he cleansed 
it.j lAcmnAige .1. fe^Aii-D [i.e., a country.] tnofv jein .1. if tno|\ in gem 
pACfAic, no moi\ 5111 ptern ocAgti-oe .1. jetiA -pej\ nefvetinti'Le [i.e., Patrick 
is an illustrious man, or great is the prayer (literally the mout/i) that invokes him 
i.e., the prayer (lit. the mouths,*) of all the men of Erin.] X)ormefmA|\c ,1. 
ooneffAi^c-pe .1. "oo jettA AJ\ cefA^gAAitt .1. AfrnibiMchentnA-p bpAcliA [i.e. to 
save us, i.e. that he would protect us, i.e. from eternal judgment.] 

282 St. Piece's Poem on the Life of St. Patrick. 


fteibce -ooponAi m nlmunrA x>o PAcnAicc. 1n PAC fin -oAnA TUAC 
mic 6ncViA true "bnegAin nuc "OAine "bAnnAig, OCAIC ti "bAinche, rnic 


CAcVtAintn01fV "OAtcA -OAttA 111 pAC fin "DO -OUbcVlAcVl 1DAC VlU1 ttlgAin, AfVO 

pite Vtenenti efme. 1n Aimfin toegAine true Tleitt ..... ocuf ife m 
"OubcViAch fin AcnAchc niA pAcnAicc m CemnAig iAn nAnAT) x>o toegAine nA 
no eingex) nech nerm ifin [dg] octif bA cAnA -oo pAcnAic Tie o^en 
mirnAcn, ocuf no bAicpex) o pAunAic Vie lAn^em. "LtUT) *OAnA feclic co cech 
m "OubcAigpn, 1 "LAigmb. "penAif lAnum "OubcTiAcn -pAiLce mon ]?ni PACIAAIC. 
AcbencpAcnAicc fni > OubcliAcn,cuinni5'OAm-pA, oi-pe, -pen^nAi-o-poceneLAcTi 
pobefAcn, oen eccVn octif oen niAc OCCAI -om. Ci-o An A ctunche-pu rem .1. 
pen tn cVinocTiApn, ot, "OubcnAcli ; T>IA oti'L -po 5nAT)Aib. "piAc fem ot "Oub- 
cliAcn, ocuf *oo choi'O'p'oe -pon cuAinc 1 connAcncAib. 1n cAn cnA bACAn 
ponf nAbniAuhnAib-peif Ann cAmc PAC [conA] cViuAinc teif. ACA funt), ot 
X)ubcAcn,m ci noimnATorern. CiAbecn, ot PAC|\AICC, berm bAViAit-oo c^uot) 
oixtmur. "OencAn cniAt [tno"| bencViAfA, ot "OubcAch, conAccAt)An PAC. 
Ou cnonnAinc CJ\A VIAC no lAnyAig cex) AJAA uniAtcAn, otpe, "OubcAcn TJO 
bAcViAtt, An if e-ppAch fem Anfe, An ni p i m henmn pti-o A tecnec. tlou- 
^ebcnA -OAnA "hen, ot pAcfAic. if ttigA mo efbAi-op e A Vienmn, ot PAC, quAm 
"OubcAcn. CAtt cnA pAcnAicc A titcViA x>o PAC cunc, ocuf cAmc nAcVi mo|i 
rAin lAnpem, cono teg mnont) nGctAfA tute m oen Ait)cne, net ocu t)ie- 
bup tic Atii -penunc, ocuf co-OAn-oA-o gnA-o nepfcoi-p fAin; ocuy com-o Vie 1. 
An-o epfcop tAjen opem Ate, ocuf A cViomAnbbA X>IA eir. toe -oo "OuiriA 
ngobtA-pni fteibue AniAncViUAiuVi. Cetnptir,itnmonno, tujTiAcVi mictoegAine, 
An if e DAni Vi&nenn cunc. CAU|*A, ueno, An motAX) pAcnAic, ocuf IAJ\ nA ec 
x)o nonAt), tic -penunc ^uix>Am. 

m nemchuji, 1 ifet> ADfec hi 

Dec, in cAn DO bpech 2 )?o De|i- 

2. SuccAC 4 A Ainm ic^ubjiAt) 5 , cet)A 

ttlAcc Atptujtn 7 triAic Ocit>e, 8 IIOA *OeochAin O*oi|yi. 9 

! netnn .1. CAcVn^ f em feit 1 mbnecnAib ctiofcinc .1. Ait cttiA'oe. Nem- 
thur, i.e., That is a city which is in North Britain, i e., Ailcluade. 

2 -oobneich .1. CUCCA-O. Do Breith, i.e., He was brought. 

3 f t)enAib .1. -po x>eAne [.1. -po bnon nA-ooine]. Foderaib,Le., under tears; 
i.e., under the affliction of bondage, 

4 SUCCAC .1. bnernAifpem ocuf t)euf betti A tAcen. Succat, i.e., This is 
British, and " Deus belli' 1 in Latin. 

(a) Ercha. In the ' genealogy of the saints of Ireland', copies of which are pre 
served in the Books of Leinster, Ballymote, and Lecan, Leabhar Breac, etc., Fiach 
is called " son of Erchad, son of Feic, son of Daire Banach, son of Cathair Mor". 

(6) In the genealogy referred to in the preceding note, Druim Gabhla is given as 
another name for Sleibhte. 

(c) Many have imagined that the name of St. Patrick's birthplace was Nemthur, 
from the Irish phrase m nemcViun; however, Eugene Curry well remarked that 
the initial n in this case is euphonius and belongs to the preceding preposition, 
precisely as we find in the old MSS. m TJenenn for in Erin; m llAtbAnn for in 

St. Piece's Poem on the Life of St. Patrick 283 


Fiach of Sleibhte (Sletty) that composed this hymn for Patrick. This Fiach was 
son of Mac Ercha (a), son of Bregan, son of Daire Barrach (a quo Ui Bairche), son of 
Cathair Mor. This Fiach, then, was foster-son to Dubhthach Mac Ui Lugair, who 
was chief poet of Erinn. In the time of Laeghaire Mac Neill . . . . [a word 
effaced]; and it was this Dubthach who rose up before Patrick in Tara, after 
Laeghairo had desired that no one should rise up before him in the [house] ; 
and he was a friend of Patrick's from thenceforth ; and he was afterwards baptized 
by Patrick. [Patrick] went one time to the house of this Dubhthach in Leinster, and 
Dubhthach indeed gave great welcome to Patrick. Patrick said to Dubhthach, 
" seek for me", said he, " a ' man of grade', of good family, of good morals, with one 
wife and one son". " Why seek you this, i.e. a man of that character?" asked 
Dubhthach. " To go into orders" [said Patrick]. " Fiach is he", replied Dubh- 
thach, "and he went on a circuit into Connaught". Whilst they were thus 
speaking, Fiach came with [the tributes of] his circuit (or visitation). " Here is", 
said Dubhthach, "the person of whom we spoke". "Though he may be", said 
Patrick, " still he may not like what we have said". " Let a pretence be made of 
tonsuring me", said Dubhthach, " that Fiach may see". When Fiach saw, he 
asked, " Why do you seek to tonsure Dubhthach", said he, " for he is a loss to us, as 
there is not in Erinn a poet like him". " You shall be adopted in his stead", said 
Patrick. " My loss is less than Dubhthach's", said Fiach. Patrick then cut off 
Fiach's beard, and great grace came upon him afterwards, so that he read the whole 
Ordo Ecclesiae in one night, or in fifteen days as others say, and he received the 
degree of a bishop ; nnd therefore it is that he is archbishop of all Lagenia, and 
his successor after him. The olace [where the hymn was composed] is Duma 
Gobhla, (6) to the north-west of Sleibhte. The time, moreover, that of Lugaidh, son 
of Laeghaire, for he was king of Erinn then. The cause, also, to praise Patrick, 
and after his death it was composed, as some assert. 

] . Patrick was born at Emptur ;(c) this it is that history relates 

to us. 

A child of sixteen years (was he) when he was taken into 

2. Succat was his name, it is said : who was his father is thus 


He was Son of Calpurn, son of Otidus, grandson ofDeochain 

5 IcnubnA-o .1. iret> nonAi-oe-o, no Apennr. Itubrad, i.e., That is what 
they say, or what they used to say. 

6 tMfifp .1. bA coin A -pif . Ba Fissi, i.e., it is known ; i.e., It is right to know. 

7 Alptnnn. Alpurn, i.e.. qui fuit sacerdos. 

8 Owoe .1. pnefbicen. Otide, i.e., Presbyter. 

9 "hoA -oeocriAin o-oiffi. Hoa Deocain Odissi. i.e., presbyter. 

Albania ; in tletriAin for in Emania, etc. The name of our Apostle's birth-place is 
more accurately given as follows in a very ancient Irish MS. : A mbAit,e -OAn 
bAinrn hunntA rAn rnbneACAin IAITI ne cAtAin ernpcen. " In a village, the 
name of which is Hurnia, in Britain, near the city of Empter", etc. 

(cT) The following notice of St. Patrick is given in MS. T.C.D. H. 3. 18, pag. 
520: 1n nuicen, m tAffAin, ocurin I/IA tojniAn, octtr m tocAnnn 
OA1 no monchAit) [.1. no comroiVlrij;] lAncAn m becA .1. 
pAcnAic t)in, -01 bnecnAib, AiicltiAi-oe A bunA-our, CAVpunn-o Aintn A 
.1. UAfAt rACAnc, jpoa-o Ainm A fenAchAn, -oeochon AUAComnAic .1. AC co- 
niAinm. " The radiance, the blaze, and the bright gem, and the brilliant lamp 

284 St. Piece's Poem on the Life of St. Patnck. 

3. )Ai -pe bli<yorA 1 fopiAm, 10 rnAiffe 11 "ooine rnpcoimle'o, 12 

ct\ebe t>i 

4. Afbefic 14 thcuor\ 15 ^\\\ jgniAt) 16 mil, 17 eonceffet) 18 r:or\ con- 
riA, 19 

A choif pojAptro teicc, mAttAic Ae^ 20 m bpormA. 

5. *Oo -jTAit) 21 cAtt ebpA titnle *oe rnAi|i bA Atnfui tiectiA 22 
Comt) t:At\55Aib LA gepmAn, Anx>ef inteif cilice 

6. 1n innb m&p& Co|A|tiAn, Ainif inmb 

cAtioiri tos ^^^^^j T^" -At) p At) AC 

7. *Oochtiin riG-perm x>o'O]:eci'p, 24 Ain^it T)e "hi 
Ttlemcc Acchichi 25 hi ppb, tjopmcpet) 

.1. poincAtntut HA ubite "bicce eb|veo^titn. Ifognam, i.e., ac- 
cording to the little Jubilee of the Hebrews. 

that illumined, i.e. gave light to, the western world, i.e. Sanctus Patricius. Patrick 
no,w was of the Britons, Ailcluaide was his native place, Calpurn was his father's 
name, i.e. a noble priest ; Fotid was his grandfather's name ; Deochan his family 
name, i.e. his surname". 

In the forthcoming Lectures of Professor O'Curry on " The Manners and Cus- 
toms of the People of Ancient Erinn", vol. 1, p. 166-7, we find the following 
curious genealogy of our saint : 

PAC^AIC, Ab eijxenn tnte, Patrick, Abbot of all Erinn, 

mAC CAVpf\Ainn, rmc pocAi'oe, Son of Calphnvinn, son of Fotid, 

true "Oeiffe, HA|\ "0015 oottii'6, Son of Deisse, not liable to reproach, 

rmc Co^\mAic rnoii\, mic 1eiby\iut, Son of Great Cormac, son of Lebriuth, 
true QUA, mic Oi|\ic mAit, Son of Ota, son of Orric the good, 

tine tnoijMc, true "Leo intAM -J\AIC, Son of Moric, son of Leo, full of prospe- 

wic 1YIAX11TI1, rnAi)\ griA -ploinn ? Son of Maximus, why not name him ? 

mic encj\eccA AI^-O AtAin-o, Son of Encretta, the tall and comely, 

true piU^dY* feA|\iA A|\ Aig CAC, Son of Philisti, the best of men, 

rmc ')p&t veri1 5 At1 Ari T AC ' ^ on ^ Fereni, of no mean repute, 

rmc t)r\iuAin oo br\A tiA mArvA, Son of Brittan, from the brink of the sea, 

o A CAit) t)r\ecAin brvu6trtAf\A, From whom the passionate Britons de- 


CocrmiAr- A tnAcArx mAtlA, Cochmas was his modest mother, 

nemchojx A b Aile bAjA, Nemthor was his native town; 

oon tntimAirt m cAeL A cui"o, Of Munsternot small the portion 

r\o fAor\ Arv -ptcoArx pAcr\Aic. Which Patrick freed from sorrow. 

The scholiast on St. Fiacc's Hymn in the Roman MS. Lib. Hym. wives a some- 
what similar genealogical table, thus: "Patrick Mic Calpuirn, Mic Potit, .Mic 
Odissi, Mic Gorend, Mic Mencruid, Mic Ota, Mic Muric, r.iic Leo, Mic Maximi, 
Mic Hencriti, Mic Ferin, Mic Bruti, a quo sunt Bretani nominati". 

St. Fiecc's Poem on the Life of St. Patrick. 285 

3. He was six years in slavery ; human food he ate it not : 
Cothraige he was called, for as slave he served four families. 

4. Victor said to Milcho's slave: " Go thou over the sea": 

He placed his foot upon the Leac (stone): its trace remains, 
it wears not away. 

5. He sent him across all the Alps : over the sea marvellous 

was his course, 

Until he staid with Germanus in the south, in southern 

6. In the islands of the Tyrrhene Sea he staid: therein he 

meditated : 

He read the canon with Germanus : it is this that history 

7. To Ireland he was brought back in visions by the angels of 

Often was he in vision solicited to return thither again. 

11 frlAiffe- -1. biA-6 mAicVi ocuf ecAcK Maisse, comforts, i.e., good food and 

12 nifcoimlet) .1. nif cAichet). Nis toimled, i.e., he did not consume j i.e , he 
did not spend. 

13 CocnAi^e .1. no leriA-pcAn 111 cAintri Af cocnAiire .1. cecrtAjA Aij;e .1. AJ\ m 
m -oo gmcVi cnibu cup .1111. Cotraige, i.e., The name Cotraig* attached'to him ; i e. 
four families ; i.e. , because he used to do the work of four tribes. 

14 -Afbenc .1. AcntibAinc. A&bert, i.e., he said. 
16 tlicco|\ .1. Ainget/up. Victor, i.e., angelus ; .1. 
16 ni gniA-o .1. pnip iti tnojjAix). Fri gniad, i.e., 

ip iti tnojjAix). Fri gniad, i.e., to the slave. 
Mil, i.e., 

i.e., he spoke. 

17 1TliL .i.tnib-o. Mil, i.e., the hero. [In the St. Isidore MS. this word is 
written in full thus, MUcon, the genitive form of Milcu, i.e., Milco, to whom 
Patrick was slave when the angel Victor spoke to him]. 

18 ConceffeT) .1. cotroicVifec. Contessed,i.e,, that he should go. 

19 "Po|\ cotitiA .1. -pop muin jwifv -oole^tinn. For Tonna, i.e., westwards over 
the sea to learn. 

20 d ef .1. A-poltiucnc. A cs, i.e , his track. 

21 "Do -pATO .1. no pAi-oeTCA-p thccop -pAcnAicc -OA)\ |*le1b neLpA, Do Fetid, 
i.e., Victor sent Patrick over (i.e., beyond) the mountains of the Alps. 

28 tlecliA .1. in nich fA. Retha, i.e., this race (this journey). 

23 lecnA .1. 1cA"LiA tibi -ptnc ^enmAntif. Letha, i.e., Italia ubi fuit Germa- 

24 "Oo-opecif .1. -oo benAif. Dodfetis, i.e., they used to bear. 

25 Achcicni .1. Afcicif. Atchithi, i.e., used to be seen. 

(e) In Irish Ecclesiastical Record, vol. iii. pag. 9, we proved that St. Patrick 
was disciple of St. Germanus in the North of Italy. The name Letha or Latium 
was applied by the early Irish writers to Armorica or Brittany, as well as to Italy 
(see O'Curry's Lectures, pag. 502 ; Todd's Ir. Nennlus, pag. 69) Hence, " in 
Southern Letha" does not mean in the South of Italy, as some have erroneously 
supposed; but in Italy, nl\ of which was called Southern Letha, to distinguish it 
from Armorica, which was Northern Letha, 

VOL. IV. '20 

286 St. Piece's Poem on the Life of St. Patrick. 

8. Tlo bo cViobAifi t>onx) e-jtmti uichuu PAC|\AIC 

tlo ctof 26 ciAr -pon 27 A ^AfimA, rnACfiAi-oe C<xiVle "och 

tAX>. 88 

9. 5At>ACA]i couiffAt) innoeb, AfiArnmcViifet) lechu, 

cincAfif\A*o ochloen, UuAch-A he^erm t)o bechu. 31 

10. UuAutiA he^erm cAificViAficAif -oof mcfe-o pchlAich TIUA, 
TDejAAi-o co-oe -AiApcAige, 32 bet) ^Af UIJA 

11. -A t>|uii'o )?|\1 oe^Ai^ve nchctj pliAC|iAicc m 
Tlo -AAt) 1TTO Acne intiA, 

12. t)<\ tei^ 84 PACJAAICC combebA, 35 bA f^b 36 itroA^bA cloem, 
1fet) ctiA|A5Aib A e-UA 37 fUAf 38 -oe fechc|AebA t>oine. 

13. Imrnuin 39 octif Abcobp-p, tiACjM COICAC no-p CATIAX), 
p-pit)cli-A > o bAicfex) AiAnigex), 40 x>e motAT) 41 X)e m 

14, tli con^ebe-o uAchc pm t)o feiff Ait>clie tn tirmib, 

26 Ho clo^ .1. o "he^itin. Ro-clos, was heard i.e., through Erinn. 

27 Son .1. fontijr Son, i.e., a sound. 

28 fflAC^Ai-oe cAitle fochl/AT) .1. C^ebiMU ocuy tef]\u .1. -01 mgeti 
WIG hui enne, oicence]' "hibe|\m At) ce clAtnAric uem -pAncce 

p. n p. i.e., Crebru and Lesru, two daughters of Lerenn son of 7a Enna, 
dicentes, Hiberni onines ad te clamant, veni Sancte Patrici f. n. s. 

28 A|Vt> ctncAfVpA'O .1. A|\ A comcViA'o. Ara Tintarrad, i.e., that he would 
turn them. 

80 O chtoeti .1. o A-O^A-O 1-OAl. Chloen, i.e., from the adoration of 

31 t)o becViu .1. A^ p'oetn Cfvifd. Do Bethu, i.e., ad fidem Cristi. 

32 Coxje .1. co b^Acn. Code, i.e., for ever. 

33 CUA .1. cen gtoijv Tua, i.e., without sound. 

84 "DA bei^\ .1. c|\Abu'O. Ba Leir, i.e., piety (pious). 

35 CombebA 1. co A bA-p. Combeba, i.e., to his death. 

36 t)A fAb .1. bAfotiAfvu. Ba sab, i.e., he was powerful. 

37 A euA .1. AmAche. A Eva, i.e., his goodness (his honour). 

38 SuAf .1. A-O coelum. Suas, i.e., (upwards) ad coelum. 

39 Irntntnn .1. Amb]\oip no Awoice. Immuin, i.e., the hymn of Ambrose, or 

St. Piece's Poem on the Life of St. Patrick. 287 

8. Salvation to Ireland was the coming of Patrick to Eochlaidh ; 
Afar was heard the sound of the call of the youths of Caill- 


9. They prayed that the saint would come, that he would 

return from Letha, 
To convert the people of Erin from error to life. 

10. The " Tuatha" of Erin were prophesying that a new king- 

dom of faith would come, 

That it would last for evermore : the land of Tara would 
be waste and silent. 

11. The druids(/) of Loegaire concealed not from him the com- 

ing of 'Patrick: 

Their prophecy was verified as to the kingdom of which they 

12. Patrick walked in piety till his death : he was powerful in 

the extirpation of sin : 
He raised his hands in blessing upon the tribes of men. 

13. Hymns, and the Apocalypse, and the thrice fifty (Psalms) 

he was wont to sing, 

He preached, baptized, and prayed ; from the praise of God 
he ceased not. 

14. The cold of the weather deterred him not from passing the 

night in ponds: 

40 >Aj\ni5et> .1. -oo piich et\nAit;ce. Arniged, i.e , he prayed. 

41 "Oe tnolA-o .1. Achnige. De molad, i.e., repentance (rather praise or prayer). 

(/") The following gloss is added in the margin of the MS.: 
1ce A 'Ofuii'o .1. lucpu ocuf tucuc met ocuf Mf&o Anbencif : 
ctcfA cAtcen-o t>An mtnn mej\ cen-o 
A bf\Ac coVL cent), A cyvAnn cfvom-cent) 
A miAf in iA]\chAif\ A cige 
irnefsenAu A tntrmcij\ htnle. Amen. Amen. 

Fol. 15. b. margin. 

" Those were his druids, i.e. Lucru and Lucut Mel, and this is what they ued 
to say : 

A Taikenn will come over the raging sea, 
With his perforated garment, his crook-headed staff, 
With his table at the west end of his house, 
And all his people will answer. Amen, amen". 

In this gloss tlie altar is said to be at the west, i.e. lAiAcViAip. This word is 
written Ai|\cniu|\, i.e. the east, in the Trip. Life of St. Patrick, and in other 
copies of this stanza, as may be seen in O'Curry's Lect. on the MS. Materials nf 
Ancient Irish History, pp. 397 and 024. 

288 St. Fiecc's Poem on the Life o/^St. Patrick. 

mm confetiA 42 A yu^e, pyvi-odiAi-pp f-pi*oe 43 inimb. 4 * 

15. 1 SlAti 45 cuAich bentiA Y)Aipche 46 nrp sAibe-o 47 CAJVC HA 
cec f Aim 48 cecli tiAixjcVi i,;oo 


16. oAit> 49 fo-p teicc Unm lApum, 40 octif ctnlche Clinch 
t)A coif\che A|Ai'OAX)A|vc, m leicc A cVio-pp hi 

17. p|\ix>c1iAt) f of cet^t) t)o cActi, -oo gmu rn6|\ j?e^cA iltecViu, 51 
1ccAit> tu^cti" VA c-|iti^cu,^ mAijtb oo-p pti-pcAt) t>o be- 

18. PAC^AIC p|Mt)chAi|" t)0 -pcocAib, fio chef rno^i ^ecli 6 
1mmi conci Ac 55 t)o bAAch m CAch 56 x>o uc *oo bechu. M 

19. THeicc e-tni|A, meicc 6-fnmon, 

m CAfvmchofAt ipn mop chuce ni 

20. CotroA CATHC mcAp-pcAt 60 x>o Aich gich ^Aiche "oent, 
u pchce btiAiDnA, c-jioich C|M^C t>o 

21. pop cuAich ViCpetin bAi cemel, 62 ciiAcViA A*oopcAif 

44 Con^en A .1. |\o coftiAjCA^. Consena, i.e., he preserved (he entitled himself to.) 

43 ^TV" -oe .1. ilto. Fri de, i.e. by day. [Fn cf properly means the evening 
twilight. IP^M -oe .1. CA tiAi-oce, i.e., every night; H. 2. 18. f. 58. b.] 

44 1nmb .1. celjcViAib. Innib, i.e , in places of congregations. 

45 S\*&n .1. nomen ironcir. Slan, i.e., nomen fontis. 

46 UuAich "bennA-t)Ai^clie, i.e., by Beanna Bairche on the North. 

47 5Aibet> .1. in cipnA. Gaibed, i.e., of the well. 

48 Cec -pAltri .1. -01 cliAic4ic. Ce< /SaZ/n, i.e., two fifties. 

49 VoAit) .1. iAocVioc1<yo. Foaid, i.e., he used to sleep. 
i0 lAnutn .1. iApfein. larwn, id est, after that. 

61 ittecViu .1. in t/Adcu'oirie. Illethu, i. e., in latitudine. 

ft2 tufcu .1. bACAcVm. Luscu, i.e., cripples. 

>3 IA U]\ufcu .1. IA clAtnu. La Truscu, i.e., with lepers. 

54 Sech .i.-pAec>iAiyv. 5eM, i.e., labour. 

55 ConciffAC .1. |\egAic. Contissat, i.e., they will come (go.) 
ifi 1n CAcVi .1. cecVioen. In each, i.e., every one. 

67 "Do bediu .1. A-O fiX)Tr>. >o Bethu, i.e., ad fidem. 

St. Piece's Poem on the Life of St. Patrick. 289 

By Heaven his kingdom was protected: he pr^acned by 
day on the hills. 

15. In Slan,(g) in the territory of Benna-Bairche, hunger or 

thirst possessed him not. 

Each night he sang a hundred psalms, to adore the King of 

1$. He slept on a bare stone then, and a wet sackcloth around 


A bare rock was his pillow ; he allowed not his body to be 
in warmth. 

17. He preached the Gospel to all: he wrought great miracles 

in Letha; 

He healed the lame and the lepers : the dead he restored to 

18. Patrick preached to the Scoti: he endured great toil in 


With him will come to judgment every one whom he brought 
to the life of faith. 

19. The sons of Emer, the sons of Eremon, all went to Cisal, 
To the abode of Satan ; they were swallowed up in the deep 


20. Until the Apostle came to them ; he came despite the raging 

tempests : 

He preached, for three-score years, the cross of Christ to 
the Tribes of Feni. 

21. On the land of Erin there was darkness; the Tuatha adored 

the Sidhi; 

58 CifAl .1. IA Ail in chir .1. IA x)iinon ; Ailp-oe A^A -oti^e. Cisal, i.e., irith 
the rock the tribute, i e., with the Demon, he is a rock in sternness. 

59 Chuce nifel, .1. inm^epnn. Cute Nisei, i.e., in Hell. 

60 Con-OA cAtnc in cApfCAL .1. <]tn tnir-pi-p ftnc A-oormne A-O p|\e-oicArX)Uin. 
Conda tanic in tapstal, i,e., qui missus fuit a Dornine ad predicandum. 

Sl pene .1. o emtif AjvpAijj. Fene, i.e., from Fenius Farsaigh. 

62 Uemel .1. A-OA^cViA n-1-OAl. Temel, i e., the worship of idols. 

63 Sit)! .1. pcliAige no AX>fVAcef. Sidi, i.e., Fairies they used to adore. 

) This gloss is added in the MS : u StA .1. 1A]\ pn -01 bA ftAn [-OA]\ 

hep] in lobon -OAIA A cage [m cuifce] ocuf 1C ^Abull ACA . . . f\ep1eue|\- 
tinc ufLAiio [itXumj pnopce|\mote|'ciArn cu]\[bA]\um] eoceuncium At) iVl/um". 
" Stan, i.e. because the leper upon whom its [water] was put was cured by it, and 
at Sabull (Saul) it is .... repleverunt Ulaidi [the people of Ulidia] ilium 
propter molestiam tur[barum] exeuntium ad ilium". The words in brackets are 
very obscure in MS. 

290 St. Piece's Poem on the Life of St. Patrick. 

Hi cpeic feu m ppt>e<\c1ic, intiA Upinoice ppi. 

22. 1n Apt) tttAchA pi pi^e, if CIAH t>o pepAchc 

1f cell mop 'Otm Lech ^IAI ppe, rum-oil ce*o t>ic1ipub 
UemAip. 64 

23. pACpAicc oiAmbAi 65 iVlobpA 66 A-ocobpA -out t>o mAche; 67 
t)o ttn-o Alltel 68 ApA chenn -pop-pec mime-con 

24. t)o ^Aicb f^-oe-p co thccop, bA he 

111 mume imb<M, <vp in cen 70 

25. Afbepc 73 op-ot)Arj 73 t>o TTlAche, t)o Cfii-pc AutAi^ce btnt)e, 
T) chum tume mo-j^pe^A/ 4 po pAuhA otnc 75 t)u 

26. 1mmon "ooppoe^A icbiu bit) tupech tDicen t>o 

itlAiuhiti m meff A pe^Ac pp hepenn x>o 

27. AriAif UA^pAch -oiAep incAn -oo bepc commAn t>6, 

c momcpet) 76 pACpAicc, bpiAuhAp UAfpAi^ mp 
bu 77 50. 

L SAmAi^e-p 78 cpich -ppi Aix>c1ii, Ap nA CAice te-p occAi, 89 

Co cenn biiAX)TiA bAi -poitl^e, bA hepch tAiche 80 J?OUAI, 

64 tlnn-oit cet) t>icliiAtib cernAi]\ .1. m VnnrnAin lem cetn<xi]A cix> pA^. Nim- 
dil ced dithrub Temair, i.e , Teamhair it is not desirable to me that it be a desert 
[i.e , I do not wish that Tismhair should be a wilderness] 

* 5 "OiAtnbAi [.1. 1 CfAbulil.^'e/n^at, when he was, i.e., at Saball (Saul). 

66 111ob}\A .1. inn^Atu^. Il/obra, i.e., in sickness. 

67 "Out -oo tTlAclie .1. A|\X>A15 cominAX) Ann no been A efefj;e. Dul do 
Mache, (i.e., to go to Armagh), i.e., in order that it is there his^resurrection 
should be. 

68 AmgeL .1. thccon. Aingel, i.e., Victor. 

69 A]\it> nubA^cA]\ .1. AnAAle .1. cen out -06 t>o A|\t)niAcnA. Arid rulastar, 
i.., that occurred; i.e , not to go to Armagh. 

70 Af m cen 1. A'p m cene-o. As in Ten, i.e , out of the fire. 

M A-o^lA-OA-pCAp .1. |\o AidltefCAn. Adg/adastar, i.e., he spoke [to him]. 

72 Afbepc .1. tliccon. Atbert, i.e., Victor [said]. 

73 Onr>t)An -oo tTlAcnAe .1. -06 5"l6n .1. cAi)Aec1iAf -oo An'omAcliA AiriAit no 

St. Pieces Poem on the Life of St. Patrick. 291 

They believed not in the true Deity of the true Trinity. 

22. In Ardmagli there is sovereignty : it is long since Emain 

passed away; 

A great church is Dun-Leihglasse ; I wish not that Tara 
should be a desert. 

23. Patrick", when he was in sickness, desired to go to Ardmagh : 
An angel went to meet him on the road in the middle of the 


24. Patrick came southwards towards Victor; he it was that 

went to meet him : 

The bush, in which Victor was, was in a blaze: from the 
flame he (the angel) spoke : 

25. He said : Thy dignity (shall be) at Armagh : return thanks 

to Christ: 
To Heaven thou shalt come ; thy prayer is granted thee. 

26. The hymn which thou chosest in life shall be a corselet of 

protection to all ; 

Around thee on the day of judgment the men of Erin will 
come for judgment. 

27. Tassach remained after him (in Sabhall), having given the 

communion to him : 

He said that Patrick would return : the word of Tassach 
was not false. 

28. He (St. Patrick) put an end to night; light ceased not with 


To a year's end there was radiance; it was a long day of 

becne -pein Ann. Orddan do Ardmacha, i.e. (your), glory and your splendour 
will be in Armagh as if you yourself were there. 

74 tnofnejA .1. inirnucViA n e 5 A "oochum nitne. Mosrega, i.e., very (early) 
soon you shall go to heaven. 

78 RAC VIA x>tnc .1. cecn ni nocumjiy co X>IA "oo ttACAc "otiic. Ratha duit, 
i.e., everything for which you have prayed to God has been granted to you. 

76 nionicret) .1. fAbAUC ncenum. Monic/ed, i.e., to Saball (Saul) iterum. 

77 Tlin bu 50 .1. <jtiiA ueniu pAcnicixif icenurn co fAbuVl. Nir bu go, i e., 
quia venit Patricius iterum to Saball (Saul). 

78 SAmAijer .1. pAcnAig. Samaighes, i.e., Patrick (put). 

79 tef OCCA1 .1. CAinVle. Les occai. This word is not very clear in MS., but 
Professor O'Curry thought it might be CA hllle, which would mean wholly or 

80 Sich lAiche, .1. tAiche m pen. Sith Laithe, i.e., the day of the peace 
(the days of the peace). 

292 St. Fiecc's Poem on the Life of St. Patrick. 

29. 1n CAch echc<x 81 irnbechpon, 82 ^11 cuAich CAIIATI \,A ITIAC 


Apfoich 83 in sfUAn f^i 5 A ^ or)84 ^f f 6 * AX>j?eic 85 

30. tluAi-p Affoiuh IA tle-pu m^-piAn, -ppi bAf mnA cloen, 

ch]Aeb]Aec1i bA titnppe, 87 -poillp ffu eic-pechc 88 

31. Clench be|Aenn iDotlocA^, t)Ai|Ai PACJAAICC Af cech -pec, 
Son" in cecAit, 90 fo-p|AotAich, 91 conutut CAch UA-oib foj\ 

32. -dmm PACJAAICC ^IA cVio]ip, Mf l 

*Oe icec ATOctie, Afn'opecif cen 

33. 1ncAn contiUAlAi 92 pAC|Aic, 93 A-O eltA m PAUJAAICC 
1-p niAtte connubcAbj'Ac, 91 t)oc1ium nl-pu meicc 

34. PAU|\AIC cen Aint^e nuAbAn, bAmon t)o tnAich |io 
beich m5eiViiuf ITIeicc ITlAine, bA fen $Aine 


81 -pechcA .1. ^Accutn. Fechta, i.e., factum. 

82 t)ecli|\or> .1. tiornen moncif. Beth-horon, i.e., nomen mentis. 

83 A|~poich .1. oeuj'. Assoith, i.e , Dous " turned back the sun". 

84 TjAbon .1. nomen dtncACif. Gabaon, i.e , nomen civitatis. 

85 Ax>peic .i.mnifef. Adfeit, i.e., relate (or relates). 

86 l/iccni .1 fCAin bbuin 1ofUA. Littri [i.e., letters], i.e., the history con- 
tained in the Book of Joshua. 

87 t)A h-tnffe- .1. bA conu. Bo huisse, i.e., It would be more just. 

88 n 1 eicfechc .1. fpi Viebiicm. Fri eit&echt, i.e., at the death of. 

89 Son .1. fonuf. bo7i, i.e., sonus. 

90 IncecAit .1. m cniuil. In cetail, i.e., of the music. 

91 of notxvi ch ,1. |\o pAitgercAn mnA ligu. Fosrolaich, i.e., they were 
lulled to sleep in their [respective] places. 

St. Piece's Poem on the Life of St. Patrick. 293 

29. At the battle fought around Beth-horon against the Canaan- 

ites by the son of Nun 

The sun stood still at Gabaon : this it is that the Scripture 
tells us. 

SO. The sun lasted with Josue, unto the death of the wicked : 

this indeed was befitting; 

It was more befitting that there should be radiance at the 
death of the saints. 

31. The clergy of Erin went from every part to watch around 


The sound of harmony fell upon them, so that they slept, 
enchanted on the way. 

32. Patrick's body from his soul was severed after pains ; 

The angels of God on the first night kept choir around it 

33. When Patrick departed (from life), he went to visit the 

other Patrick ; 
Together they ascended to Jesus Son of Mary. 

34. Patrick without arrogance or pride, great was the good 

which he proposed to himself, 

To be in the service of Mary's Son : happy the hour in 
which Patrick was born. 

Patrick was born, etc. 

92 ConTiUAtAi .1. |\o et4i. Conhualal, i.e., he departed. 

93 -pAcpAic .i. triAC CAtptnjMi. Patraic, i.e , son of Calpurn. 

94 1n PACJAAIC riAile .i.-pen PAC]AAIC. In Patraic naile, i.e., Sen Patric. 

95 1-p tnAtXe- cormubcAbfAc .1. if fex) f\o jeVl pACfuyic triAc CAlpuinn *oo 
fen ptiACfVAic commA'o itntriAiVle po lAegcAif x>o cVium mme, ocuf ife'o m- 
nifec coj\ob<yt PACJ\<XIC OCA .xm. [ocui ] Kt. A^Ait co .toe. Kt. Se-pcemb|Mf 


A|v irmnAijj ocuj' Ainjil, itnme oc ijvnAi^ce fen PAC]\AIC. Js maile connub- 
cabsat, i e., It is what Patrick the son of Calpubiru promised to Sn Patrick, 
that together they would go to Heaven. And it is related that Patrick was 
from the .xm. [xtn.] of the Kalends of April to the ninth of the Kalends of 
September upon the field and angels around him [awaiting] praying to Sn 



THE following narrative of the virtues and bravery of the Pon- 
tifical Zouaves has been compiled by a writer in the Etudes 
Religieuses, Historiques, et Litleraires from sources forthe authen- 
ticity of which, the high character of that excellent periodical is 
sufficient guarantee They consist of the letters of Abbe Daniel, 
chaplain to the zouaves, many other letters from the zouaves 
themselves by their relatives at home, and communicated by 
them to the writer. We are truly happy in being allowed to 
present to our readers this picture of the crusaders of the nine- 
teenth century : 

When these young men, rich or poor as they might be, left their 
country and the joys of home to fly to the aid of the Sovereign 
Pontiff, it was because a voice from on high made itself heard 
in their heart: they did but obey the call of God. " You will 
have been informed", wrote one of them, now a captain, to his 
brother, " of my design to go to Rome to defend our Holy 
Father the Pope. I am at last about to carry it into execution. 
I took this resolution firmly and irrevocably on last Sunday, at 
the foot of the Blessed Virgin's altar, after having strengthened 
my soul in the Holy Communion. You would never have 
thought that I would become a soldier, nor did I myself ever 
dream of such a thing ; but the danger which presses our com- 
mon country and the best interests of society, creates soldiers. 
Now, may God protect us, and may His holy will be done ! 
Last Sunday I began a novena to our Lady of Victory, to 
obtain from God all the graces and all the courage I shall have 
need of to bear the fatigue of my new life, and to do my duty 
even to the death, if it be necessary". He wrote again from 
Marseilles: " This morning I made my pilgrimage to Notre 
Dame de la Garde; I rely on her protection, and I hope to 
return victorious, safe and sound, content to have done a good 
work". A peasant, before setting out for Rome, said to one of 
his friends: " I am starting to help our Holy Father; I hope to 
see you once again, and to embrace once more my aged mother. 
But if I am to die, I know that it will be God's will, and I 
would not be sorry to give Him my life". Another peasant was 
anxious to go to Rome. He went to consult a man who was the 
father of two zouaves, who, far from encouraging him, set before 
him all the difficulty and the troubles of such a life. Full of 
thought he went to his own home, where every one did their 
best to dissuade him. When Sunday came, he said to his 
parents, just as he was setting out for Mass: "I am going to 

The faith and devotion of the Pontifical Zouaves. 295 

pray to God, and to do whatever He will suggest to me". 
After remaining for a long space on his knees at the foot of the 
altar, he arose, and without going home, took at once the road 
to Marseilles. B was valet to a rich old man who had pro- 
mised to bequeath to him an annuity of 500 francs if he would 

remain in his situation while his master lived. But B 

heard that the Pope had been spoiled of a portion of his states, 
and although without means, he renounced his place, and went 
to Rome, where he is since 1860. 

John Seton, who was mortally wounded at Mentana, and who 
died at Rome of his wounds on the 18th November, belonged to a 
Christian family in the diocese of Angers, earning their daily 
bread by the sweat of their brow. He heard of the dangers 
which threatened the Vicar of Christ, and resolved to fly to his 
assistance. His mother, a woman of admirable piety, had a ten- 
der love for her son John ; she hoped that he would be the stay 
of her declining years; but above all, she had taken care to 
bring him up for heaven. " My parents were poor", she used 
to say, " but they left us the best of legacies faith in God 
that is all I ask for my own children. If John wishes to go to 
fight for the Pope, I am quite willing; I hope that the good 
God will watch over him, and help him to walk in the good 
path". John left home in 1862, leaving the care of his future 
to Providence. " God will settle everything", said he; "He 
will have mercy on me; if I return, I have no fear for the 
future". Full of anxiety for the well-being of her son, the 
mother used to inquire from the chaplain whether he discharged 
his duties, attended to his religious exercises, and led the life of 
a good Christian. Every Sunday she went to the church at 
the moment when, according to her calculations, her zouave was 
assisting at the military Ma-s. " It consoles me", said she with 
tears in her eye?, " to think that I am at the feet of the good 
God at the same moment as my own John, and that God hears 
the prayers of us both together". How happy she must have 
been when she read in her son's letter: " Do not be uneasy about 
my welfare; I should be very much ashamed of myself if I came 
to where I am to forget my duty". 

After having assisted at the celebration of the Centenary of 
St. Peter, Seton returned home; but he was determined to 
rejoin his regiment at the first approach of danger. His mother 
did not expect him. "I am glad to see him again", said she; 
" but I say to myself, so as not to trouble him, that I am sorry 
he abandoned our Holy Father! It is true he says he will go 
back once more if they attack the Pope No, no, most cer- 
tainly, I will never hinder him". She kept her word, and her 
son, informed of Garibaldi's invasion in the beginning of Octo- 

296 The faith and devotion of the Pontifical Zouaves. 

ber, went in haste to Andouin, his comrade in arms; both 
arrived in Rome on the 22nd of that month. They fell toge- 
ther at Mentana. Seton, seriously wounded a la hauche, made 
three attempts to rise, but failed in all, lamenting that he had 
not been able to fire his carabine. Perceiving Abbe Daniel the 
chaplain, he cried out: " Give me absolution; make haste . . . 
and now save yourself quickly, these brigands are taking aim at 
you". When carried to the hospital of St. John of God, he was 
the model of his companions in suffering by his piety and resig- 
nation. " I am proud of my wound", said he to those who 
visited him. "Probably I shall die of it; but at all events I 
shall have the consolation of having defended the noblest of 
causes, the Church and the Sovereign Pontiff". The Abbe 
Daniel, when sending word of his death to his poor mother, told 
her: " Your son is not only a martyr but also an apostle. Yes- 
terday a soldier came to visit me. ' I am come', said he, ' in 
obedience to Seton. On his death bed he made me promise to 
go to confessiou every week. I will keep my word' ". The poor 
mother was crushed by this blow ; but her sublime faith raised 
her up. " We had only him to look to in our old days; but I 
would not have liked to see him come back any more to us ... 
I was always uneasy about my poor John's salvation : God has 
given him the grace to die for His cause. May His holy 
will be done". 

It was thus those heroes lived and died. In their minds to 
be a soldier of Pius the Ninth bound them to the perfect prac- 
tice of Christian virtue. 

Carlos d'Alcantare, a man worthy of the saint of that name 
who was his patron and his relative, wrote in June, 1867, to 
one of his former teachers: " For the last four months I am en- 
rolled in this glorious service, and if I may venture to say it, I 
am proud to be called a Pontifical Zouave. The very name has 
for me an indescribable charm. I regard my uniform rather as 
a religious habit than as a military dress. I look on it as a 
sacred tunic which obliges me to support and to defend in all 
places and against all enemies our holy religion and our Holy 
Father. I no longer shrink from showing myself openly a 
Christian, even in the presence of the most obstinate foes. The 
name of Zouave stamps upon the soul something that gives you 
energy". At Mentana he fell mortally wounded. " He was an 
angel of piety", writes his captain, " I will never forget his de- 
portment in church". 

All the letters breathe sentiments similar to these. P , 

who had formerly been a soldier, announces to his employers 
that he wishes to go to Rome. " That is all very fine", was the 
reply, " but if you lose an arm or a leg, how will you make out 

The faith and devotion of the Pontifical Zouaves. 297 

a living for the rest of our life?" " The good God for whom I 
have lost them", replied the veteran, " will provide for me ; he will 
never allow the people at home to let me want bread". Later 
on, he wrote: " I assure you, my beloved masters, that if I have 
left, it was because God called on me to make a stand. If lam 
a Christian, I ought to show that I am, and show it I will. 
What a fine sight to see us at our religious duties as we ought, 
and to see us at prayer without human respect". And in a 
letter to his parents, he writes: "You know that it is not to 
better my temporalities that I came here, but for my own 
spiritualities, and for yours. Do not, therefore, render my 
sacrifice of no avail ; on the contrary unite yourselves with me to 
thank the good God for having given me a vocation so noble". 
After the battle of Mentana: " Thanks to our Lady of Victories ! 
during the fight I thought I beheld a great many persons singing 
the praises of God, praying for us while we were driving back 
the enemies of God and of the Church. ... I am not sur- 
prised that I got no wound ; for I see clearly that all who were 
killed were better than I". 

This language requires no gloss; the facts speak for them- 
selves, and it is impossible not to see in them the action of 
Providence. It is Providence that raises up for the Holy 
Father valiant defenders in every country on the earth, and 
bestows upon those chosen ones with large liberality the graces 
which render them heroes and martyrs. As the mark of their 
vocation, God kindles in their souls a passionate love of Pius the 
Ninth. When they were wounded on the battle field, the only 
cry to be heard was, " I am wounded, but long live Pius the 

Se villa, mortally injured, refuses the aid of his companions 
who wanted to carry him to the ambulance: "Go", said he, 
" and fight well. Wjiat matter if I die : but the Church for 
ever, and long live Pius the Ninth !" It was the dearest of all 
their delights to receive the blessing of their beloved Pontiff. 
A peasant from Beaupreau wrote to his family: " The greatest 
pleasure we now have is to see Pius the Ninth. I am well off 
in that respect : my barrack is beside St. Peter's. It was the 
Pope who had us placed there. He said : ' I wish to have my 
Zouaves near myself. We were the lucky fellows who were 
sent here, and we are well off. To-day I am on guard at the 
barrack. Well, I have seen the Pope twice, and I have received 
his blessing both times. My beloved parents, I never get his 
blessing without sending it home". Another zouave, now a 
captain, wrote to his father: " A few days ago, I enjoyed one of 
the greatest pleasures of my life that of assisting at the Holy 
Father's Mass, and of receiving communion from his hands. 

298 The faith and devotion of the Pontifical Zouaves. 

You would be astonished at the simplicity with which Pius the 
Ninth says Mass. But, at certain moments, you will feel that 
he is more than a simple priest; you feel that he is the Vicar of 
Jesus Christ, especially when he is reciting the Credo, the Pater, 
and the Agnus Dei. He utters these prayers with such feeling, 
that he seems as if praying for the whole world, for the entire 
universe. I will never forget the Agnus Dei pronounced by 
the Holy Father. Of how many sins must that prayer procure 
the pardon ! At the communion I have felt more deeply than 
ever the real presence of our Lord Jesus Christ; at that moment 
the Holy Father was blotted from my mind, and 1 saw only my 
good God, who was coining to give Himself to me by the hand 
of the most worthy and the highest of His ministers. If you 
knew how I prayed for all our family, for all my friends, for 
France, for the Holy Father ! I prayed with the confidence of 
one who asks, certain that his prayer will be heard". 

In August, 1864, John Seton said to his parents: "I will tell 

Sou something about the Holy Father. I see him every day at 
astel Gandoltb. He goes out every afternoon ; I always manage 
to be where he goes, and when he is walking, I follow him with 
my comrades. . . What joy I feel in those walks in which 
I accompany the Vicar of Jesus Christ ! How delighted you 
would be to enjoy such a happiness ! but if you cannot see him 
on earth, you will see him in heaven". In January, 1867, he 
wrote from Viterbo: " When I was in Rome, I spent rny leisure 
in visiting the monuments, and in going to see the Holy Father. 
It is a great privation for me now, but my joy will be all the 
greater the first time I shall see him. Believe me, when one is 
away from his father, he is very glad to see him again". 

When the hour of battle came, the officers had but to recall 
to their men the thought of Pius the Ninth, to raise the courage 
of all. When wounded, these Christian soldiers could not bear 
to see their relatives weep. " It is a great honour to me to be 
wounled", thus wrote to his sister Audoin, the hero of Men- 
tana, " and I am rather astonished that a sensible person like 
you should go to cry at Nantes on account of a little scratch 
(he had been wounded in the left shoulder). It is always a 
glorious thing to suffer those little troubles for the sake of our 
Holy Father. You ought to sing, and not to weep. . . If it 
had so pleased God, I would willingly have gone with Seton; 
but it was not His will". A letter addressed to Audoin's parish 
priest by Mgr. Martial de Cosquer, Archbishop of Port-au- 
Prince, relates how the old zouave (he was fifty years old) 
received his wound : " I learned from Captain d'Albiousse the 
circumstances in which he was wounded. For more than seven 
years he has been the personal attendant of that officer, whom 

The faith and devotion of the Pontifical Zouaves. 299 

he loves and serves as his own son. During the attack at Men- 
tana, Audoin, seeing M. d'Albiousse expose himself with great 
daring to a shower of bullets which aimed at him, rushed 
between the enemy and his captain, and having received the 
fire in his breast, fell bathed in blood at the feet of him whom 
he had saved. Two days after, when the troops reentered 
Rome, M. d'Albiousse went to the hospital to look for the noble 
fellow to whom he owed his life, and having found him, 
expressed, not without tears, his gratitude for his goodness. 
* All right, captain', was the reply, ' I am well pleased to have 
been struck instead of you'. What great souls, M. le Cure, has 
the Church found to serve her in her hour of need ! And how 
proud ought their families and parishes be to have produced 
such men !" 

Audoin received the gold medal for his bravery, but it gave 
him pain to hear that the Pope had granted him a pension. " I 
did not come to Rome", said he, " for money". He then added : 
" Well, at all events, I shall have more money to give to the 
St. Peter's Pence". 

Our readers are already aware of the incomparable devotion 
of the Dutch nation towards the Pope's cause. Let us mention a 
few additional facts. In a village near Maestricht, a father 
being suddenly asked by his only son and heir to allow the 
latter to enter the zouaves, hesitated for a time. He thought 
that to be a Papal zouave was but a sorry vocation for the heir 
of a property so large as his. " Father", replied the son, " if I 
am admitted to serve the Pope, it will be a great honour for 
you ; if I am wounded in battle against the enemies of the Holy 
See, it will be more glorious still ; if I die, it will be a crowning 
glory, and the greatest grace that God can bestow on us both". 

A young man had not wherewithal to pay his expenses to 
Rome. He found means to gain an audience of the king him- 
self. His majesty was large-hearted enough not to refuse his 
request, and to his present of money added these words*. "If 
I were in the Pope's position, I should like to find people 
coming to my aid". And this was said by a Protestant sove- 
reign. Two other volunteers thought it becoming to ask the 
king's permission to leave their country. " Go, my friends", 
said, the sovereign, "I will not hinder you. But if we should 
have any trouble here, and if I should have need of you, what 
shall I do?" "Telegraph for us, sire; we will run to defend 
you". " Good, you are brave fellows. You are like him whom 
I have here in my portfolio". And his Majesty drew out the 
portrait of Peter Yong, the Lutgebrook farmer, the hero of 
Monte- Libretto. Finally the king, charmed with the patriotism 
and bravery of the two young men, made them a present 

300 The faith and devotion of the Pontifical Zouaves. 

of his own watch, and asked them to keep him in their 

It was natural, that in souls so noble as those of our zouaves, 
charity, the flower of Christian virtue, should grow and flourish 
luxuriantly. Apostles among their comrades, they acted as 
chaplains as well as nurses. Equally brave in presence of 
cholera, and in face of the enemy, they practised in a heroic 
degree all that love for their neighbour, and especially for the 
poor, could suggest. " We have passed through a very hard 
year", writes M. 1'Abbe Daniel, "and our men have had much 
to suffer during long months from excessive heat. In the midst 
of terrible diseases, fever and cholera, they needed great courage 
to face with coolness the risk of contagion. We had to place 
guards at the doors of the cholera hospital to hinder the too 
frequent visits they made to the sick. But their charity found 
a thousand pretexts to elude our watchfulness, and make their 
way to the patients. At the bedsides of the sick they acted as 
infirmarians, and even as chaplains. When in my rounds I 
came to Grossin, his lieutenant, M. Joubert had already pre- 
pared him for confession. * I am not sorry to die', said he, ' I 
have settled all'. At the bed of young De Lepertierre, I found 
a zouave who was giving him a medal of the Blessed Virgin to 
kiss, and was exciting him to place all his confidence in God". 

The same zeal was displayed on the field of battle to procure 
for the wounded the helps of religion : as soon as any one was 
struck, they sent word at once to the priest. Touched by these 
frank expressions of piety, the French soldiers who were 
wounded used to ask for the chaplain of the Pope's men. 

At Albano, above all, the zouaves displayed the heroism of 
their Christian charity. When the cholera came to ravage that 
town in August, 1867, many of the inhabitants fled panic- 
stricken from their homes, leaving their friends dead or dying. 
A detachment of forty-two men arrived, under the command of 
a Belgian lieutenant, M. de Resernont. Many corpses were 
lying unburied for three days, spreading infection all around ; on 
the first day of their arrival, they gave burial to eighty-six. 

" What struck me most of all" was the spirit of faith dis- 
played by them in burying the dead. First, they knelt at the 
foot of the bed where the body lay, and recited the usual 
prayers for his soul, then they lifted the body with great 
respect, and carried it on their shoulders to the hearse, and 
followed it silently and sorrowfully to the cemetery. One of 
them, a Fleming by birth, would not leave the hearse for four 
days; he was afraid, he said, lest others less religious might not 
perform that work of charity with suitable devotion. Whenever 
a fresh victim was added to the list, the terrified relatives gave 


The faith and devotion of the Pontifical Zouaves. 301 

the key of their house to the first zouave they met, told him 
where the house was, and hurried away". M. de Charette, 
arrived at the cemetery at half-past eleven, when the sun was 
broiling hot. " Have you broken your fast?" he asked. " No, 
colonel", replied the zouaves there employed, " they are still 
bringing in the dead, and we must do what we can to bury them 
at once". Two of them sank under these excessive privations 
and labours: more than one envied the lot of these martyrs of 

These " consoling angels", as Cardinal Altieri used to call them, 
did not neglect the sick. As soon as a fresh case was reported, 
the lieutenant would say to those who were yet unoccupied : 
" Who will attend this new patient?" Immediately every hand 
was raised, and each one sought to obtain for himself this post 
of honour. Whoever was appointed, at once became an infir- 
marian: he never quitted the sick person confided to his care, 
he rendered him every service, he sent for the priest, he recited 
the prayers for the dying, and when they died he carried them 
to the cemetery and buried them with his own hands. One of 
the number who could not procure a substitute, would not aban- 
don his patient, and so remained eighteen hours without food. 
Nothing could be more touching, says the witness quoted above, 
than to see these young soldiers carrying through the streets 
their own rations for some poor family, thus depriving them- 
selves of the nourishment of which they stood in so great need. 
We know the source whence they derived the superhuman 
energy. Often, when they quitted their post late in the night, 
worn out with the fatigues ot the day, they went to throw them- 
selves at the knee of the priest, and in the morning, after having 
received the bread of the strong, they were able to continue 
their life of sacrifice. 

A prince of the Church was their model while he was their 
admirer. After exposing his life for his flock, Cardinal Altieri 
wished to pay a final testimony of respect to the heroism of his 
Zouaves. The evening before his death he wrote to the Pope : 
' If the angels were to come down from heaven to take care of 
my poor people, they would not do it with more charity and 
more zeal". And a few minutes before he breathed his last, he 
called some of them to his bedside. " I am dying", said he to 
them ; " I recommend my people to you. . . . Continue to look 
after them. In heaven I will pray to God for you". Eight 
days after the Cardinal's death, another of the Zouaves lost his 
life in consequence of his zeal for the care of the sick. 

When the number of cases had diminished, and the town had 
resources enough of its own to meet the wants of the inhabitants, 
an order came from Rome forbidding the soldiers to visit the 

VOL. IV. 21 

302 The faith and devotion of the Pontifical Zouaves. 

sick any more. This order was like a thunderbolt to the men. 
It was found necessary to exact from each of them his word of 
honour that he would obey the order of the Minister of Arms. 
No longer allowed to give their personal services to their adopted 
families, they consigned to the delegate a list of the poorest 
sufferers, and with it a considerable sum of money for their 
relief. " Since we cannot work for them any longer, let us try 
and help them out of our purses". Let it be borne in mind, that 
many of them had no other means beyond their scanty pay ; but 
hearts that are truly Christian never stop to make calculations 
when they are dealing with God or His Buffering members, the 
poor. " These brave fellows", writes the chaplain, " derived 
their devotion from its true and only source, which is faith, 
purity of heart, and the frequentation of the sacraments. When 
I arrived at Albano, I had to stay at home the first evening and 
receive them all one after the other. Next day at an early hour, 
they flocked round me to mass, and I gave them the Holy Com- 
munion, that true well-spring of Christian generosity". 

Other battle fields, more brilliant, but not more glorious than 
that of Albano, witnessed on the part of the zouaves the same 

C, and the same desire of strengthening themselves at the 
laristic banquet. On the morning of the battle of Nerola, 
the Abbe Daniel said Mass at three o'clock, and the altar-rails 
were crowded with officers and soldiers. They prepared them- 
selves for battle as the early Christians prepared for martyrdom. 
A superior officer, renowned for his chivalrous valour, had not 
been able to come to assist at the Holy Sacrifice ; he met the 
Abbe* Daniel: " Monsieur Taumonier, I am looking for you in 
vain for the last two days ; I desire to go to Holy Communion". 
The priest replied that he had the Blessed Sacrament with him, 
and would give him Communion whenever he was ready. The 
officer immediately knelt down, and received the Holy Eucharist. 
The bystanders remarked the two heavy tears that coursed down 
his manly face, as after some time spent in thanksgiving, he rose 
from his knees to lead his soldiers on to victory At Monte- 
Libretti, before making the assault an assault of heroic rashness 
Guillemin encouraged his men by these simple words, " Come 
on, my friends, you have all been at confession this morning. 
Long live Pius the Ninth ! Charge !" 

After the battle of Mentana, the wounded thought themselves 
happy at having to suffer in defence of religion and of the Holy 
Father. Full of faith and resignation, they were the admiration 
of all who visited them. A Jesuit Father was going through 
the hospital, when he was called by a zouave whom he had 
known in France. " You here, my son, and wounded?" " Yes, 
Father j it is nothing. Long live Pius the Ninth. Look here"... 

The faith and devotion of the Pontifical Zouaves. 303 

and uncovering his breast, he showed him his scapulars all 
bathed in blood. The bullet had glanced from his breast 
leaving a fragment of the lead buried in the flesh. " It was Mary 
who saved my life !" and turning to his comrades, he cried out : 
u Is it not true that Mary is full of kindness?" I asked a French 
zouave, writes the same father, whether he suffered much? 
" Unfortunately not, Father; I wish it was so; at least, I would 
have the comfort of offering my sufferings for the Holy Father ; 
but, now, here I am nailed down, without power to do anything, 
or to fight against the- Garibaldians". Another had his two 
fingers amputated. I expressed my compassion for him. " What ! 
Father", said he smiling, " it is not worth talking about ! I came 
here to sacrifice myself for the cause of the Holy Father ; I was 
ready to give ail my limbs, all my blood ; and I have lost only 
two fingers !" Another Zouave, the sole representative of Peru 
in the army, had received five wounds, which seemed mortal, 
three balls and two bayonet-wounds. He said : " I shall be 
more like our Lord with His five wounds". He recovered. 
His patience was incredible in spite of his sharp sufferings. 
Pointing towards the chapel of the Blessed Sacrament, near his 
bed, he said : " There is my strength and my joy". He went to 
communion every day. A wounded man refused to allow his 
leg to be amputated. To overcome his repugnance, they remarked 
that he had come to Rome to give himself legs and arms to the 
Holy Father. " It is true", he replied, and at once submitted to 
the painful operation. 

Alfred Collingrid^e had but one trouble : to know whether he 
should do violence to himself, and desire to live, or let himself 
die. He consulted the Abbe Daniel, who told him that it 
would be best of all to leave himself in the hands of Providence. 
" Well then", said he, " I leave myself in the hands of Provi- 
dence. Tell my parents that I love them dearly. . . . My 
Jesus, my dear Jesus, I offer you my life for the Roman Church, 
for the Pope, for my parents". When he had expired, his 
brother, who had witnessed his agony, embraced his lifeless 
body watering it with his tears, and retired saying: " I must go 
back to my post ; I am on guard at the city gate". Dufournel 
was unwilling to live. " Since I am ready", Said he to the 
chaplain, " why will you not allow me to wish to die?" Raoul 
Terrasse had but one regret, and that was the affliction which his 
death would cause his mother. " I am an only son", he said to 
the chaplain, " and my mother is a widow. What an affliction 
it will be to my mother to hear of my death. . . . Tell 
my mother that I am going to heaven, that it is to her I owe it, 
on account of the good principles she taught me". After a little, 
as if to encourage himself, he said : " After all, it is only separa- 

21 B 

204 The faith and devotion of the Pontifical Zouaves. 

tion for a short season : my mother, too, will come to heaven". 
Shortly before his death, some one remarked that he appeared 
better: " No", said he, " but I am ready. It is better for me to 
die ; I should have to begin it ail over again another time". A 
wounded zouave said to one of our Fathers: " Do not ask for my 
recovery; I am but too happy to die for the Church, for I am 
certain to go to heaven". And on the eve of death he said: 
" To-morrow, Father, I shall go; I shall be in heaven. When 
you, too, shall be at the point of death, I will ask from our Lord 
that I may come to see you and assist you. I will come". 

Paul Doynel had but one anxiety after the amputation of his 
right arm. " Will the Pope keep me in his service? My left 
arm is capable of defending the cause of God". When his father 
told him that they were about to administer the Extreme 
Unction, he was quite surprised. " But I am not groing to die", 
said he, and then on reflection, he added: "Yes, my good 
father, I am willing, and if God wishes to take me to Himself, 
I am prepared". The attachment felt by Paul Doynel for the 
Holy Father was a family tradition. When he wished to leave 
home for Rome, his father wrote: " I agree with him, and I feel 
that if I were free, I would be a zouave too, even at my age. I 
am not afraid of dangers for Paul; I never could understand why 
a man should hesitate from dread of danger, and I am convinced 
I shall never have to blush for him. I give him my consent... 
but make him understand that the life of a zouave is not all 
roses, that he will be surrounded by many temptations ; that he 
will have to fight other enemies besides the revolutionists; that 
he ought to know that energy and dash will not be enough ; 
that, besides, an exemplary conduct is necessary. I ask his word 
of honour that on his return he will embrace a profession". 
Paul promised to obey these sage counsels, and his exemplary 
life has been crowned by a glorious death. 

Julius Hennequet bore with angelic sweetness for sixteen 
days the keenest pain, offering his life and blood for the triumph 
of the Church. His mother on hearing that her son was dan- 
gerously wounded wrote thus: " Why should I be sad? When 
I gave Julius leave to go to fight, I expected some day to hear 
that he was wounded or killed. Should he die, I hope he will 
go straight to heaven ; should he come home wounded, his wound 
will remind him during his life that he had fought bravely for 
the Holy Father, and the recollection of this will preserve him 
in virtue". 

Julius Watts Russel longed to shed his blood in defence of 
the Church. " I am one of the first English Zouaves", said he, 
41 and I should like to be the first to die for the Holy Father". 
He went to bid good-bye to his brother Wilfrid, who was de- 

Tliejaith and devotion of the Pontifical Zouaves. 305 

tained at Rome by the fever, he recited with him a Pater, 
and Salve Regina, and then marched to M^ntani, where he fell, 
struck by a bullet in t ! ie head. Julius' father appreciated 
thoroughly the frank and generous piety of his son, and wrote 
in his prayer book these simple and noble words: 

"Massima per Giulio. 
Anima mia, anima mia, 
Ama Dio, e tira via". 

These traits, which ws could easily multiply, prove what 
manner of heroes the spirit of devotion to Pius the Ninth has 
been able to create. Let us conclude by saying a few words 
concerning Peter Guerin. His brother Jarnes had been pro- 
moted to the rank of lieutenant a few days before Mentana, and 
on the battle field had no other mark of his new rank except 
that he carried an officer's sabre. As he rushed to the attack, 
he came upon the mangled body of a subaltern officer. He drew 
near, recognized his brother, embraced him, and dashed forward 
to where the fire was most deadly, saying: " My post is here". 
God saved him from the dangers of the battle, and when it was 
over he wrote to his sister to tell her of the death of Peter, a 
letter which cannot be read without the liveliest emotion : 

"We are victorious... that is all. My dear sister, you know that 
victory often costs dear ; our regiment has seen many zouaves fall, 
but they have fallen like heroes like martyrs. Apart from the 
passing sorrow of losing a son or a brother, how happy are the 
families who can say we have a martyr a saint who is praying for 
us in heaven ; after having sacrificed the best years of his life, he has 
bravely offered his blood on the battle field ...... You understand me, 

my sister; the sorrow may be great, but God will give to those 
families faith and resignation enough to enable them to bear the 
sacrifice He has asked from them. Those brave hearts were already 
devoted to God, and we might have expected long ago what has now 
happened .......... The zouaves fought, as they do everywhere, with 

enthusiasm and daring. For one instant I saw Peter by my side ; 
seeing him take aim, I was sorry I had only my sabre with rne ; he 
was sergeant since the 1st of November. The bullets fell like hail 
on all sides ; we were few, and the Garibaldians in great force. Many 
of the zouaves fell under the city walls, the firing being sustained from 
the windows. When it was all over, it was my melancholy duty to 
proceed to examine the wounded and the killed. I found one ...... 

and it is you, my sister, who must announce his death ; you must 
have courage ...... I found him almost seated against a ditch, his arms 

crossed, his lips parted, his eyes fixed on heaven. He had been shot 
through the heart with a bullet. Not a single feature was contrac- 
ted ; not the least sign of suffering. * My dear friend', said the 
chaplain who was with me, * he is happier than you'. He helped rne 

306 The last stage of the Traditionalistic Controversy. 

to carry him to a neighbouring chapel. I took a piece of his dress, 
a lock of his hair, and his scapulars ; they are relics relics of a 
martyr, who from heaven will protect his family ; who will pray for 
me, and for you too. Do you not envy that family, my sister ? but 
who knows if you will envy them long ? You are courageous, are 
you not ? and you shall be happy. The soldier whom I found dead, 
you know him, he is praying to God for you ; give thanks to God, my 

dear sister, for you have a martyr in your family My good sister, 

courage. Peter has fallen like a brave man and a Christian, he is to 
be envied. Forgive me, if I tell the news to you before all others ; 
but, could I tell it directly to my father or my mother ?" 

After this letter, which is a masterpiece inspired by the ten- 
derness of a brother and the heroism of the Christian, what can 
we add to the feeling words of the soldier, who on the morrow 
of battle, with eyes full of tears and a torn heart, intones his 
hymn of thanksgiving, crowns with flowers the tomb where 
rest a martyr's remains, presses to his lips those dear and blood- 
stained relics, and to console his family bids them reflect upon the 
undying honour that shines upon them, upon the Holy Father's 
throne made strong by their magnanimous sacrifice, and above 
all upon that heaven where souls of the warriors immolated for 
Jesus Christ and for His Vicar reign for ever blessed and trium- 
phant ! Blessed be God who has raised up such heroes for the 
glory of the Christian name and for the confusion of our 
enemies ! The device to be inscribed on the arms of these 
brave knights is faith and devotedness. They have merited it 
by their bravery and their virtues. 


THE Catholic schools of Belgium for several years past have 
been divided on a question of very considerable importance, 
concerning the powers of the human reason. The controversy 
has now reached its close: Roma loquta est, causa finita est. 
In the times in which we live, when there is such an upheaving 
of philosophical foundations, the decision of the Holy See 
ought to be welcomed by all who are not so self-sufficient in 
their science as to imagine themselves no to stand in need of 
a lamp to their feet, or a light to their path. The full bearing 
of the decision itself, however, cannot be seen if it be read without 
a knowledge of the different phases through which the contro- 
versy has hitherto passed. We have on former occasions laid 
before our readers some of the documents which were issued in 

The last stage of the Traditionalist Controversy. 307 

the course of the dispute. We now propose to complete the 
collection, and, at the same time, to set forth a brief history of 
the points at issue between the parties. 

In the beginning of this century the reaction which had set 
in against the Rationalistic school was so strong as to carry the 
defenders of revelation into extreme, and therefore erroneous, 
views. They met the rationalistic position : reason is sufficient 
for itself, therefore revelation is superfluous; with the other: 
reason of itself is absolutely powerless, therefore revelation is 
necessary. Hence, De Lamennais taught that the first act of the 
reason was of necessity an act of faith in the authority of the 
human race, which, according to his theory, constitutes the sole 
foundation and supreme criterion of certitude. Hence De 
Bonald's system, that all truths, especially such as are moral and 
religious, were revealed to our first parents, and, being trans- 
mitted by tradition, are offered to the human intellect by the 
instrumentality of teaching. The Abbe" Bautain held that 
divine revelation was the only source of knowledge, as far at 
least as the truths of natural religion are concerned. But on 
8th September, 1840, he and his disciples abandoned this theory 
and subscribed the propositions given below : 

1. " Le raisonnement peut prouver avec certitude 1'existence de 
Dieu et rinfinite de ses perfections. La foi, don du ciel suppose 
reVelation ; elle ne peut done pas convenablement e'tre alle'gue'e vis- 
a-vis d'un athe'e en preuve de 1' existence de Dieu. 

2. " La divinite de la revelation mosa'ique se prouve avec certitude 
par la tradition orale et ecrite de la synagogue et du christianisme. 

3. "La preuve tir^e des miracles de J. C., sensible et frappante 
pour les temoins oculaires, n'a point perdu sa force avec son eclat 
vis-a-vis des generations subsequentes. Nous trouvons cette preuve 
en toute certitude dans 1'authenticite du N. T., dans la tradition 
orale et ecrite de tous ies Chretiens; et c'est par cette double tradi- 
tion que nous devons la de"montrer a 1'incredule qui la rejette, ou a 
ceux qui, sans 1'admettre encore, la ddsirent. 

4. " On n'a point le droit d'attendre d'un incredule qu'il admette la 
resurrection de notre divin Sauveur, avarit de lui en avoir admi- 
nistre des preuves certaines ; et ces preuves sont deduites par le 

5. " Sur ces questions diverses la raison precede la foi, et doit nous 
y conduire. 

6. *' Quelque faible et obscure que soit la raison par le pech6 ori- 
ginel, il lui reste assez de clarte et de force pour nous guider avec 
certitude a 1'existence de Dieu, a la revelation faite aux juifs par 
Mo'ise, aux chretiens par notre adorable ^iomme-Dieu". 

On July 12, 1855, M. Bonnetty, whose views resembled those 
of M, Bautain, subscribed these propositions approved of by the 

308 The last stage of the Traditionalistic Controversy . 

Sacred Congregation of the Index, and confirmed by the autho- 
rity of Pius the Ninth. 

1. "Etsi fides sit supra rationem, nulla tamen vera dissensio, nul- 
lum dissidium inter ipsas inveniri unquam potest, cum ambae ab uno 
eodemque immutabili veritatis fonte, Deo Optimo Maximo, oriantur, 
atque ita sibi mutuam opem ferant. (Encycl. Pii PP. IX. 9 Nov. 

2. " Ratiocinatio Dei existentiam, animae spiritualitatem, hominis 
libertatem, cum certitudine probare potest. Fides posterior est 
revelatione, proindeque ad probandam Dei existentiam contra atheum, 
ad probandam animae rationalis spiritualitatem ac libertatem contra 
naturalismi et fatalismi sectatorem, allegari convenienter nequit. 
(Prop, subscript, a D. Bautain> 8 Sept., 1840). 

3. " Rationis usus fidem praecedit, et ad earn hominem ope reve- 
lationis et gratiae conducit. (Prop, subscript, a D. JBautain, 8 Sept., 

4. " Methodus, qua usi sunt D. Thomae, D. Bonaventura, et alii 
post ipsos scholastici, non ad rationalismum ducit, neque causa fuit 
cur apud scholas hodiernas philosophia in naturalismum et pantheis- 
mum impingeret. Proinde non licet in crimen doctoribus et magis- 
tris illis vertere quod methodum hanc, praesertim approbante, vel 
saltern tacente Ecclesia, usurpaverint. (Prop, contradict, proposition^ 
bus passim ex D. Bonnetty desumptisy. 

These authoritative decisions had the effect of narrowing the 
controversy within more precise limits. It was no longer open 
to doubt that the use of reason precedes faith, and that reason 
can prove with certainty the existence of God, the spirituality 
of the soul, and the existence of free will in man. 

But a fresh inquiry was then opened up. It was this : Let it 
be admitted that by the full use of reason man is able to acquire 
a distinct knowledge of God and of moral truths ; we ask, can 
he attain to this full use of his reason without an external intel- 
lectual help, or is he unable to attain to it of himself, without aid 
from without? This is, in substance, the question which has 
occupied the Belgian professors for so long a time. The follow- 
ing homely comparison has been sometimes employed to illus- 
trate the case. The proposed question is as if one were to ask 
whether the egg-shell containing the fully hatched chicken is 
broken from within by the chicken itself, or from without by 
the mother hen, as the final act of the work of incubation. 

The Louvain professors, to the question thus proposed, replied 
that the reason did stand in need of the external assistance. 
They did not, however, again open up the questions definitely set- 
tled in the cases of Bautain and Bonnetty ; but while they avoided 
this, they seemed to many to have favoured, at least, in some 
measure, the long-exploded errors of Luther, Calvin, and Bajus. 
This unfavourable judgment was soon expressed, and the Louvain 



The last stage of the Traditionalist Controversy. 309 

professors were too full of Catholic sentiments to be satisfied to 
rest, even for a moment, under the shadow of so grave a charge. 
In their own defence they did two things. They published, 
mainly in the Revue Catholique of Louvain (an. 1859, tome 
XVII.), a full exposition of their doctrine ; and, besides, they ap- 
pealed to the authority of Rome. " In a controversy such as this", 
said they, " mere reasoning is not enough. To guard against divi- 
sions, which are ever deplorable, it was necessary to cease dis- 
puting, and to carry the question before a supreme tribunal 
charged with the duty of watching over sound doctrine, and of 
which the competency and authority are acknowledged by all 
Catholic writers. These motives induced MM. Beelen and Le- 
febve, professors in the faculty of Theology, and MM. Ubaghs 
and Laforet, professors in that of Philosophy and Letters, to sub- 
mit to the judgment of the S. Congregation of the Index the 
doctrines taught in their respective writings". 

The document drawn up by these four able men is dated 1st 
February, 1860, and is addressed to Cardinal D'Andrea, then 
Prefect of the S. Congregation of the Index. 


" Quum viris catholicis nihil antiquius esse debeat quam ut ad 
mentem Sedis Apostolicae sententias suas exigant, nos infrascripti, 
in Universitate Catholica Lovaniensi Professores, controversiam, 
quae de rationis humanae vi nativa non sine aliquo animonim 
aestu in Belgio nostro nunc agitatur, ad arbitrium Sacrae Indicis 
Congregationis conferendam duximus ; et foret nobis hoc sane quam- 
gratissimum, Eminentissime Princeps, si Sacra Congregatio respon- 
dere dignaretur ad nonnullas quae ad praesentem controversiam 
pertinent quaestiones. Quas antequam proponamus, pauca praefari 
nobis liceat. 

" Rationalistae, quod te non latet, Eminentissime Princeps, ut 
divinam revelationem radicitus evellarit, magno conatu studioque id 
agunt, ut veritatum omnium, praesertim earum ex quibus constat 
religio naturalis, notitiam manare ostendant, veluti e suo fonte, ex 
absoluta et omnino independent! mentis humanae vi et, ut aiunt, 
. spontaneitate. Itaque fingunt, primaevos homines principio quidem 
instar muti pecoris sylvestrem egisse vitam, at sensim sensimque, ope 
solius rationis sua sponte sese evolventis, et sermonem invenisse, et 
civilem societatem condidisse, denique et cultum quemdam religiosum 
excogitasse atque instituisse. Hanc porro primam religionem, utpote 
plane rudem atque imperfectam, non aliud quidem fuisse dicant nisi 
crassam quamdam, ut aiunt, fetichismi formam, quam deinceps 
tamen homines, sicut litteras, artes, scientias, aut quodvis aliud 
humanum inventum, cogitando et ratiocinando perfecerint. Hinc 
comminiscuntur, apud Indos, ^Egyptios, Graecos, caeterosque populos 
antiques varias apparuiss-j polytheismi formas, quae progressu tem- 
poris perpetuo perfections evaserint, ac totidem veluti gradus exti- 

310 The last stage of the Traditionalist Controversy. 

terint, per quos homo altiorem illam religionis formam, quae chris- 
tiana vocatur, tandem fuerit assecutus. Atque ita sacratissimam 
nostram religionem pro nobiliore quodam human! ingenii foetu 
habent, ideoque et humanae rationis iudicio atque dominio earn 
subiiciunt, eamdemque huius unius rationis ope continuo quodam ac 
necessario progressu in dies ulterius perficiendam esse declarant. 

" Atque haec est, Eminentissime Princeps, theoria ilia, quae sub 
specioso nomine progresaus continui in variis incredulorum scholis 
hodiedum docetur ; atque inde haec doctrina, tamquam teterrima 
quaedam pestis, longe lateque serpit atque grassatur. 

"In impia autem ilia exitiosa doctrina refellenda plerique ex 
recentioribus inter catholicos apologetas iam statim illud negaut, 
scilicet rationem humanam pollere absoluta ilia ac penitus indepen- 
dent! vi sive spontaneitate, cui rationalistae religionis originem 
acceptam referunt ; at docent e contra, variisque argumentis ab 
experientia ductis probant, hominem, ut nunc nascitur, praeter inter- 
nam illam suae rationis vim nativam, indigere externo aliquo intel- 
lectuali auxilio, ut obtineat eum rationis usum, qui illi sufficiat ut ad 
distinctam Dei notitiam et veritatum moraliurn cognitionem ope 
unius suae rationis pervenire possit. 

" Hanc vero de indigentia externi alicuius intellectualis auxilii sen- 
tentiam, cui quam plurimi ex praestantissimis apologetis catholicis 
hodiedum subscribunt, ad pravum sensum detorserunt nonnulli 
Galliae scriptores, quos traditionalistas appellant. Docent scilicet 
traditionalistae illi, nullam veritatum metaphysicaruni et moralium 
ideam menti humanae a Deo inditam esse ; ac mentem humanam 
habere videntur pro animi vi sive virtute mere passiva, docentes 
primam illarum veritatum ideam et cognitionem ex sola institutione 
externa, veluti ex unico fonte, in mentem influere, hominemque 
illarum veritatum notitiam eo fere modo acquirere, quo factum 
aliquod historicum ex aliorum testimonio discere solemus. Ex horum 
igitur sententia testimonium Dei revelantis, quod ope continuae 
traditionis servatum et in omnes populos propagatum sit, pro unico 
fonte et principio cognitionis veritatum religionis naturalis sit haben- 
dum. Et fuere quoque nonnulli qui asserere non dubitarunt, fieri 
non posse ut homo illis ordinis naturalis veritatibus, quales sunt 
existentia Dei et animae humanae immortalitas, cum certitudine 
assensum praebeat, nisi prius divinae revelation! fidem adhibuerit ; 
et sententiam sententiae suae oppositam erroris insiinularunt ration- 
al istarum et semipelagianorum. 

" Hanc vero tradition alistarum doctrinam professores Lovanienses, 
turn in suis praelectionibus, turn etiam in variis suis scriptis, tam- 
quam falsam perpetuo improbarunt ; et ad earn refellandum, inter 
alia, haec monere solent : 

1 " Videri secundum illam traditionalistarum doctrinam, omnem 
veritatum ordinis naturalis cognitionem revocari ad actum fidei, 
atque ita tolli essentialem illarn quae exstat inter fidem et rationem 
dnTerentiam. Atqui, rationis usus (uti monuit Sacra Indicis Con- 
gregatio) praecedit fidem, et ad earn hominem ope revelationis et graliae 

The last stage of the Traditionalist Controversy. 311 

" 2 Videri consequi ex eadem ilia doctrina, humanae menti abne- 
gandam esse vim naturalis luminis, quod ei sufficiat ut ad cognitionem 
veritatum moralium pervenire possit ; ideoque et videri doctrinam 
hanc propius accedere ad errores Baii, Calvini, etc., qui in statu 
naturae lapsae vires rationis, quod ad veritates merales attinet, peni- 
tus extinctas esse docuerunt ; atqui ex S. Scriptura et communi S3. 
Patrum et theologorum consensu apertissime constare, hominem 
rationis usu fruentem naturali suae rationis lumine, absque ullo 
revelationis supernaturalis et gratiae auxilio, posse cognoscere atque 
etiain demonstrare plures veritates metaphysicas et morales, inter 
quas existentia Dei et immortalitas animae sint recensendae. Sedulo 
quoque monent hie professores Lovanienses, omnino tenendum esse, 
ut ne ipsa fides concutiatur, extare quaedam fidei praeambula, eaque 
naturaliter cognosci ; atque ibi recitant S. Congregationis Indicis decla- 
rationem illam, qua dicitur : Ratiocinatio Dei existentiam^ animae 
spiritualitatem, homing libertatem, cum certitudine probare potest. Fides 
posterior est revelatione, proindeque ad probandam Dei existenttam contra 
atheum, ad probandam animae spiritualitatem ac libertatem contra natura- 
lismi ac fatalismi sectatorem, allegari convenienier nequit. 

" 3 Videri porro consequi ex eadem ilia doctrina, dicendum esse, 
ad cognitionem veritatum ordinis naturalis absolute necessarium fuisse 
revelationem supernaturalem ; atqui hoc adversari communi theolo- 
gorum sententiae, qui ibi non agnoscunt nisi moralem istiusmodi 
revelationis necessitatem. 

" Haec igitur, inter alia, Eminentissime Princeps, contra earn tra- 
ditionalistarum doctrinam ore et scripto monemus, atque inde a primo 
eius ortu monuimus. 

" Quodsi ab una parte humanae rationis vires tuemur, ab altera 
tamen parte profitemur, sicut iam supra innuimus, nos in ea esse 
opinione, ut putemus non esse humanae menti tribuendam omnimo- 
dam illam spontaneitatem sive absolutam independentiam, quam 
rationalistae eidem tribuunt ; sed de mente humana sic sentimus : 
Mens humana vi pollet interna sibique propria ; per se et continue 
actuosa est ; attamen, ut homo hac mente praeditus perveniat ad 
expeditum usum rationis, opus habet externo aliquo intellectual! 
auxilio. Itaque opinamur, principia veritatum rationalium, meta- 
physicarum ac moralium, a Deo conditore humanae menti indita esse ; 
at simul arbitramur, hanc esse mentis ncstrae legem naturalem sive 
psychologicam, ut homo indigeat institutione aliqua intellectuali ad ob- 
tinendum eum rationis usum, qui illi sufficiat ut distinctam Dei et 
veritatum moralium cognitionem sibi comparare possit. Non nega- 
mus, humanae menti absque ilia institutione inesse confusum quern- 
dam harum veritatum sensum, et vagam quamdam apprehensionem ; 
sed loquimur hie de vera cognitione, hoc est, de clara et certa illarum 
veritatum notitia acquirenda. Institutionem autem intelligimus ex- 
ternum quodvis intellectuale auxilium, sive de industria sive non 
data opera praestiturn, idque sive voce, sive scripto, sive gestu, sive 
alio quo vis modo, quern sociale commercium suppeditat. Indigentiam 
porro intelligimus absolutam; at non eo sensu, ut putemus, Deum non 
potuisse aliter condere hominem, sed eo sensu, ut putemus, esse earn 

312 The last stage of the Traditionalistic Controversy. 

iudigentiam omnibus hominibus, quales nunc nascuntur, communem. 
Hanc vero absolutam institutionis indigentiam extare affirmamus, si 
sermo sit de expedite rationis usu acquirendo ; minime vero dicimus, 
quod e contra falsum putamus, singularum veritatum ordinis natu- 
ralis cognitionem ope institutionis esse comparandam : nam ubi homo 
iam usu suae rationis reapse fruitur, ipse sua sola ratiorie quamplu- 
rimas yeritates detegere atque cognoscere potest. Praeterea notamus 
institutionem illam, quam dicimus ex nostra sententia non esso ha- 
bendam tamquam efficientem causam per quam homo perveniat ad ex- 
peditum rationis suae usum, sed tamquam meram conditionem sine qua 
non possit ad expeditum ilium usum pervenire ; quern admodum, verbi 
gratia, aer, calor, humor requiruntur tamquam conditio sine qua non 
possit manifestari vita, quae in aliquo grano seminis reapse inest, sed 
involuta ac latens. Principia legis naturae scripta aunt in corde 
hominis ; verum ea numquam distincte legere quis poterit, nisi post- 
quam ope intellectualis illius, quod diximus, auxilii ad expeditum 
suae rationis usum pervenerit. 

" Sententiam nostram sive doctrinam hactenus expositam, Eminent- 
tissime Princeps, probare solemus variis argumentis ab experientia et 
observatione psychologica petitis, quae huius loci non est expo- 

"Patet autem, hac doctrina rationalismi principium de nativa 
humanae rationis independentia et absoluta, ut aiunt, spontaneitate 
radicitus convelli ; et tamen per earn nullatenus tolli, sed omnino 
integram et salvam in ea perrnanere nativam vim omnem humanae 
rationis internam. 

"Et possumus ex nostra doctrina contra raticnalistas sic conten- 
dere : Si homo, ut rationalistae decent, primitus in hac terra in statu 
ignorantiae absolutae constitutus fuisset, numquam sola vi sua ex 
hoc ignorantiae statu exire potuisset, nee umquam (posita eadem 
naturae conditione, quae nunc est) sine Dei interventu, quocumque 
tandem modo iste interventus concipiatur, pervenire potuisset ad eum 
rationis usum, quo principia aut praecepta religionis naturalis cogno- 

" Ceterum nostram hac de re sententiam adnumerandam esse 
arbitramur inter eas quaestiones, quae a philosophis catholicis libere 
disputantur. Verumtamen R. D. Lupus, canonicus Leodiensis, in 
opere quod inscribitur : Le traditionalisme et le ratio nalisme examines 
au point de vue de la philosophic et de la doctrine ca'koliqite, nostram 
sententiam sive doctrinam erroris iheologiri insimulare non dubitat, et 
asseverare earn nexu indivulso cohaerere cum perversis doctrinis Baii 
et Calvini, atque aperte repugnare doctrinae catholicae S. Scripturae, 
et communi Patrum et theologorum sententiae. Quas criminationes 
in quadam epistola, nuper in Belgio longe lateque propagata, sua 
auctoritate approbare et firmare visus est R. P. Perrone. 

"Norunt tamen illi scriptores sententiam, quae ab ipsis tarn iniuriose 
notatur, a multis auctoribus vere catholicis et doctis non tantum in 
Belgio, sed etiam in Gallia, in Germania, in Italia propugnari ; sciunt 
earn ut veram haberi ab episcopis non paucis, et a piuribus theologis 
et philosophis, Sedi apostolicae ac saiiis doctrinis addictissimis. Et 

The last stage of the Traditionalistic Controversy. 313 

notum pariter est, eamdera sententiam in multis seminariis aliisque 
scholis catholicis cum assensu episcoporum tradi atque doceri. 

" Sed iam, post expositam nostram in controversia hac re senten- 
tiam, humiliter petimus ut nobis liceat, Eminentissime Princeps, 
sequentes propositiones S. Indicis Congregationis subiicere iudicio : 

" 1 An licet auctoribus catholicis, in disquisitione mere philoso- 
phica de vi nai iva rationis humanae, docere : Deum, si voluisset, 
potuisse quidem ita condere hominem, ut is ipsa sola suae rationis 
vi, et ope veritatum ordinis naturalis menti eius inscriptarum, nullo 
praeterea indigens quocumque tandem externo intellectuali auxilio, 
pervenisset ad expeditum usum rationis : videri tamen potius dicen- 
dum, hominem nunc ita nasci, ut ad expeditum ilium rationis usum 
obtinendum praeterea indigeat externo aliquo intellectuali auxilio, 
quod tamen non sit habendum tamquam efficiens causa per quam per- 
veniat, sed tamquam ruera conditio sine qua non possit pervenire ad 
eum rationis usum, qui illi sufficiat ut distinctam Dei et veritatum 
moralium cognitionem sibi comparare queat? 

" 2 An licet auctoribus privatis, privata sua auctoritate, earn sen- 
tentiam censura notare asserendo, illam cum perversis Bah et Calvin 
doctrinis cohaerere, atque S. Scripturae, unanimi Patrum et theolo- 
gorum sententiae, definitionibus Ecclesiae, et Sacrae Indicis Congre- 
gationis propositionibus repugnare ? 

" 3 Num Calviniana habenda est interpretatio eorum qui decent, 
verba Apostoli (Rom. i. 19-20) accipienda esse de hominibus in 
vitae societatem inter se coniunctis, plenoque rationis usu fruentibus, 
ut ex tota contexta oratione confici videtur ? 

" 4 An licet reprehendei e ac iniuriose notare auctores catholicos 
qui asserunt, simili sensu, hoc est de hominibus pleno rationis usu 
fruentibus, intelligendam esse Sacrae Indicis Congregationis proposi- 
tionem hanc : Ratiocinatio Dei existentiam, animae spiriutalitatem, 
hominis liberiatem, cum certitudine probare potest ? 

" Eeliquuni est, Eminentissime Princeps, ut optima quaeque Emi- 
nentiae Vestrae apprecantes, scribendi finem faciamus cum humili 
voto, ut nos tui observantissimos benevolentia complecti digneris. 

" Datum Lovanii, kalend. Februar. MDCCCLX. 

" J. Th. BEELEN, S. S. Pii IX. Cubicular. ad hon., 

" S. Script, et ling. Orient, prof. 
" J. B. LEFEBVE, theol. dogm. prof. 
" G-. C. UBAGHS, philos. prof. 
" N. J. LAFORET, philos. prof.' . 

The reply of the Cardinal was dated 2nd March in the same 
year. It was to the effect that tke doctrine, as explained in the 
letter of the four professors, did not clash with the four proposi- 
tions published by the Cong, of the Index in 1855; that the 
question was an open one; and that, in consequence, the line of 
conduct prescribed in the Constitution Sollicita et Provida of 
Benedict the Fourteenth was to be carefully adhered to. The 
letter was as follows ; 

314 Foreign Catholic Periodicals. 

" Praestantissimi Clarissimique Professores, 

" Acceptis litteris vestris, quas ad me dedistis kalendis Februarii 
huius anni, commisi doctis et eruditis quibusdam theologis Sacrae 
huius Congregationis Consultoribus, ut philosopliicam de vi nativa 
rationis humanae doctrinam, quam iisdem litteris dilucide exponitis, 
atque in benemerita Universitate Lovaniensi tradi a Professoribus 
testamini, diligenter considerarent et expenderent. Qui quidem Theo- 
logi una cum R. P. a secretis, re sedulo antea accurateque perpensa, 
in consultationem acciti concordi nobiscum sententia censuerunt. 

" 1 Memoratarn doctrinam nullatenus adversari quatuor illispro- 
positionibus, quae ab hac Sacra Congregatione circa nativam rationis 
humanae vim non ita piidem prodierunt. 

" 2 Recte adnumerandam esse inter eas quaestiones, quae a philoso- 
phis catholicis libere in utramque partem disputari possunt ; adeoque. 

" 3 Ad eamdem doctrinam quod attinet, standum esse Constitu- 
tioni Benedicti XIV. P. M. quae incipit : Sollicifa et provida 23. 

" Hanc sententiam vobis, Egregii Professores, libenter communico, 
atque vobis ex animo gratulor de sincerissimo vestro erga Apostoli- 
cam Sedem, columnam videlicet et firmamentum veritatis, obsequio. 

" Romae, postridie kalend. Martias, anno MLCCCLX. 

" L >Ji S HIERONYMUS Card. DE ANDREA, S. I. C. Praefectus. 

" Fr. Angelus Vincentius Modena, 0. P., 
" S. Ind. Congreg. a secretis". 

Our readers will observe that this letter, although emanating 
from so high an authority, has not the weight of an authentic 
decision of the S. Congregation, and conveys merely the perso- 
nal sanction of Cardinal D'Andrea. The opponents of the Lou- 
vain professors soon detected this, and declined to abandon the 
estimate they had formed of Traditionalism. On the 19th De- 
cember, 1861, Pius the Ninth expressly declared that the letter 
of Card. D'Andrea, as not representing the judgment of the 
Congregation or of the Pope, was to be held as of no weight in 
the matter. It is well known that Cardinal D'Andrea, in con- 
sequence of this declaration of the Pope, resigned his position 
as Prefect of the Congregation of the Index, and that the occur- 
rence had considerable influence upon his after conduct. 
( To be continued.) 


I. THE Archivio deU Ecclesiastico is a Florentine periodical, pub- 
lished once a month, and devoted, as its title implies, to subjects 
of special interest to ecclesiastics. The number for January 
(Fascicolo 49, vol. ix.) contains a valuable paper by Mgr. 
Thomas Salzano, bishop of Tanes, on the necessity of studying 
the Summa Theologica of St. Thomas against ancient and modern 
errors, whether in philosophy or in theology. It was read in last 

Foreign Catholic Periodicals. 315 

November Before the younger portion of the priesthood of the 
diocese of Aversa, to inaugurate the three years' course of higher 
studies in philosophy and theology lately established by Merr. 
Zelo, bishop of that diocese, with the view of encouraging 
those important studies among his clergy. The author shows 
that it was the work of St. Thomas to combat the philosophical 
errors of his day, and describes at some length how successfully 
the holy doctor discharged his office. He then traces the con- 
nection between the philosophical errors of the present time 
and those of the middle ages, and points out a close affinity 
between the doctrines current in both periods. 

The Abbate Agostino Bertolini, in a dissertation on Dante and 
the Preaching of the Gospel, shows how the great poem is rich 
in the qualities which best become the Catholic preacher. To 
those whose ideas of Dante have been formed from English and 
other commentaries which ascribe to him the intention of teach- 
ing in his Divina Commedia any and every error, from Ked 
Republicanism to Protestantism, this thesis will appear extrava- 
gant and strained. But we should bear in mind that for many 
years the poem was read and explained on festival days in the 
churches to crowded audiences, not only in Florence, in Santo 
Stefano, but also in other cities of Italy. And to this day the 
visitor to the Campo Santo of Pisa may see in Orcagna's frescoes 
of Death, Judgment, and Hell, how great was the religious 
influence exercised by the poet on the painter. The same 
influence is apparent in San Petronio of Bologna, where the 
nine circles of Hell are represented, also at Tolentino, in the 
Abbey of Friuli, and elsewhere throughout Italy. Recalling 
all this to mind, it is easy for us to follow the writer's 
reasoning. Dante's argument, in fact, is nothing else than 
the four last things which are among the proper subjects of a 
preacher. The justice of God, exhibited in rewards and punish 
ments, is the motive of the poem ; the form in which he develops 
his subject is that of supernatural vision, so familiar to the 
inspired prophets, from Isaias to St. John. Now, as Ozanam 
well says, from the earliest ages of Christianity the most eloquent 
preachers loved to clothe their thoughts in the language proper 
to this very style, as may be seen especially in St. Cyprian, St. 
Gregory, and St. Bonaventure. Not that the author would 
recommend the preacher to affect this style ; he knows too well 
that it is not suited to ordinary discourses, or easily managed by 
ordinary preachers. But this does not alter the fact that Dante is a 
classic in this most sublime and difficult department of literature. 

But it is his language, taking that word in its largest sense, 
that especially recommends Dante to the study of the preacher. 
It is perfumed throughout by the Bible. As the language of 

316 Foreign Catholic Periodicals. 

Homer and of Virgil may be called mythological, so that of 
Dante may justly be styled eminently biblical. Besides this, it 
bears the impress of his long study of the Fathers. In addition, 
it has the terse vigour of the scholastics, with their doctrinal 
accuracy of expression. What better model for a preacher than 
a work like this ? The author here proposes an objection drawn 
from the frequent use of mythological passages introduced by 
Dante, such as Pluto, Minos, Cerberus, Charon, and others. He 
meets it by replying that these are merely symbols under which 
he conveys ideas which are strictly and exactly theological. It is 
curious that Lord Macaulay in his critique on Dante goes out 
of his way to observe of Dante that, " his Minos, his Charon, 
his Pluto, are absolutely terrific. He has never assigned to 
his mythological characters any functions inconsistent with the 
teachings of the Catholic Church". Our author, with perhaps 
too minute an analysis, thinks that he can even trace in the 
Divina Commedia models of the various kinds of sermons, the 
didactic, the parenetic, the laudatory, etc. Instead of following 
him into this part of his subject we shall quote, as a remarkable 
confirmation of his view, the substance of Lord Macaulay's 
remarks on Dante's style : 

"The style of Dante is, if not his highest, his most peculiar 
excellence. I know nothing with which it can be compared. The 
noblest models of Greek composition must yield to it. His words are 
the fewest and the best which it is possible to use. The first expres- 
sion in which he clothes his thoughts is always so energetic and 
comprehensive, that amplification would only injure the effect. 
There is probably no writer in any language who has presented so 
many strong pictures to the mind. Yet there is probably no writer 
equally concise. This perfection of style is the principal merit of the 
Paradiso, which, as I have already remarked, is by no means equal in 
other respects to the two preceding parts of the poem. The force 
and felicity of the diction, however, irresistibly attract the reader 
through the theological lectures and the sketches of ecclesiastical 
biography with which this division of the work too much abounds. 
Cf. especially the third canto of the Inferno, and the sixth of 
Purgatorio, as passages incomparable in their kind. The merit of the 
latter is, perhaps, rather oratorical than poetical ; nor can I recollect 
anything in the great Athenian speeches which equals it in force of 
invective and bitterness of sarcasm. I have heard the most eloquent 
statesmen of the age remark that, next to Demosthenes, Dante is the 
writer who ought to be most attentively studied by every man who 
desires to attain oratorical eminence". 



APRIL, 1868. 


ST. SANCTAIN was a native of Britain, and is supposed by 
some to be the sjme as St. Sannan, who was brother of our 
apostle, St. Patrick. The martyrologies, however, when com- 
memorating St. Sanctain, are silent as to this fact ; they are 
careful to mention that he was brother of the pilgrim, St. Matoc; 
and did any such exist, they would assuredly not have failed to 
refer to his relationship with our apostle. Their statements 
moreover as to his family and parentage are quite at variance 
with the ancient documents connected with St. Patrick's life. 
There is in Cornwall a small port town and parish named from 
St. Sennan, and tradition says that this saint went thither from 
Ireland, and having died there in his hermitage, a church was 
erected over his remains. Capgrave too, in his Life of St. 
Wenefreda, states that this holy virgin was interred there prope 
Sanctum Sennanum. It is not improbable that this was the 
Sanctain who composed the hymn which we now publish. 

There can be no doubt that in the first ages of our faith the 
southern districts of England were a favourite resort of Irish 
saints, and Mr. Blight, in his description of the Cornish 
churches, writes, that " in the latter part of the fifth and 
beginning of the sixth century, a numerous company of Irish 
saints, bishops, abbots, and sons and daughters of kings and 
noblemen, came into Cornwall, and landed at Pendinas, a penin- 
sula and stony rock where now the town of St. Ives stands. 
Hence they diffused themselves over the western part of the 
county, and at their several stations erected chapels and her- 
mitages. Their object was to advance the Christian faith. In 
this they were successful, and so greatly were ihoy reverenced, 
that whilst the memory of their holy lives still lingered in the 
minds of the people, churches were built on or nea? the sites of 

TOL, IT. 22 

318 Hymn of St. Sanctain. 

their chapels and oratories and dedicated to Almighty God in 
their honour. Thus have their names been handed down to us. 
Few of them are mentioned in the calendars or in the collec- 
tions of the lives of saints, and what little is known of them 
has been chiefly derived from tradition". 1 He then mentions 
amongst the Irish saints whose memory is thus venerated there, 
St. Buriana, " a king's daughter, a holy woman of Ireland", St. 
Livinus, and our St. Sennen, "an Irish abbot, who accompanied 
St. Buriana into Cornwall", St. Paul, St. Cheverne (i.e. Kieran), 
St. Breaca, St. Germoe, and others. 2 

Colgan, speaking of St. Sanctain, says: " Sanctain, a bishop, 
by birth a Briton, is honoured on the 9th of May, in the 
church of Killdaleas, in Leinster, according 1 to the Martyr- 
ology of Tallaght and the Festologies of Aengus and Maria- 
nus: Samuel, a king of Britain, was his father, and Drechura, 
daughter of Muiredhac Muinderg, king of Ulster, was his 
mother". 3 The Martyrology of Aengus, preserved in the Leab- 
har Breacc, thus commemorates our saint at the 9th of May, 
6-fpuc SAnccAiri -pochlA, "Bishop Sanctain of good repute" ; 
and the eloss adds: 

" .1. o. chill -OA teif -oo, tic -Aenjuf " i.e., he was of Kill-da-leis, .is Aengus 
01C1U ec nefdo tibi efc Cett T>A says: and I know not where Kill- da-leis 

if teif t)|\umi lAi^itle 1 is: and to him belongs Druimlaighille 
". in Tradraighe". 4 

Another gloss adds : 

".1. Orpuc SAnccAiri triAC t>o SA- " i e., Bishop Sanctain was the son of 
mttel Chen-oifeU "Oecci^ 1115011 Samuel Chendisel (low headed) : Dectir, 
mui^\ex)Ai5 tnvnjvoejAj; rnAcep eiup daughter of Muiredach Muinderg (red- 
ir> picu|\o uc -Dixie: necked), was his mother: as was prophe- 


e^puc SAticcAin Mp tno cheAti Bishop Sanctain is my heloved, 

1TIAC SAinuel dietroifet, The son of Samuel Chendisel, 

X>eccifv A rnACAi|\ cen meifvj; Dectir was his mother without stain, 

1ngen mui^e > OAi5 mun-oeiiAg". The daughter of Muiredach Muiu- 


It is not easy to fix with certainty the site of the church of 
Kill da-leis. Colgan tells us that it was in Leinster; and pro- 
bably it was the present parish of Kildellig, in the barony of 
Upper Ossory, in the Queen's County. In the MS. Visitation 

1 Churches of West Cornwall, by J. T. Blight, 1865, page 1. 

2 Several old monumental crosses not unlike those of Ireland are still preserved 
in Cornwall, as, for instance, St. Breaga's cross, near Tregoning hill (formerly 
called Pencairn), St. Buriancfs cross, etc. Ibid., page 72, seqq. 

3 " Colitur S. Sanctanus Episcopus genere Britannus die 9 Maii in Ecclesia de 
Killdaleas in Lagenia juxta Martyrol. Tamlachtense Aengussium et Marianum in 
suis Festilogiis, sed quia Pater hujus legitur f'uisse Samuel Rex Britanniae et 
Mater Drechura filia Mured acii Munderg Regis Ultoniae non potest esse frater 
Sancti Patritii" Trias, pag. 8, n. 13. 

4 " Drumlaighille (pronounced Drumlyle), now Diumline, a parish in the deanery 
of Tradry, barony of Bunratty, county Clare". Todd, Obits and Martyr, of Christ's 
Church, Tntrod.) pag. Ix. 

Hymn of St. Sanctain. 319 

Book of Dr. James Phelan, appointed Bishop of Ossory in 
1669, is preserved a list of the Patrons of the Churches of the 
Diocese, and in the deanery of Aghavoe we meet with this parish 
church of Kildelyg, and its patron is marked " Sanctus Ernanus 
sen Senanus, Abbas". This can be no other than our St. 
Sannan, or Sanctain. The memory of St. Sanctain is also 
cherished in the very ancient church, now commonly called 
"St. Anne's", 1 in the piesent parish of Rathfarriham : in the 
Register " Crede mihi" written in the thirteenth century, it 
is called Killmesantan : 2 and we learn from the Repertorium 
Viride that it retained the same name in 1532. 3 In a valuation 
of 1547, it is called Templesaunton. 

The introduction to the hymn in the Liber Hymnorum is 
as follows: 

" Bishop Sanctain composed this hymn, and on his way from 
Cluain-Irard (Clonard) to Inis-Madoc he composed it. He was more- 
over a brother of Madoc, and both were Welshmen. Madoc came 
into Erin prior to bishop Sanctain. The cause of the composition of 
this poem was that he might be preserved from his enemies, and that 
his brother might admit him amongst his religious in the island. At 
that time he was ignorant of the Irish language (Scoticam linguam 
usque ad hanc horam non habuit), but God miraculously granted it to 
him. The time of its composition is uncertain". (MS. St. Isidore's, 
pag. 41), 

In the Martyrology of Donegal, the feast of St. Sanctain is 
thus registered on the 9th of May: " Sanctan son of Samuel 
Ceinnisel, bishop of Cill-da-les: Deichter, daughter of Muirea^ 
dhach Muinderg, king of Uladh, was his mother, and the mother 
of Matoc the pilgrim". On the feast of St. Matog (25th of April) 

1 Dr. Kelly, in the Martyrology of Tallaght, is of opinion that this church is 
the Killdaleis of the Martyrologies. There is no doubt it was dedicated to St. 
Sanctain, but I have not been able to discover any trace of the name Killdaleis 
connected with it. 

2 History of the Cathedral of St. Patrick, by W. M. Mason, Appendix, pag. 

3 The following notice of this Church of Kilmesantan from the Rep. Viride 
(MS. T.C.D.) will be interesting to our readers; " Ecclesia de Kilmesantan in 
montibus pertinentibus ad communem S. Patritii Dublinii ex dono Lucae Archi- 
episcopi: terra tamen inibi est membrum Manerii de Tavalaght unuin de princi- 
palibus inter [Hibernicos]. Quaere in Kegistro meo novo fol. 196, cap. 1, ubi 
patet quod praebenda facta est ex duabus Ecclesiis de common! et cum capella 
intermedia utriusque. Ecclesia de Tachmeloge : alia etiam Ecclesia spectans ad 
communem S. Patritii, ex praefati archiepiscopi largitione, ut supra, non tamquam 
parochialis Ecclesia sed annexa capella Ecclesiae de Kilmesan'an extra Marchiam 
constructa, erecta autem infra le Macre (quia citra aquani de Doder fundatur) 
pro loco tutiori ad audienda divina regnaute guerra, uncle Hibernica lingua potius 
Temple-Oyge, baptizatur quia nova. Ecclesia de Kilbridge etiam in montibus 
infra Choilaghe non longe a rinibus de Brctage. Quod idcirco dixerim ad differen- 
tiam cujusdam capellae dependents a praescripta Ecclesia de Kilmesantan. Anti- 
quitus vocatur villa Kilbride, Ogaddre prope terram Hibemicorum del Boly et 
haec etiam unitur communi S. Patritii par patronatum Archiepiscopi". 

22 B 

320 Hymn of St. Sanctain. 

the same is repeated: " Matog, the pilgrim. Deichter ...... was 

his mother, and the mother of bishop Sanetan". 

The only other document connected with bishop Sanctain 
which we have been able to discover, is the following short poem 
in his honour, which is &dded in the Roman MS. of the " Liber 
Hymnorum" immediately after his hymn: 
G^cop SAriccAn fo 

mibt) Att^ett ctouh^An 
jwooepA mo cojip 
fioncebA 3 tnAnmAin -pop mem. 
Ttombich 0^01 u leAc A 1TlAi|Ae 
pob cf\ocAijie juiinne 

Afl ^tim Af\ gUA'pACC 
A C|YlfC C0|\ 'OOttA'OU'O 4 

Aueoch m -pi f oefi 

mAc |io ^eriAi-p imbeuhit. 

Bishop Sanctan, illustrious among the ancients, 

Angel-Soldier of pure, bright fame; 

My body is enslaved on Earth, 

May he receive my soul in Heaven. 
Offer a prayer for me, O Mary ! 

May the mercy of the mystery be unto us ; 

Against wounding, against danger, against suffering, 

O Christ ! afford us thy protection, 
I implore the noble, everlasting King; 

May the Only-Begotten of God plead for us ; 

Against sharp torments may 

The Son who was born in Bethlehem defend me. 

The reader will not fail to remark the sweet invocation 
of the Blessed Virgin which occurs in the second verse just 
cited. We are happy to add this proof of the devotion of our 
fathers to the Holy Mother of God, to the many already given 
in the pages of the /. E. Record. 

The Book of Armagh, the most venerable of our ancient 
monuments, gives us another proof of this special veneration, in 

1 The MS. lias ycA with the double sign of contraction: hence we have supposed 
it to stand for focLA, which is the characteristic epithet applied to our saint by 

' -pjuic1iib r abl. pi. of f]ttiic1i, The Milan Psalter has innA f^uche as the 
gloss of veterum. 

3 i\oncebA = |\o-n-cebA, the n being the infixed personal pronoun, 3rd sing. 
In the next line we have |\otnbicli also for |\o-m-bicli, the m being the infixed 
pronoun 1st sing. 

4 -oonA-ouT) for -oo f nA'ou'o, the -p being aspirated, and hence (as often occurs) 
omitted after the poss. pr. x>o. 

8 oenjcinne is manifestly derived from the Latin unif/enitus. 

Hymn of St. Sanctain. 321 

its beautiful concluding prayer, which has never been published, 
and is as follows : 

" Te Domirie Sancte, Pater omnipotens, ante saecula sine initio, per 
unigenitum Filium tuum nostrae salutis auctorem ac Spiritutn Sanc- 
tum Paraclef um ac per universum Hierusulem clerum coelestis : 

" Per praecipuos Patres nostros ; 

*' Per Apostolos ; 

" Praecipue per Sanctam Mariam genitricem virginem Filii tui ac 
Salvatoris nostri Jesu Christi, nati, process!, passi, crucifixi, sepulti, 
ad inferos descendentis, protoplastum nostrum in humeris deferentis, 
in pascha resurgentis, Apostolis ostendentis, ad coelos ascendentis, in 
novissimis diebus ad judicium pervenientis, fideliter rogare praesurno, 

" Ut me vilissimum servulum tuum in temporali.hac vita prospero 
cursu auxiliari digneris et per misericordiam tuam infinitam bonum 
finem in voluntate tua inveniam atque sapieritiae meae minimae prae- 
mia in caelesii gaudio invenire merear per omnia saecula saeculorum. 

As regards th date of St. Sanctain's hymn, it cannot be fixed 
with accuracy, as we are ignorant of the year of the saint's demise. 
It seems however certain, that he flourished in the beginning of 
the sixth century. The title of illustrious among the ancients, 
given to him in the poem just cited, brings him back to the first 
fathers of our Church : the special archaic forms of his ' difficult 
hymn', as Mr. Stokes justly calls it, point to the same period, 
whilst his connection with St. Madog 1 cannot be verified in any 
other age. There are many saints indeed who bear a similar 
name in our calendar ; but there is only one in whom the epithet 
of Madog the pilgrim is verified, viz., the St. Cadoc, who holds 
so distinguished a place among the saints of Wales. He, too, 
was the son of a British prince, whilst, as Colgan writes, " he is 
justly reckoned among the Irish saints, as his mother, his 
instructors, and many of his relatives, were Irish, and he himself 
lived for some time in our island" (Acta SS. page 159). This 
distinguished antiquarian further tells us that he " is the same as 
St. Mo-chatoc", a disciple of SS. Patrick and Fiecc, as we have 
seen in the March number of the Irish Ecclesiastical Record. 
Thus we have a clue to the Inis-Matog, in which St. Sanctain 
wished to take up his abode with his holy brother: for, St. 
Mochatoc, as we learn from his life, chose Jnis-fail for his monas- 
tery, which no doubt was in after times from the name of this 
great founder styled by the religious Inis-Madoc* 

1 Zeuss justly remarks that Matoc, Matauc, Madowg, and Madog, are merely 
different forms of the same name, Gr. Celt , pag. 15. The original name of the 
saint was Doc or Docus, which in the Welsh and Irish dialects assumed the form 
Cadoc, Mocactoc, and phonetically Madoc. 

8 In the Coaex Priscianns of St. Gull in Switzerland, at page 194, there is the 
marginal gloss: ""Op mif 111<yo'ooc "outi .1. tYleiffe Atjuf choif\'b1ii\e, of Inis- 
t'.adoc are we, that is myself and Cairpre". Dr. Graves, (Proceedings of R.~ I. A., 

322 Hymn of St. Sanctain. 

Aceoch f\i tiAnrjiA 
UAI|\ ifet) Airnn 
t>iA *oom 

cecli ^UAfAchc n 0*0511 Afirn 
tv|\oic1ieu becAT) bit) 


ootiAch Aipcheriri 

An fpi|\uc noeb ne|\c nime 

Ttlop }Ai pop A^ pne 

pAt>u 1uiAf "oomtm t)iltoc1ic 
'oommAnmAin A-p cech 
mimcliA]A'Le "oemnA "oibochc 

X)IA tun cechpoerli 1 t 
Ai^mnle mo 
oomAi]vpe cpnoic ce-pcA 

O C-pipu nAt) ceutA 

ec nAAnio]A 

c Apcech 

ji cech neiclint) 
X)ornc1iu]ip conAinbdub 3 

vol. vi. p. 211), identifies Inis-Maddoc with Inis-Maedhoc, i.e., Inis-Mogue, an 
island in Templeport lake, county of Leitrim, but the names Maddoc and Maedhog 
(Mo-Aedh-cg) are not identical. It' our conjecture that Inis-Maddoc and Inis- 
Fail are one and the same place, it follows from the Trip. Lift of St. Patrick that 
this island was in the county of Wexford. See Colgan, Tr. Th., p. 18G. 

1 MS. cedifecVi .1 cech coijvp. 

2 This seems borrowed irom the Latin mortalitas. 

8 AmbcVnb for Ain]?c1iib, An-i?ecliib dative pi. of Anpecli, from the negative 
ATI and yecli aura, as appears from a gloss in the Southampton Psalter. Goiai- 
lica, pnge 46. 

Hymn of St. Sanctain. 323 

I beseech the wonderful King of Angels, 
For his is the name* that is mightiest ; 
God be with me on my track, 5 God on my left, 
God before me, God on my right. 

God to help me, O holy invocation ! 
Against every danger that I encounter ; 
Let there be a bridge of life under me, 
The blessing of God the Father over me. 

May the Noble Trinity awaken him, 6 
For whom a good death is not in store. 
The Holy Spirit, the Strength of Heaven 
God the Father, the great Son of Mary. 

May the great King, who knows our crimes/ 
God of the noble sinless world, 
Be with my soul against every sin of falsity, 
That the torment of demons may not touch me." 

May God repel every sadness from me; 
May Christ relieve my sufferings; 
May the Apostles be around me, 
May the Trinity of witness 9 come to me. 

May a flood of mercy come from Christ, 
Whose wounds are not hidden (from us) : 
Let not death touch me, 
Nor 10 bitterness, 11 nor plague, nor disease. 

Let not a sharp cast touch me 

Apart from God's Son, who gladdens and who mortifies : 
Let Christ protect me against every iron-death, 
Against fire, against the raging sea. 

Against every death-pool that is dangerous 
To my body, with awful storms, 
May God at every hour 12 be with me, 
Against the wind, against the swift waters. 

4 Nomen quod est super omne nomen". Philerc., ii. 6. 

* i.e :, behind me. The gloss is t>A|Atnep lege -oA|\-in-6f-p. This sentence i* 

very like the beautiful passage in St. Patrick's lorica : 
" Christ with me, Christ before me, 

Christ behind me, Christ within me, 
Christ beneath me, Christ above ma, 
Christ at my right, Christ at my left. 
Christ in the fort, 
Christ in the chariot-seat, 
Christ in the poop". 

324 Hymn of St. Sanctain. 

moLcViu rriAic 
A T* ^ATJA pun A 
yjAif cenA *oiA "oulech 
lunecn ap b<yi5 mo 

Oc txi^oe t>e t>e mmib 
mo chojAp j\op P5ic1i f oechjvxch 

in ^15 <vopoecAcVi. 


i.e., Christ be with me when I am in the fort at home ; Christ he with me when 
I am in the chariot-seat, travelling hy land j and in the poop, when I am travel- 
ling hy water (Todd, Memoir, page 428). 

6 "Oon-pofCAi .i.i\ocho*oifCA AbbAf peccAi'o, i.e., " awaken [us] from a death 
of sin". 

7 Alpine, .1. 

9 " Quoniam tres sunt qui testimonium dant in coelo, Pater, Verhum et Spiritus 
Sanctus". (I. Johan., v. 3.) Dr. Reeves, in his Memoir of the Book of Armagh, 
speaking of its text of the New Testament, says : " In the first epistle of St. John 
the famous passage concerning the witnesses, which in our Testaments is the 
seventh verse of the fifth chapter, is in this MS. entirely omitted, as it is also in 
the oldest copy of St. Jerome's Latin Vulgate. What is our eighth verse succeeds 
immediately to the sixth, and commences: 'for there are three which bear witness 
in earth', etc." (page 3). This statement of the learned antiquarian is not correct ; 
th.3 verse in the Book of Armagh is as follows : " Quoniam tres sunt qui testimo- 
nium dant in coelo, spiritus et aqua et sanguis et tres unum sunt". 

10 -Amor*; apparently borrowed from the Latin amaror. 

11 CojxbAr 1 , .1. coifttier 1 . 

12 The genitive of time : so in Lib. Hym. ed. Todd, p. 22, cet,eb|\<yo cecVi 
cfVAcliA (gl. sine intermissione oraf), cActiA OAJVOAIII (every Thursday), cAch<x 
fAcViA^n (every Saturday), ibid, p. 33: gAcriA niAi-one (every morning) gAch A 
noriA (every evening), 6'Donov., gr., 381. 

J3 Mr. Stokes explains the white battles by good causes, GoidiL, pag. 94. This, 
however, is too generic. The phrase receives some light from a passage in the 
Irish sermon published from a Cambray MS. of the eighth century by Zeuss, in 
which it is said: "There are three sorts of martyrdom, all of which give the 
crown of suffering to man: viz., white martyrdom, blue martyrdom, and red mar- 
tyrdom; it is white martyrdom when man, through love of God, foregoes all the 
pleasures and enjoyments of life", etc. (Gram. Celtica, pag. 1007). Thus tvhile 
battles would seem to indicate "the spiritual combats of a religious life", in which 
the Christian soul triumphs, aided by the grace of Jesus Christ. 

14 tujAech from Latin lorica, conf., " State ergo . . . induti loricam justitiae". 
Ephes., vi. 14. 

15 Compare the following gloss from H. 3. 18 (T C.D.) p. 540, pgi-o, .1. buAti 
uc efc oc 015'oe "oe -oon (leg. -oe mmib) tno corvp |\op pgi-o f AechfVAcVi, etc. 

Hymn of St. Sanctain. 325 

I will utter the praises of Mary's Son, 
Who battles our white battles, 13 
May God of the elements answer ; 
A corslet 14 in battle shall be my prayer. 

Whilst praying to God of the Heavens, 
Let my body be enduring 15 penitent, 
That I may not go to awful Hell 
I beseech the King whom I have besought. 

I beseech, etc. 

P.S. Since this article was printed we happily learned that the 
three strophes given at pag. 320, though not printed by Mr. 
Stokes, were in reality preserved in the Liber Hymnoruni, T.C.D. 
As this MS. presents some very important readings, we here 
insert its text : 

6-p-pcop SAnccAti focld -pjunuh 1 
rmUt) Ainpt ctoch ^et tAn 
fio-poejiA 3 mo chopp pop 
poncebA m<\nmAin -p^ nem. 
tlotnbiuh o|\oiu tec A 
pop c|\ocAij\ junune mm 


A C-pifc ]:o|\ 'ooiiA'ou'o min. 

oen^emne t)e 
pomtriAin AJA 

TTIAC -po ^eriAi-p mibechii. (fol. 19. b.) 
Bishop Sanctain, illustrious father, 

Angel-soldier of bright, pure fame ; 

My body being freed on earth, 

May he receive my soul in Heaven. 
Offer a prayer for me, O Mary ! 

That the heavenly mercy may be shown to us: 

Against wounding, against danger, against suffering, 

O Christ, afford us thy protection. 
I implore the noble, everlasting king; 

May the Only-begotten of God plead for us ; 

Against sharp torments, may 

The Son who wai born in Bethlehem defend me. 

1 The word f ^tncli is here used in the nominative singular. It literally means 
ancient, but, as Mr. Curry in his MS. Glossary remarks, it is a title of honour in- 
volving the idea of superior dignity or learning, thus corresponding with our 
phrase a Father of the Church. In the Leabhar Breacc, fol. i. bb. Mr. Curry 
adds, " the term pptuclie is applied to the bishops who met at a General (sic) 
Council in Rome in the year 283". 

8 The word f oe|\ free is quite the opposite of -ooe^ enslaved, which is made use 
of in the Roman MS. 



IN developing the modern theory of Geology, we have all 
along assumed that the Crust of the Earth has been subject to 
frequent disturbances from the earliest ages of the world. Again 
and again, in the course of our argument, we have talked of the 
bed of the sea being lifted up and converted into dry land ; and 
then, on the other hand, of the dry land being submerged be- 
neath the waters of the sea. Nay, we have not even hesitated 
to suppose that these two opposite movements of upheaval and 
submersion often took place by turns over the same area; and 
that, in fact, there is scarcely a region on the surface of the 
Globe which has not been several times submerged, and several 
times again upheaved. 

Yet all this has not been taken for granted without proof. 
Our readers have seen what a long array of sober reasoning may 
be drawn out to show that the Stratified Rocks have been, for 
the most part, deposited under ivater; first, from the nature 
and arrangement of the materials which compose them ; secondly, 
from the character of the Organic Remains they contain: and 
since they are now above water, it is plain that either they have 
been lifted up or the ocean has subsided. Furthermore, when 
we find a stratum of rock abounding in the remains of aquatic 
animals, and, immediately underneath, another stratum of rock 
in which are preserved the trees of an ancient forest still stand- 
ing, with their roots attached, we must conclude that when the 
trees first grew on this spot it was dry land ; that afterwards it 
was submerged, and that a new stratum, in which were imbedded 
the marine remains, was spread out above the earlier vegetation ; 
and that, last of all, it has been lifted up again, and become dry 
land once more. Finally, when a vertical section of the Earth's 
Crust exhibits a continued series of such strata alternating with 
each other, it affords a proof that this particular area must have 
been several times under water, and several times again dry land, 
in the long course of ages. 

And this is, indeed, the universal belief of Geologists. They 
tell us that the Crust of the Earth is not that unyielding and 
immovable mass which men commonly take it to be, but that it 
has been from the beginning ever restless and in motion, rising 
here and subsiding there, sometimes with a convulsive shock 
capable of upturning, twisting, distorting hard and stubborn 
rocks as if they were but flimsy layers of pliant clay; sometimes 
with a gentle, undulating movement, which, while it uplifts 
islands and continents, leaves the general aspect of the surface 
unchanged, the arrangement of the strata undisturbed, and even 

Reasoning of Geologists. 327 

the most tender Fossil Remains unharmed. They tell us, more- 
over, that the giant power which thus rends asunder the massive 
rocks, and shakes the foundations of the mountains, is Heat ; 
and that this power is still at work in our own times, and is still 
producing the same effects. In proof of an assertion so unex- 
pected and so startling, they appeal to facts ; and it is to these 
facts we are now about to invite the attention of our readers. 

At the outset, however, it is important to set forth clearly the 
doctrine we propose to illustrate and to confirm. With the 
origin of the internal heat that prevails within the Crust of the 
Earth we have no concern. This is still an unsettled point 
among Geologists themselves. Some conjecture that our Globe, 
when first launched into space, was in a state of igneous fusion 
that is to say, that all the solid matter of which it is composed 
was held in a molten condition by the action of intense heat ; 
that, in course of time, as this heat passed off by radiation, the 
surface gradually cooled and grew hard ; that an external shell 
of solid rock was thus formed, which has been ever growing 
thicker and thicker, in proportion as the Earth has been grow- 
ing cooler ; and that the actual condition of our planet is the 
result of this process continued down to the present day, a 
fiery mass of seething mineral within, and a comparatively thin 
crust of consolidated- rock without. Others suppose that the 
internal heat of the Globe is developed by the agency of chemi- 
cal changes constantly going on in the depths of the Earth ; and 
others, again, look for a cause to the action of electricity and 
magnetism. But these and such like speculations are still under 
discussion, and not one of them can be regarded as anything 
more, at best, than a satisfactory hypothesis. Any how, it is 
not about the causes of internal heat that we are just now inte- 
rested, but about the fact of its existence, and the nature of its 
effects. Is it true that an intense heat prevails very generally 
beneath the superficial covering of the Globe ? and is that heat 
capable of producing those stupendous changes which are ascribed 
to it in our theory of Geology? These are the questions we 
propose to consider in our present paper. 

First, then, it is a very significant fact, that the deeper we 
penetrate into the crust of the Earth, the hotter it is. Of course 
this does not hold good immediately below the surface, where 
the influence of the sun's heat is felt. On the contrary, when 
we first begin to descend, we find it cooler below than above, 
because the sun has less power the farther we depart from the 
surface. But, after a little, we reach the limit beyond which 
the sun's heat is no longer sensibly felt ; and when this point is 
passed in our climate it is about fifty feet below the surface 

328 Geology and Revelation. 

then the temperature begins to rise, and " the deeper you go the 
hotter the Earth is found to be". This broad and general fact 
has been established by experiments in every part of the world, 
and has been found true in all countries, in all climates, in all 
latitudes, whether in coal-pits, or mines, or deep subterranean 
caves. " In one and the same mine", says Sir John Herschel, 1 
" each particular depth has its own particular degree of heat, 
which never varies : but the lower always the hotter ; and that 
not by a trifling, but what may well be called an astonishingly 
rapid rate of increase, about a degree of the thermometer addi- 
tional warmth for every ninety feet of additional depth, 2 which 
is about 58 per mile ! so that, if we had a shaft sunk a mile 
deep, we should find in the rock a heat of 105, which is much 
hotter than the hottest summer day ever experienced in England". 
Now if the temperature continue to increase at this rate towards 
the centre of the Earth, it is quite certain that, at no very great 
distance from the surface, the heat would be sufficiently intense 
to reduce the hardest granite and the most refractory metals to a 
state of igneous fusion. 

Again, every one is familiar with the existence of hot springs, 
which come up from unknown depths in the Earth's Crust, and 
which, appearing as they do in almost all parts of the world, 
testify in unmistakable language to the existence of internal heat. 
At Bath, for instance, in England, the water comes up from the 
bowels of the JEarth at a temperature of 117 Fahrenheit; 
and in the United States, on the Arkansas River, there is a spring 
at 180 not much below the boiling point. This remarkable 
phenomenon, however, may be more closely investigated in the 
case of Artesian Wells, so called from the province of Artois, in 
France, where they first came into use. These wells are formed 
artificially, by boring down through the superficial strata of the 
Earth, sometimes to enormous depths, until water is reached. 
It has been found in every case that the water coming up from 
these great depths is always hot; and, furthermore, that the 
deeper the boring the hotter the water, A well of this kind 
was sunk in 1834 at Grenelle, in the suburbs of Paris, to a depth 
of more than 1800 English feet, and the water, which rushed up 
with surprising force, had a temperature of 82 Fahrenheit; 
whereas the mean temperature of the air in the cellars of the 
Paris Observatory is only 53. 3 The water has ever since con- 
tinued to flow, and the temperature has never varied. At Salz- 

1 Familiar Lectures on Scientific Subjects: London, 1867. 

2 It would be perhaps more strictly correct to say that the exact rate of increase 
varies in different places, though the main fact, that the deeper we go the 
higher the temperature becomes, Is everywhere the same. See Lyell, Principles 
of Geology, p. 514 : seventh edition; Jukes, Manual of Geology, pp. 224, 225, 

3 Jukes, Manual of Geology, p. 225. 

TirorfTi ir ( 

Reasoning of Geologists. 329 

werth, in Germany, where the boring is still deeper, being 2,144 
feet, the water which rises to the surface is 91 of our scale. 

Then we have, in many countries, jets of steam which issue at 
a high temperature from crevices in the Earth, and which tell 
us of the existence of heated water below, as plainly as the steam 
that escapes from the funnel of a locomotive or from the spout 
of a tea-kettle. Such phenomena are very common in Italy, 
where they are sometimes exhibited at intervals along a line of 
country twenty miles in length. But in Iceland it is that they 
are displayed in the highest degree of their splendour and power. 
On the south-west side of that island, within a circuit of two 
miles, there are nearly a hundred hot springs, called Geysers, 
from some of which, at intervals, immense volumes of steam and 
boiling water are violently projected into the air. The Great 
Geyser is a natural tube, ten feet wide, descending into the 
Earth to a depth of seventy feet, and opening out above into a 
broad basin, from fifty to sixty feet in diameter. This basin, 
as well as the tube which connects it with the interior of the 
Earth, is lined with a beautifully smooth and hard plaster of 
siliceous cement, and is generally filled to the brim with water of 
a clear azure colour, and having a temperature little below boil- 
ing point. The ordinary condition of the spring is one of com- 
parative repose, the water rising slowly in the tube and trickling 
over the edge of the stony basin. But every few hours an erup- 
tion takes place. Subterranean explosions are first heard, like 
the firing of distant cannon ; then a violent ebullition follows, 
clouds of steam are given out, and jets of boiling water are cast 
up into the air. After a little the disturbance ceases, and all is 
quiet again. Once a day, or thereabouts, these phenomena are 
exhibited on a scale of unusual grandeur : the explosions which 
announce beforehand the approaching display are more nume- 
rous and more violent ; then such volumes of steam rush forth 
as to obscure the atmosphere for half a mile around ; and, finally, 
a vast column of water is projected to a height of from one to 
two hundred feet, and continues for a quarter of an hour to play 
like an artificial fountain. 

Such are the evident symptoms of internal heat, hot springs, 
and jets of steam, and fountains of boiling water, which issue 
forth unceasingly from the surface of the Earth in every quarter 
of the Globe. But it is sometimes given to us to behold, as it 
were, the subterranean fire itself, and to contemplate its power 
under a more striking and awful form. From time to time, in 
the fury of its rage, the fiery element bursts asunder the prison 
house in which it is confined, and rushes forth into the light of 
day ; then flames are seen to issue from the surface of the Earth, 

330 Geology and Revelation. 

and yawning chasms begin to appear on every side, and the 
roaring of the furnaces is heard in the depths below, and clouds 
of red-hot cinders are ejected high into the air, and streams of 
incandescent liquid rock are poured forth from every crevice, 
and, rolling far away through smiling fields and peaceful vil- 
lages, carry destruction and desolation in their track. These 
are the ordinary phenomena of an active Volcano during the 
period of eruption; and, even while we write, most of them 
may be witnessed actually taking place, for the hundredth time, 
on the historic ground of Mount Vesuvius. Our typical exam- 
ple, however, we shall take from the eruption of that mountain 
in the year 1779. It was not indeed especially remarkable for 
its violence or for the catastrophes by which it was attended ; 
but it had the good fortune to be accurately recorded by an eye- 
witness, Sir William Hamilton, who at that time represented 
the English Government at the Court of Naples ; and we are 
thus more minutely acquainted with all its various circumstances 
than with those of any other eruption of equal importance. 

For two years before, the mountain had been in a state of 
excitement and disturbance. From time to time rumbling 
noises were heard underground, dense masses of smoke were 
emitted from the crater, liquid lava at a white heat bubbled up 
from crevices on the slopes of the volcano, and through these 
crevices a glimpse could be had here and there of the rocky 
caverns within all "red-hot like a heated oven". But in the 
month of August, 1779, the eruption reached its climax. About 
nine o'clock in the evening, on Sunday, the 8th of August, 
according to the graphic description of Sir William Hamilton, 
" there was a loud report, which shook the houses at Portici and 
its neighbourhood to such a degree, as to alarm the inhabitants 
and drive them out into the streets. Many windows were 
broken, and, as I have since seen, walls cracked, from the con- 
cussion of the air from that explosion. ... In one instant, 
a fountain of liquid transparent fire began to rise, and, gradually 
increasing, arrived at so amazing a height, as to strike every one 
who beheld it with the most awful astonishment. I shall scarcely 
be credited when I assure you that, to the best of my judgment, 
the height of this stupendous column of fire could not be less 
than three times that of Vesuvius itself, which, you know, rises 
perpendicularly near 3,700 feet above the level of the sea. PufFs 
of smoke, as black as can possibly be imagined, succeeded one 
another hastily, and accompanied the red-hot, transparent, and 
liquid lava, interrupting its splendid brightness here and there 
by patches of the darkest hue. Within these puffs of smoke, at 
the very moment of their emission from the crater, I could per- 
ceive a bright but pale electrical light playing about in zigzag 

Reasoning of Geologists. 331 

lines. The liquid lava, mixed with scoriae and stones, after 
having mounted, I very believe, at least 10,000 feet, falling per- 
pendicularly on Vesuvius, covered its whole cone, part of that of 
Somma, and the valley between them. The falling matter being 
nearly as vivid and inflamed as that which was continually 
issuing fresh from the crater, formed with it a complete body of 
fire, which could not be less than two miles and a half in breadth, 
and of the extraordinary height above mentioned, casting a heat 
to the distance of at least six miles around it. The brushwood 
of the mountain of Somma was soon in a flame, which, being of 
a different tint from the deep red of the matter thrown out from 
the volcano, and from the silvery blue of the electrical fire, still 
added to the contrast of this most extraordinary scene. After the 
column of (ire had continued in full force for nearly half an hour, 
the eruption ceased at once, and Vesuvius remained sullen and 
silent". 1 

The existence, then, of intense heat within the Crust of the 
Earth may be regarded as an established fact wherever an active 
Volcano appears at the surface. Now let us consider for a 
moment the very extensive scale on which these fiery engines of 
Nature are distributed over the face of the Globe. First on the 
great continent of America. The whole chain of the Andes 
that stupendous ridge of mountains which stretches along the 
western coast of South America, from Tierra del Fuego on the 
south to the isthmus of Panama on the north, is studded over 
with Volcanos, most of which have been seen in active eruption 
within the last 300 years. Passing the narrow isthmus of Pa- 
nama, this line of Volcanos may still be traced through Guate- 
mala to Mexico, and thence northwards even as far the mouth of 
the Columbia River. Here is a vast volcanic region fully 6,000 
miles in length, and sending out its fiery veins we know not how 
far to the right and to the left. At Quito, just on the Equator, 
a branch shoots off towards the north-east, and, passing through 
New Granada and Venezuela, stretches away across'the West 
India islands, taking in St Vincent, Dominica, Guadaloupe, 
and many others : while, in the opposite direction, it is certain that 
the volcanic action extends westward, far away beneath the waters 
of the Pacific, though we have no definite means of ascertaining 
where its influence ceases to be felt. Another vast train of ac- 
tive Volcanos is that which skirts the eastern and southern coasts 
of Asia. Commencing on the shores of Russian America, it 
passes through the Aleutian islands to Kamtschatka, then, in a 
sort of undulating curve, it winds its course by the Kurile 
islands, the Japanese group, the Philippines, and the north-eastern 
extremity of the Celebes, to the Moluccas. At this point it 

1 See Sir John Herschel, Familiar Lectures o- Scientific Subjects, pp. 26, 27. 

332 Geology and Revelation. 

divides into two branches ; one going to the south-east by New 
Guinea, the Solomon islands, the Friendly islands, to New Zea- 
land ; the other to the north-west, through Java and Sumatra 
into the Bay of Bengal. 

There is a third great line of volcanic fires which has been 
pretty well traced out by modern travellers, extending through 
China and Tartary to the Caucasus, and thence over the coun- 
tries bordering the Black Sea to the Grecian Archipelago ; then 
on to Naples, Sicily, the Lipari islands, the southern part of 
Spain and Portugal, and the Azores. Then there are numerous 
groups of Volcanos not apparently linked on to any regular Vol- 
canic chain, nor reduced as yet by scientific men to any general 
system ; Mount Hecla, for instance, in Iceland, the Mountains 
of the Moon in central Africa, Owhyhee in the Sandwich islands, 
and many others rising up irregularly from the broad waters of 
the Pacific. 

From this brief outline some idea may be formed of the mag- 
nificent scale on which volcanic agency is developed within the 
Crust of the Earth. It must be remembered, however, that any 
estimate based upon the enumeration we have given, would be, 
in all probability, far below the truth ; for we have mentioned 
those volcanoes only which have attracted the notice of scientific 
men, or which have chanced to fall under the observation of 
travellers. Many others, doubtless, must exist in regions not 
yet explored, and in the profound depths of the seas and oceans, 
which cover nearly two-thirds of the area of our planet. More- 
over, we have said nothing at all of extinct volcanoes like those 
of Auvergne in France, and of the Rocky Mountains in Ame- 
rica which have not been in active operation within historical 
times, but in which, nevertheless, the hardened streams of lava, 
and the volcanic ashes, and the cone-shaped mountains termi- 
nating in hollow craters, tell the story of eruptions in bygone 
ages, not less clearly than the smouldering ruins, and the black- 
ened walls, and the charred timbers of some stately buildings, 
testify to the passing wayfarer of the conflagration he has never 

The doctrine, then, of intense subterranean heat is not a wild 
conjecture, but is based on a solid groundwork of facts. First, 
there is presumptive evidence. In every deep mine, in every 
deep sinking of whatever kind, the heat of the earth increases 
rapidly as we descend ; hot water comes from great depths, and 
never cold. Sometimes it is boiling ; sometimes it has been con- 
verted into steam. All this is found to be the case universally, 
whenever an opportunity has occurred for making -the trial; and 
it seems to afford a strong presumption that if one could go still 
deeper, the heat would be found yet more intense, and would at 
length be capable of reducing to a liquid state the solid material 

Reasoning of Geologists. 333 

of which the earth is composed. Next, there is direct evi- 
dence. A channel is opened from the depths below, and the 
flames are seen, and the red-hot cinders are cast up, and the 
molten rock is poured out over the surface of the E arth like a 
liquid stream of fire. This evidence, however, though direct and 
conclusive as far as it goes, is not universal. It proves that an 
intense white heat prevails within the Crust of the Earth, not 
everywhere, but at least in those numerous and extensive 
regions where active Volcanos exist. So stands the case, as it 
seems to us, for the doctrine of internal heat as far as regards the 
fact of its existence. 

We have now to consider whether this great agent is capable 
of those effects which are ascribed to it in Geology; of pro- 
ducing land where none before existed, of upheaving the solid 
Crust of the Earth, of driving the ocean from its bed, of dislo- 
cating and contorting solid masses of rock. The argument is 
again an appeal to facts. Such effects as these have been pro- 
duced by the agency of internal heat, under actual observation, 
in the present age of the world ; and it is not unreasonable to 
attribute to the same cause similar phenomena in ages gone by. 
For our own part we shall be content to state the facts ; leaving 
it to our readers to estimate for themselves the value of the 
argument. There are three forms, more or less distinct, though 
closely associated, under which the subterranean fires have 
exerted their power in modern times, to disturb and modify the 
Physical Geography of the Globe ; (1) the Volcano, (2) the 
Earthquake, (3) the gentle Undulation of the Earth's Crust. Of 
these we shall speak in order. 

In the case of Volcanos, as we have already sufficiently con- 
veyed, the hidden furnaces of the Earth find a vent for their sur- 
plus energies ; and when this vent is once established, that is to 
say, when the active Volcano has begun to exist, it seems pro- 
bable that there is little further upheaval, properly so called, of 
the surface. Nevertheless, Volcanos contribute largely to the 
formation of land by the vast accumulation of ashes, mud, and 
lava which they vomit forth. The destruction of Herculaneum 
and Pompeii is a case in point. For eight days successively, in 
the year 79, the ashes and pumice stone cast up from the crater 
of Vesuvius, fell down in one unceasing shower upon these de- 
voted cities; while at the same time floods of water carried 
along the fine dust and light cinders, and sweeping down the 
sides of the mountain in torrents of mud, entered the houses 
and penetrated to the underground vaults, nay even filled the 
wine jars in the cellars. At the present moment the layers of 
VOL. iv. 23 

334 Geology and Revelation. 

volcanic matter beneatli which Pompeii has been slumbering for 
centuries, are from twelve to fourteen feet over the tops of the 
houses. Loftier still is the pile that overlies the buried Hercu- 
laneum. This city, situated nearer to the base of the Volcano, 
has been exposed to the effects of many successive eruptions : 
and accordingly, spread out over the mass of ashes and pumice 
by which it was first overwhelmed, in the time of Pliny, we 
now find alternate layers of lava, and volcanic mud, and new 
accumulations of ashes, to a height in many places of 11 2 feet, 
and nowhere less than 70. Nor was this ejected matter confined 
to these two populous town. It was scattered far and wide over 
the country around, and has contributed in no small degree to 
that extraordinary richness and fertility for which the soil of 
Naples is so justly famed. As regards the production of land 
where none before existed, here is one fact of singular signifi- 
cance. At the time of the eruption, in 79, Pompeii was a sea- 
port town to which merchantmen were wont to resort, and a 
flight of steps, which still remains, led down to the water's 
ed^e; but it is now more than a mile distant from the coast, 
and the tract of land which intervenes is composed entirely of 
volcanic tuff and ashes. 

Gladly would we linger over the reminiscences of these luxu- 
rious and ill-fated cities. Pompeii is now laid open to view 
by the removal of the ashes, over at least one-third of its ex- 
tent; and a strange sight it is, this ancient Roman city thus 
risen as it were from the grave, risen but yet lifeless, with its 
silent streets, and its tenantless houses, and its empty Forum. 
Wherever we turn we have before us a curious and an interesting 
picture, ghastly though it is, of the social and political and 
domestic life of those ancient times, of the glory and the shame 
that hung around the last days of Pagan Rome ; in the theatres 
and the temples, in the shops and the private houses, in the 
graceful frescos, in the elaborate mosaics, and, not least, in the 
idle scribblings on the walls, which, with a sort of whimsical 
reverence, have been spared by the destroying hand of Time. 
Then again what a host of singular relics are there to be won- 
dered at; articles of domestic use and luxury, kitchen utensils 
and surgical instruments, female skeletons with the ornaments 
and vanities of the world, rings and bracelets and necklaces, still 
clinging to their charred remains, and, strangest perhaps of all, 
eighty-four loaves of bread, which were put into the oven to 
bake 1800 years ago, and were taken out only yesterday, with 
the stamp of the baker's elbow still freshly preserved in the 
centre of each. No subject could be more tempting to a writer, 
none more attractive to a reader. But our present purpose is to 
show the effects of Volcanos in elevating the level of the land ; 

Reasoning of Geologists, 

and so we must turn our back on the buried cities, and crossing 
the Bay of Naples, seek for a new illustration in the formation 
of Monte Nuovo, a lofty hill overlooking the ancient town of 

About one o'clock at night, on Sunday the 29th of Septem- 
ber, 1538, flames of fire were seen to issue from the ground 
close to the waters of the beautiful bay of Baiae. After a little, 
a sound like thunder was heard, and the earth was rent asunder, 
and through the rent large stones, and red-hot cinders, and 
volcanic tuff and mud, and volumes of water, were furiously 
vomited forth, and covered the whole country around, reaching 
even as far as Naples and disfiguring its palaces and public 
buildings. The next morning it was found that a new moun- 
tain had been formed by the accumulation of ejected matter 
around the central opening. This mountain remains to the 
present day and is called the Monte Nuovo. In form it is a 
regular volcanic cone 440 feet high, and a mile and a-half in 
circumference at its base, with an open crater in the centre, 
which descends nearly to the level of the sea. An eye-witness 
who has left us a minute account of this eruption, relates that 
on the third day he went up with many people to the top of the 
new hill, and looking down into the crater, saw the stones that 
had fallen to the bottom " boiling up just as a caldron of water 
boils on the fire". The same writer informs us and it is very 
much to our present purpose to note the fact that immediately 
before the eruption began, the relative position of land and sea 
was materially changed, the coast was sensibly upraised, the 
waters retired about 200 paces, and multitudes of fish were 
raised high and dry upon the sand, a prey to the inhabitants of 
Pozzuoli. 1 

The Monte Nuovo is but a type of its class. If we travel 
westward 80UO miles from Naples to the more stupendous Vol- 
canos of the New World, we may witness the same phenomena 
on a still grander scale. In the province of Mexico there is an 
elevated and extensive plain called Malpais, where for many 
generations the cotton plant, the indigo, and the sugar-cane, 
flourishedluxuriantly in a soil richly endowed by Nature, and 
carefully cultivated by its inhabitants. Everything was going 
on as usual in this smiling and prosperous region, and no one 
dreamed of danger, when suddenly in the month of June, 1759, 
subterranean sounds were heard attended with slight convulsions 
of the earth. These symptoms of internal commotion con- 

1 See the elaborate work of Sir William Hamilton, entitled Campi Phlegraei, 
in -which he gives a full account of the formation of Monte Nuovo, accompa- 
nied with colourd plates. He has preserved two interesting narratives of the 
eruption written at the time by eye witnesses; also Lyel], Principles of Geo- 
logy, pp. 606-616, 10th edition. 

23 B 

336 Geology and Revelation. 

tinued until the montli of September, when they gradually died 
away, and tranquillity seemed to be restored. But it was only 
the delusive lull that precedes the fury of the storm. On the 
night of the 28th of September the rumbling sounds were 
heard again more violent than before. The inhabitants fled in 
consternation to a neighbouring mountain, from the summit of 
which they looked out with wonder and dismay upon the utter 
annihilation of their homesteads and their farms. Flames broke 
out over an area half a square league in extent, the earth was 
burst open in many places, fragments of burning rock were 
thrown to prodigious heights in the air, torrents of boiling mud 
flowed over the plain, and thousands of little conical hills, called 
by the natives liurnitos or ovens, rose up from the surface of the 
land; finally, a vast chasm was opened, and such quantities of 
ashes and fragmentary lava were ejected as to raise up six 
great mountain masses, which continued to increase during the 
five months that the eruption lasted. The least of these is 
300 feet high, and the central one, now called Jorullo, which 
is still burning, is 1600 feet above the level of the plain. 
When Baron Humboldt visited this region just forty years after 
the eruption had ceased, the ground was still intensely hot, and 
" the hornitos were pouring forth columns of steam twenty or 
thirty feet hi^h, with a rumbling noise like that of a steam 
boiler". 1 Since that time, however, the face of the country has 
once again become smiling and prosperous; the slopes of the 
newly formed hills are now clothed with vegetation, and the 
sugar-cane and the indigo again flourish luxuriantly in the 
fertile plains below. 

On the opposite side of the Globe, 10,000 miles from Mexico, 
we have had, almost in our own time, an exhibition of volcanic 
phenomena not less wonderful than those we have been descri- 
bing. The island of Sumbawa lies about 200 miles to the east 
of Java in the Indian Archipelago ; and it belongs to that re- 
markable chain of Volcanos which we have already described 
as stretching, with little interruption, along the coast of Asia 
from Russian America to the Bay of Bengal. In the year 1815 
this island was the scene of a most calamitous eruption, the 
effects of which were felt over the whole of the Moluccas, over 
Java, and a considerable portion of the Celebes, Sumatra, and 
Borneo. Indeed so extraordinary are the incidents of this 
eruption, that we might well hesitate to believe them, if they 
had not been collected on the spot with more than ordinary 
diligence, and recorded with an almost scrupulous care. Sir 
Stamford Raffles, who was at the time governor of Java, then a 

1 Sir John Herschel, Familiar Lectures, etc , p. 34; see also Lyell, Prin- 
ciples of Geology, chap, xxvii. ; Mantell, Wonders of Geology, pp. 872-4. 

Reasoning of Geologists. 

British possession, " required all the residents in the various 
districts under his authority to send in a statement of the cir- 
cumstances which occurred within their own knowledge" ; and 
from the accounts he received in this way, combined with other 
evidence, chiefly obtained from eye-witnesses, he drew up the 
narrative to which we are mainly indebted for the following 

The explosions which accompanied this eruption were heard 
in Sumatra at a distance of 970 geographical miles; and in the 
opposite direction at Ternate. a distance of 720 miles. In the 
neighbourhood of the Volcano itself, immense tracts of land 
were covered with burning lava, towns and villages were over- 
whelmed, all kinds of vegetation completely destroyed, and of 
12,000 inhabitants in the province of Tomboro, only 2t> sur- 
vived: The ashes, which were ejected in great quantities, were 
carried like a vast cloud through the air, by the south-east mon- 
soon, for 300 miles in the direction of Java ; and, still farther to 
the west, we are told they formed a floating mass in the ocean, 
" two feet thick and several miles in extent, through which ships 
with difficulty forced their way". It is recorded, too, that they 
fell so thick on the island of Tombock, 100 miles away, as 
to cover all the land two feet deep, destroying every particle of 
vegetation, insomuch that 44,000 people perished of the famine 
that ensued. " I have seen it computed", writes Sir John Herschel, 
" that the quantity of ashes and lava vomited forth in this awful 
eruption would have formed three mountains the size of Mont 
Blanc, the highest of the Alps; and if spread over the surface of 
Germany, would have covered the whole of it two feet deep" 1 . 
Finally, it appears that this eruption was accompanied, like that 
of Monte Nuovo, by a permanent change in the level of the 
adjoining coast ; in this cuse, however, it was a movement, not of 
upheaval, but of subsidence : the town of Tomboro sunk beneath 
the ocean, which is now eighteen feet deep where there was dry 
land before. 

Once more we will ask our readers to take a rapid flight over 
the map of the world, passing this time from the Indian Archi- 
pelago to the island of Iceland, that " wonderful land of frost 
and fire". Besides the famous Volcano of Hecla, there are five 
others scarcely less formidable, all of which have been in active 
eruption within modern times. Of these the most celebrated is 
that of Skaptar JoJcnl. In the year 1783 this volcano poured 
forth two streams of lava, which, when hardened, formed toge- 
ther one continuous layer of igneous rock, 90 miles in length, 
100 feet in height, and from 7 to 15 miles in breadth. The 
phenomena which accompanied the eruption are thus vividly de- 
Familiar Lectures, etc., p, 36. 

338 Geology and Revelation. 

scribed by Sir JohnHerschel : "On the 10th of May innumerable 
fountains of fire were seen shooting up through the ice and 
snow which covered the mountain; and the principal river, 
called the Skapta, after rolling down a flood of foul and poison- 
ous water, disappeared. Two days after, a torrent of lava 
poured down into the bed which the river had deserted. The 
river had run in a ravine, 600 feet deep and 200 broad. This 
the lava entirely filled ; and not only so, but it overflowed the 
surrounding country, and ran into a great lake, from which it 
instantly expelled the water in an explosion of steam. When 
the lake was fairly filled, the lava again overflowed and divided 
into two streams, one of which covered some ancient lava fields; 
the other re-entered the bed of the Skapta lower down, and pre- 
sented the astounding sight of a cataract of liquid fire pouring 
over what was formerly the waterfall of Stapafoss. Thjs was 
the greatest eruption on record in Europe. ]t lasted in its 
violence till the end of August, and closed with a violent earth- 
quake ; but for nearly the whole year a canopy of cinder- laden 
cloud hung over the island ; the Faroe islands, nay even Shet- 
land and the Orkneys, were deluged with ashes ; and volcanic 
dust and a preternatural smoke which obscured the sun, covered 

all Europe as far as the Alps, over which it could not rise 

The destruction of life in Iceland was frightful: 9,000 men, 
11,000 cattle, 28,000 horses, and 190,000 sheep perished; mostly 
by suffocation. The lava ejected has been computed to amount 
in volume to more than 20 cubic miles". 1 

With these very significant facts before us, it is hard to resist 
the conclusion that the great mountain mass of Etna, 11,000 feet 
high and 90 miles in circumference, is formed entirely of volca- 
nic matter ejected during successive eruptions. For the wholi 
mountain is nothing else than a series of concentric conical 
layers of ashes and lava, such as have been poured out more 
than once upon its existing surface in modern times. Just, then, 
as A'Jonte Nuovo was produced by an outburst of volcanic 
power in a single night, and the far larger mountain of Jorullo 
in the course of a few months, so may we believe that the more 
stupendous Etna is the work of the same power operating 
through a period of many centuries. And applying this conclu- 
sion to many other mountains throughout the world of exactly 
the same structure, we come to form no very mean estimate of 
the permanent changes wrought on the physical geography of 
our Globe by the operations of volcanic agency. 

We must remember, too, that volcanic eruptions are not con- 
fined to the land; they often break out in the bed of the sea In 
such cases the waters are observed in a state of violent commo- 
Lectures on Scientific Sukjerf--, pp. 31, 32. 

Reasoning of Geologists. 339 

tion, jets of steam and sulphurous vapour are emitted, light 
scoriaceous matter appears floating on the surface, and not unfre- 
quently the volcanic cone itself slowly rises from the depths 
below, and continues to grow from day to day, until at length it 
becomes an island of no inconsiderable magnitude. Sometimes 
when the violence of the eruption has subsided, the new island, 
consisting chiefly of ashes and pumice-stone, is gradually 
washed away by the action of the waves ; but in other cases, 
these lighter substances are compacted together by the injection 
of liquid lava, and being thus able to withstand the erosive 
power of the ocean, assume the importance of permanent volcanic 
islands. Many examples of the former kind are recorded within 
the last hundred years. In 1 783 an island was thrown up in the 
North Atlantic ocean, about 30 miles to the south-west of Ice- 
land. It was claimed by the King of Denmark, and called by 
him Nyoe or New Island: but before a year had elapsed, this 
portion of his Majesty's dominions disappeared again beneath 
the wav